Jul 19 2018

Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US

Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US

Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US

Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US

Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US

Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US

Material: Genuine 22 K Solid Genuine GOLD Weight: 3.6 g. Original Genuine ancient king silver coin moe than 1000 yrs. Make a fabulous flipable soo you can wear 2 sided. Great for any antique collection! The item “Ancient Silver Coin Roman King Flip able Genuine Solid 22K Gold Ring 7.5 US” is in sale since Saturday, July 14, 2018. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Vintage & Antique Jewelry\Fine\Georgian, Pre-1837″. The seller is “nightingale_box” and is located in Bangkok, default. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Metal Purity: 22k
  • Metal: Yellow Gold

Jul 19 2018

Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin

Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin

Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin

Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin

Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin

Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin

A very popular coin. The item “Roman Empire NERO Aureus NGC Fine 5/3 Ancient Gold Coin” is in sale since Thursday, July 5, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “corneralleycollectibles” and is located in Henderson, Nevada. This item can be shipped to United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Panama, Jamaica.
  • Certification: NGC
  • Denomination: Aureus
  • Ruler: Nero
  • Composition: Gold

Jul 19 2018

UNCLEANED ANCIENT ROMAN BRONZE COINS 150 coins 100% authentic

UNCLEANED ANCIENT ROMAN BRONZE COINS 150 coins 100% authentic

UNCLEANED ANCIENT ROMAN BRONZE COINS 150 coins 100% authentic

Easy nice trade and wow what a true real deal ive found romulus! 2018-06-22 01:19:47. 2018-06-21 03:51:16. 2018-06-15 11:15:11. 2018-06-15 11:14:36. 2018-06-14 19:10:38. 2018-06-14 14:01:36. 2018-06-14 00:58:33. 2018-06-13 20:27:50. 90% of the coins are very small. 2018-06-12 22:24:43. 2018-06-12 15:47:43. 2018-06-12 05:57:18. THIS bunch of coins were great. THERE were about 15 good coins. 2018-06-09 18:34:44. 2018-06-09 14:06:53. 2018-06-08 17:17:49. 2018-06-08 04:08:03. 2018-06-07 09:11:10. Vielen Dank, hat super geklappt! 2018-06-06 16:31:25. 2018-06-05 21:32:18. 2018-06-05 09:33:01. Alles super gelaufen gerne wieder. 2018-06-05 08:05:57. 2018-06-04 22:41:56. Received – as advertised – thanks. 2018-06-04 19:24:48. 2018-06-03 17:40:00. Dear buyers, coins from different periods of Roman Empire, and therefore have different diameters and different emperors… Coins are average quality because they are not cleaned or treated in any way and I do not know what will be the percentage of clean and nice coins after their cleaning! We do not cherry pick, so no one gets all small or only large coins. Each additional item 5.00 USD. No extra charges for packaging. To avoid any risk of damage, all items will be carefully packed. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me, they will be answered as fast as possible. The item “UNCLEANED ANCIENT ROMAN BRONZE COINS 150 coins 100% authentic” is in sale since Thursday, July 12, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “pannonia-museum” and is located in Virovitica. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: Uncertified
  • Provenance: Ownership History Available
  • Ruler: Various
  • Composition: Bronze, copper, silver, silvered
  • Grade: Ungraded
  • Date: 100 to 500 AD
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: Uncleaned
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown
  • Denomination: MIX
  • Certification Number: Uncertified

Jul 18 2018

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU

[6620] Vespasian – Roman Emperor: 69-79 A. “Judaea Capta” Silver Denarius 20mm (3.40 grams) Rome mint: 69-70 A. Reference: RIC 2; Cohen 226; BN 23; B. 35; Hendin 759 (3rd Edition); Hendin 1464 (5th Edition) Certification: NGC Ancients AU Strike: 5/5 Surface: 4/5 4682093-003 Laureate head of Vespasian right; around IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG. Jewess seated right mourning below right of trophy; in exergue, IVDAEA. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Judaea Capta coins (also spelled Judea Capta) were a series of commemorative coins originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to celebrate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt. There are several variants of the coinage. The reverse of the coins shows a Jewish female (representing Judaea) seated right in an attitude of mourning at the base of a palm tree, with either a captive Jewish male standing right, with his hands bound behind his back, or the standing figure of the victorious emperor, or the goddess Victory, with a trophy of weapons, shields, and helmets to the left. The female figure may reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen… Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground. The Judaea Capta coins were struck for 25 years under Vespasian and his two sons who succeeded him as Emperor – Titus and Domitian. These commemorative coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. Only bronze’Judaea Capta’ coins were struck in Caesarea, in the defeated Roman province of Judea. These coins are much cruder than the Roman issues, and the inscriptions are in Greek rather than Latin. The designs feature the Goddess Nike writing on a shield, Minerva with a spear, shield, trophy and palm tree, etc. Most such coins were issued during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD). Unusually, a’Judaea Capta’ coin was also minted by the Jewish ruler Agrippa II, the great-grandson of Herod the Great. Brought up in Rome at the court of Claudius, Agrippa was thoroughly Romanised and was a close friend of Titus, whom he supported throughout the First Jewish Revolt. His bronze coin was minted at Tiberias and shows a portrait of Titus on the obverse with the Greek inscription”, while the reverse depicted the goddess Nike advancing right holding a wreath and palm branch over her shoulder, with a star in upper right field and the inscription’ETO – KS BA AGRI-PPA’. Vespasian – Roman Emperor : 69-79 A. Sole Reign (with Titus and Domitian as Caesars) 71-79 A. Sole Reign (with Titus as Imperator and Domitian as Caesar). Titus Flavius Vespasianus , known in English as Vespasian (November 17 9AD – June 23 79AD), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 69 AD until his death in 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD He was succeeded by his sons Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96). Vespasian descended from a family of equestrians which rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, partaking in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and subjugating the Judaea province during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the Roman Empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea themselves declared Vespasian emperor on July 1. On December 20, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day, Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. Little factual information survives about Vespasian’s government during the ten years he was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects such as the Colosseum. Upon his death on June 23, 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus. The item “VESPASIAN 69AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman JUDAEA CAPTA Coin NGC AU” is in sale since Thursday, December 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification Number: 4682093-003
  • Grade: AU

Jul 18 2018

HADRIAN Tiberias Judaea Holy Jewish City Ancient Roman Coin Zeus Temple 44737

HADRIAN Tiberias Judaea Holy Jewish City Ancient Roman Coin Zeus Temple 44737

HADRIAN Tiberias Judaea Holy Jewish City Ancient Roman Coin Zeus Temple 44737

HADRIAN Tiberias Judaea Holy Jewish City Ancient Roman Coin Zeus Temple 44737

Item: i44737 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Hadrian – Roman Emperor : 117-138 A. Bronze 22mm (9.31 grams) of Tiberias in Judaea (Galilaea) Dated CY 101, 120/121 A. Pedigree: Ex-Empire Coins 6 May 89 with original ticket Reference: Sear GIC 1247; B. 27.8,23; AYT. CB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. KAY, Tetrastyle temple containing statue of Zeus seated left; in exergue, ET AP = year 101 of the Era of Tiberias – A. Religion, Zeus was the “Father of Gods and men”. Who ruled the Olympians of. As a father ruled the family. Zeus was the child of. And the youngest of his siblings. In most traditions he was married to. Although, at the oracle of. He is the father of. He is known for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including. ; by Hera, he is usually said to have fathered. Points out in his book, Greek Religion , Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence. For the Greeks, he was the. King of the Gods. Who oversaw the universe. Observed, “That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men”. Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. In the Homeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. His symbols are the. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical “cloud-gatherer” also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty. Tiberias is a city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee (also called the Kinneret), Lower Galilee, Israel. Established in 20 CE, it was named in honour of the emperor Tiberius. Tiberias was venerated in Judaism from the middle of the 2nd century CE and since the 16th century has been considered one of Judaism’s Four Holy Cities, along with Jerusalem, Hebron and Safed. In the 2nd10th centuries, Tiberias was the largest Jewish city in the Galilee and the political and religious hub of the Jews of Palestine. It has been known for its hot springs, believed to cure skin and other ailments, for thousands of years. Tiberias was founded sometime around 20 CE in Herodian Tetrarchy of Galilee and Peraea by the Roman client king Herod Antipas , son of Herod the Great. Herod Antipas made it the capital of his realm in the Galilee and named it for the Roman Emperor Tiberius. The city was built as a spa and developed around 17 natural mineral hot springs. It was populated mainly by Jews, with its growing spiritual and religious status exerting a strong influence on balneological practices. The Jewish oral tradition holds that Tiberias was built on the site of the Israelite and later Jewish village of Rakkat , first mentioned in the Book of Joshua. In Talmudic times, the Jews still referred to it by this name. Conversely, in The Antiquities of the Jews , the Roman-Jewish historian Josephus calls the village with hot springs Emmaus , located near Tiberias. This name also appears in The Wars of the Jews. In the days of Herod Antipas, some of the most religious (as opposed to Hellenized, including Cohanic) Jews refused to settle there; the presence of a cemetery rendered the site ritually unclean for the priestly caste. Antipas settled many non-Jews there from rural Galilee and other parts of his domains in order to populate his new capital, in an early recorded case of forced gentrification , and built a palace on the acropolis. The prestige of Tiberias was so great that the sea of Galilee soon came to be named the sea of Tiberias; however, the Jewish population continued to call it’Yam Ha-Kinerett’, its traditional name. The city was governed by a city council of 600 with a committee of 10 until 44 CE when a Roman Procurator was set over the city after the death of Herod Agrippa I. Under the Roman Empire , the city was known by its Greek name (Tiberiás , Modern Greek Tiveriáda), an adaptation of the taw -suffixed Semitic form that preserved its feminine grammatical gender. In 61 CE Herod Agrippa II annexed the city to his kingdom whose capital was Caesarea Phillippi. During the First JewishRoman War Josephus took control of the city and destroyed Herod’s palace, but was able to stop the city from being pillaged by the army of the Jewish ruler who had remained loyal to Rome. Where most other cities in the Provinces of Iudaea, Galilee and Iudemea were razed, Tiberias was spared because its inhabitants remained loyal to Rome, after Josephus had surrendered the city to the Roman emperor Vespasian. It became a mixed city after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE; with Judea subdued, the southern Jewish population migrated to the Galilee. There is no direct indication Tiberias, as well as the rest of Galilee, took part in the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132-136 CE, thus allowing it to exist, despite a heavy economic decline due to the war. Following the legal expulsion of all Jews from Jerusalem after 135 CE, Tiberias and its neighbor Sepphoris became the major Jewish cultural centres, competing for status with Babylon , Alexandria , Alleppo and the Persian Empire. Remains of Roman theater. In 145 CE, Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai who was very familiar with the Galilee hiding there for over a decade, “cleansed the city of ritual impurity”, allowing the leadership of the people to resettle there, from Judea Province where they were fugitives. The Sanhedrin , the Jewish court, also fled from Jerusalem during the Great Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire, and after several attempted moves, in search of stability, eventually settled in Tiberias in about 150 CE. It was to be its final meeting place before its disbanding in the early Byzantine period. From the time when Yochanan bar Nafcha d. 279 settled in Tiberias, the city became the focus of Jewish religious scholarship in the land. The Mishnah along with the Jerusalem Talmud , (the written discussions of generations of rabbis in the Land of Israel primarily in the academies of Tiberias and Caesarea), was probably compiled in Tiberias by Rabbi Judah haNasi in around 200 CE. The 13 synagogues served the spiritual needs of a growing Jewish population. Hamat Tiberias synagogue floor. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus , and Divus Hadrianus after his apotheosis , known as Hadrian in English ; 24 January 76 10 July 138) was emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia , Hadrian was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica or, less probably, in Rome , from a well-established family which had originated in Picenum in Italy and had subsequently settled in Italica , Hispania Baetica (the republican Hispania Ulterior), near the present day location of Seville, Spain. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian’s father. Trajan never officially designated a successor, but, according to his wife, Pompeia Plotina , Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan’s wife was well-disposed toward Hadrian: Hadrian may well have owed his succession to her. Hadrian’s presumed indebtedness to Plotina was widely regarded as the reason for Hadrian’s succession. However, there is evidence that he accomplished his succession on his own governing and leadership merits while Trajan was still alive. For example, between the years AD 100108 Trajan gave several public examples of his personal favour towards Hadrian, such as betrothing him to his grandniece, Vibia Sabina , designating him quaestor Imperatoris , comes Augusti , giving him Nerva’s diamond “as hope of succession”, proposing him for consul suffectus , and other gifts and distinctions. The young Hadrian was Trajan’s only direct male family/marriage/bloodline. The support of Plotina and of L. Licinius Sura (died in AD 108) were nonetheless extremely important for Hadrian, already in this early epoch. Although it was an accepted part of Hadrian’s personal history that Hadrian was born in Italica located in the province called Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula , comprising modern Spain and Portugal), his biography in Augustan History states that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian, but Hispanian for many generations. However, this may be a ruse to make Hadrian look like a person from Rome instead of a person hailing from the provinces. His father was the Hispano-Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer , who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome. Hadrians forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri , an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan. His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman Senatorial family. Hadrians elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina , married with the triple consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus , his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino. His parents died in 86 when Hadrian was ten, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajans Praetorian Prefect). Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus (“Greekling”). Hadrian visited Italica when (or never left it until) he was 14, when he was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. His first military service was as a tribune of the Adiutrix Legio II. Later, he was to be transferred to the Minervia Legio I in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen. His career before becoming emperor follows: decemvir stlitibus iudicandis – sevir turmae equitum Romanorum – praefectus Urbi feriarum Latinarum – tribunus militum legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis (95, in Pannonia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis V Macedonicae (96, in Moesia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis XXII Primigeniae Piae Fidelis (97, in Germania Superior) – quaestor (101) – ab actis senatus – tribunus plebis (105) – praetor (106) – legatus legionis I Minerviae Piae Fidelis (106, in Germania Inferior) – legatus Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae Inferioris (107) – consul suffectus (108) – septemvir epulonum (before 112) – sodalis Augustalis (before 112) – archon Athenis (112/13) – legatus Syriae (117). Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the Macedonica V) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian’s military skill is not well attested; however, his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent. Hadrian joined Trajan’s expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajans staff. Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command. Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan’s heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Since the document was signed by Plotina, it has been suggested that Trajan may have already been dead. The Roman empire in 125 AD, under the rule of Hadrian. Castel Sant’Angelo , the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum. This famous statue of Hadrian in Greek dress was revealed in 2008 to have been forged in the Victorian era by cobbling together a head of Hadrian and an unknown body. For years the statue had been used by historians as proof of Hadrian’s love of Hellenic culture. Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus , was instantly dismissed. The Senate’s endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight Hadrian’s legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate and the Syrian armies. Hadrian did not at first go to Rome he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian’s former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he “discovered” a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial they were hunted down and killed out of hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initiative. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan’s men. Hadrian and the military. Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian’s reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan’s conquests in Mesopotamia , considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. The peace policy was strengthened by the erection of permanent fortifications along the empire’s borders limites , sl. The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian’s Wall in Great Britain , and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications , forts, outposts and watchtowers , the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, even threat. Cultural pursuits and patronage. Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian’s Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d’Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d’Este. In Rome , the Pantheon , originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome’s ancient buildings and was highly influential to many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus , famed architect of the Forum of Trajan , dismissed his designs. When Trajan , predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems. ” “Pumpkins refers to Hadrian’s drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this later story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward. Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer whether Marius Maximus or someone else on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography. Hadrian was a passionate hunter, already from the time of his youth according to one source. In northwest Asia, he founded and dedicated a city to commemorate a she-bear he killed. It is documented that in Egypt he and his beloved Antinous killed a lion. In Rome, eight reliefs featuring Hadrian in different stages of hunting on a building that began as a monument celebrating a kill. Another of Hadrian’s contributions to “popular” culture was the beard, which symbolised his philhellenism. Except for Nero (also a great lover of Greek culture), all Roman emperors before Hadrian were clean shaven. Most of the emperors after Hadrian would be portrayed with beards. Their beards, however, were not worn out of an appreciation for Greek culture but because the beard had, thanks to Hadrian, become fashionable. Hadrian had a face covered in warts and scars, and this may have partially motivated Hadrian’s beard growth. Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus , Heliodorus and Favorinus , but was generally considered an Epicurean , as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts , baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him “the Empire’s first servant”, and British historian Edward Gibbon admired his “vast and active genius”, as well as his “equity and moderation”. In 1776, he stated that Hadrian’s epoch was part of the “happiest era of human history”. While visiting Greece in 126, Hadrian attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion , failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes. Hadrian had a close relationship, widely reported to have been romantic, with a Greek youth, Antinous , whom he met in Bithynia in 124 when the boy was thirteen or fourteen. While touring Egypt in 130, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis , and had Antinous deified – an unprecedented honour for one not of the ruling family. Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber , in Rome , a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant’Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus. According to Cassius Dio a gigantic equestrian statue was erected to Hadrian after his death. It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small. The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero , once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii , to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad. Hadrian’s visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian’s will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt , this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship. At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class. Hadrian’s first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire’s very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed to Britannia. Hadrian’s Wall (Vallum Hadriani), a fortification in Northern England (viewed from Vercovicium). Hadrian’s Gate , in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 CE. Prior to Hadrian’s arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia , spanning roughly two years (119121). It was here where in 122 he initiated the building of Hadrian’s Wall (the exact Latin name of which is unknown). The purpose of the wall is academically debated. In 1893, Haverfield stated categorically that the Wall was a means of military defence. This prevailing, early 20th century view was challenged by Collingwood. Since then, other points of view have been put forwards; the wall has been seen as a marker to the limits of Romanitas , as a monument to Hadrian to gain glory in lieu of military campaigns, as work to keep the Army busy and prevent mutiny and waste through boredom, or to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future small scale invasions and unwanted immigration from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland). Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes , built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction; nevertheless, the Western third of the wall, from modern-day Carlisle to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone. This problem also led to the narrowing of the width of the wall, from the original 12 feet to 7, saving masonry. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian’s will to improve and develop within the Empire , rather than waging wars and conquering. Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled. By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania. In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels. However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt. When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates , he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king Osroes I. He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea. He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia , the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous , a young boy who was destined to become the emperor’s beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous’s drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14. It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite. After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably more than a mere whim lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city’s construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble. Temple of Zeus in Athens. The Pantheonn was rebuilt by Hadrian. The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians’ request he conducted a revision of their constitution among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name. During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their “restorer”. He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian’s lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous’s home in Bithynia. By March 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building the Temple of Olympian Zeus it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct. On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade. Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon. Also completed by then was Hadrian’s villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian. Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day. Greece, Asia and Egypt. In September 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries. This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece. Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time Hadrian set off for Ephesus. In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile , Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated. The emperor was grief stricken. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinopolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died Cassius Dio, LIX. 11; Historia Augusta , Hadrian. Hadrians movements subsequent to the founding of Antinopolis on October 30, 130 are obscure. See also: Bar Kokhba revolt. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem , in Judaea , left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 6673. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus , the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple , which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision , which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence “barbaric”. These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain , and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian’s report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation “I and the legions are well”. However, Hadrian’s army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio , during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar , a fortified city 10 km. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian only allowed the Jews to bury their dead after a period of six days. According to the Babylonian Talmud , after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism , which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph “may his bones be crushed” (or , the Aramaic equivalent), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple. Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation or the end of the Second Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of Venus and Roma on the former site of Nero’s Golden House. About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession. In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the “four consulars” executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia , Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138. Following the death of Aelius Caesar, Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrians close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesars daughter Ceionia Fabia). Hadrians precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part. It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius who was Annius Veruss uncle who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus’ daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative. The ancient sources present Hadrian’s last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness. The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian’s brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus’ grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death. Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would “long for death but be unable to die”. The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions. Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62. The cause of death is believed to have been heart failure. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta record details of his failing health, and a study published in 1980 drew attention to classical sculptures of Hadrian that show he had diagonal earlobe creases a characteristic associated with coronary heart disease. Hadrian was buried first at Puteoli , near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius , his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius , who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius. According to the Historia Augusta Hadrian composed shortly before his death the following poem. Quae nunc abibis in loca. Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos.. Little soul, roamer and charmerr. Body’s guest and companion. Into what places will you now depart. Pale, stiff, and nude. An end to all your jokes.. The sestertius , or sesterce , pl. Sestertii was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. Helmed Roma head right, IIS behind Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear frame below. The name sestertius (originally semis-tertius) means “2 ½”, the coin’s original value in asses , and is a combination of semis “half” and tertius “third”, that is, “the third half” (0 ½ being the first half and 1 ½ the second half) or “half the third” (two units plus half the third unit, or half way between the second unit and the third). Parallel constructions exist in Danish with halvanden (1 ½), halvtredje (2 ½) and halvfjerde (3 ½). The form sesterce , derived from French , was once used in preference to the Latin form, but is now considered old-fashioned. It is abbreviated as (originally IIS). Example of a detailed portrait of Hadrian 117 to 138. The sestertius was introduced c. 211 BC as a small silver coin valued at one-quarter of a denarius (and thus one hundredth of an aureus). A silver denarius was supposed to weigh about 4.5 grams, valued at ten grams, with the silver sestertius valued at two and one-half grams. In practice, the coins were usually underweight. When the denarius was retariffed to sixteen asses (due to the gradual reduction in the size of bronze denominations), the sestertius was accordingly revalued to four asses, still equal to one quarter of a denarius. It was produced sporadically, far less often than the denarius, through 44 BC. Hostilian under Trajan Decius 250 AD. In or about 23 BC, with the coinage reform of Augustus , the denomination of sestertius was introduced as the large brass denomination. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1/100 Aureus. The sestertius was produced as the largest brass denomination until the late 3rd century AD. Most were struck in the mint of Rome but from AD 64 during the reign of Nero (AD 5468) and Vespasian (AD 6979), the mint of Lyon (Lugdunum), supplemented production. Lyon sestertii can be recognised by a small globe, or legend stop, beneath the bust. The brass sestertius typically weighs in the region of 25 to 28 grammes, is around 3234 mm in diameter and about 4 mm thick. The distinction between bronze and brass was important to the Romans. Their name for brass was orichalcum , a word sometimes also spelled aurichalcum (echoing the word for a gold coin, aureus), meaning’gold-copper’, because of its shiny, gold-like appearance when the coins were newly struck (see, for example Pliny the Elder in his Natural History Book 34.4). Orichalcum was considered, by weight, to be worth about double that of bronze. This is why the half-sestertius, the dupondius , was around the same size and weight as the bronze as, but was worth two asses. Sestertii continued to be struck until the late 3rd century, although there was a marked deterioration in the quality of the metal used and the striking even though portraiture remained strong. Later emperors increasingly relied on melting down older sestertii, a process which led to the zinc component being gradually lost as it burned off in the high temperatures needed to melt copper (Zinc melts at 419 °C, Copper at 1085 °C). The shortfall was made up with bronze and even lead. Later sestertii tend to be darker in appearance as a result and are made from more crudely prepared blanks (see the Hostilian coin on this page). The gradual impact of inflation caused by debasement of the silver currency meant that the purchasing power of the sestertius and smaller denominations like the dupondius and as was steadily reduced. In the 1st century AD, everyday small change was dominated by the dupondius and as, but in the 2nd century, as inflation bit, the sestertius became the dominant small change. In the 3rd century silver coinage contained less and less silver, and more and more copper or bronze. By the 260s and 270s the main unit was the double-denarius, the antoninianus , but by then these small coins were almost all bronze. Although these coins were theoretically worth eight sestertii, the average sestertius was worth far more in plain terms of the metal they contained. Some of the last sestertii were struck by Aurelian (270275 AD). During the end of its issue, when sestertii were reduced in size and quality, the double sestertius was issued first by Trajan Decius (249251 AD) and later in large quantity by the ruler of a breakaway regime in the West called Postumus (259268 AD), who often used worn old sestertii to overstrike his image and legends on. The double sestertius was distinguished from the sestertius by the radiate crown worn by the emperor, a device used to distinguish the dupondius from the as and the antoninianus from the denarius. Eventually, the inevitable happened. Many sestertii were withdrawn by the state and by forgers, to melt down to make the debased antoninianus, which made inflation worse. In the coinage reforms of the 4th century, the sestertius played no part and passed into history. Sestertius of Hadrian , dupondius of Antoninus Pius , and as of Marcus Aurelius. As a unit of account. The sestertius was also used as a standard unit of account, represented on inscriptions with the monogram HS. Large values were recorded in terms of sestertium milia , thousands of sestertii, with the milia often omitted and implied. The hyper-wealthy general and politician of the late Roman Republic, Crassus (who fought in the war to defeat Spartacus), was said by Pliny the Elder to have had’estates worth 200 million sesterces’. A loaf of bread cost roughly half a sestertius, and a sextarius (0.5 liter) of wine anywhere from less than half to more than 1 sestertius. One modius (6.67 kg) of wheat in 79 AD Pompeii cost 7 sestertii, of rye 3 sestertii, a bucket 2 sestertii, a tunic 15 sestertii, a donkey 500 sestertii. A writing tablet from Londinium (Roman London), dated to c. 75125 AD, records the sale of a Gallic slave girl called Fortunata for 600 denarii, equal to 2,400 sestertii, to a man called Vegetus. It is difficult to make any comparisons with modern coinage or prices, but for most of the 1st century AD the ordinary legionary was paid 900 sestertii per annum, rising to 1,200 under Domitian (81-96 AD), the equivalent of 3.3 sestertii per day. Half of this was deducted for living costs, leaving the soldier (if he was lucky enough actually to get paid) with about 1.65 sestertii per day. A sestertius of Nero , struck at Rome in 64 AD. The reverse depicts the emperor on horseback with a companion. The legend reads DECVRSIO,’a military exercise’. Sestertii are highly valued by numismatists , since their large size gave caelatores (engravers) a large area in which to produce detailed portraits and reverse types. The most celebrated are those produced for Nero (54-68 AD) between the years 64 and 68 AD, created by some of the most accomplished coin engravers in history. The brutally realistic portraits of this emperor, and the elegant reverse designs, greatly impressed and influenced the artists of the Renaissance. The series issued by Hadrian (117-138 AD), recording his travels around the Roman Empire, brilliantly depicts the Empire at its height, and included the first representation on a coin of the figure of Britannia ; it was revived by Charles II , and was a feature of United Kingdom coinage until the 2008 redesign. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “HADRIAN Tiberias Judaea Holy Jewish City Ancient Roman Coin Zeus Temple 44737″ is in sale since Sunday, November 23, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Jul 17 2018

PLOTINA wife of TRAJAN 112AD Rome VERY RARE Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin

PLOTINA wife of TRAJAN 112AD Rome VERY RARE Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin

PLOTINA wife of TRAJAN 112AD Rome VERY RARE Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin

[6575] Plotina – Roman Empress: 105-122 A. Wife of Trajan Silver Denarius 19mm (3.10 grams) Rome mint, struck circa 112-117 A. Woytek 705.2 PLOTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI Diademed and draped bust right. CAES AVGG GERMA DAC COS VI P P Vesta, draped and veiled, seated left, holding palladium and short sceptre. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Plotina – Augusta: 105-122 A. Wife of Trajan Aunt of Matidia Sister-in-Law of Marciana. Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso or Potius piolet d. 121/122 was a Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor. She was renowned for her interest in philosophy, and her virtue, dignity and simplicity. She was particularly devoted to the Epicurean. Philosophical school in Athens. Through her influence, she provided Romans with fairer taxation, improved education, assisted the poor and created tolerance in Roman society. Plotina was born and was raised in Tejada la Vieja (Escacena del Campo), Spain, during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero. She was the daughter of Lucius Pompeius and Plotia, who had extensive political, family and friendship connections. Trajan married her before his accession. Although they had a happy marriage, they had no known children. In 100 Trajan awarded her with title of Augusta. But she did not accept the title until 105. Plotina did not appear on the coinage until 112. Trajan and Plotina became the guardians of the future Roman Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian was about age 10 or 11 when he lost his father, who was a first cousin to Trajan (Trajans father and Hadrians paternal grandmother were brother and sister). Plotina was fond of Hadrian and strongly encouraged his adoption by the dying Trajan. The adoption occurred at Selinunte. When Plotina died she was deified. Hadrian built a temple in her honor at Nîmes. The item “PLOTINA wife of TRAJAN 112AD Rome VERY RARE Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin” is in sale since Thursday, November 2, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Plotina
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Culture: Roman
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins
  • Composition: Silver
  • Denomination: Denarius

Jul 17 2018

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

You are purchasing an Authentic Ancient 1st Century AD, about 2000 years old! Roman Empire AE Coin of Caligula, set in a 17 mm 925 solid sterling silver bezel. 925 solid sterling silver 18 chain included. Obverse: AIO KAIA, Bare bust of Caligula right. Reverse: AOIKEN, Eagle standing facing, monogram on both sides. The coin minted in Laodikea. The Roman Province of Phrygia Pacatiana. Please take a look at the photos for details. Thank you for looking. Properly Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 24 January AD 41) was Roman Emperor in AD 3741. Born Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus (not to be confused with Julius Caesar), Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula’s biological father was Germanicus, and he was the great-nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius. The young Gaius earned the nickname “Caligula” (meaning “little soldier’s boot”, the diminutive form of caliga, hob-nailed military boot) from his father’s soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. The conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Untouched by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the Emperor in AD 31 on the island of Capri, where Tiberius had withdrawn five years earlier. With the death of Tiberius in AD 37, Caligula succeeded his grand uncle and adoptive grandfather as emperor. There are few surviving sources about the reign of Emperor Caligula, although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first six months of his reign. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources is questionable, it is known that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor, as opposed to countervailing powers within the principate. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and luxurious dwellings for himself, and initiated the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, and courtiers. The conspirators’ attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted: on the day of the assassination of Caligula, the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula’s uncle, Claudius, the next Roman emperor. The item “Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace” is in sale since Monday, May 28, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “sport_authority” and is located in Orlando, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Jul 17 2018

Ancient BC Greece Roman Coin Cleopatra Mark Antony Caesar Empire Unknown AE God

Ancient BC Greece Roman Coin Cleopatra Mark Antony Caesar Empire Unknown AE God

Ancient BC Greece Roman Coin Cleopatra Mark Antony Caesar Empire Unknown AE God

Papa’s Pouch & Ark Policy: we are not-forProfit in Noah’s Ark, nearly all funds used to air-drop supplies in southern Africa to desperate people. Rice, rope, tools, clothing. Coffee filters, medical supplies. Our Summer Drop Is. We make miracles in-Pouch. The Trades Are AS-IS Please. The trades here in Papa’s Pouch are for the families blessing, the item pictured delivers it. I don’t mind giving more pictures. I use 20% of sales for my schooling (vet tech school I love animals) and manage this page for the family I also Take care of Gramma. & often Florida for more than one reason (unfortunately). The Photos are taken in. Light for your fair consideration. We are not a coin store. Our Answers To Most Of Your Questions. ” please know your stuff if it’s important to you, Global Climate is important to us” /. ” We have more than one ” /. ” Please be satisfied with the photos, our trades are as-is please “. ” we don’t have the answers to your questions” /. Generally assets that are cleaned do not grade, &, the word’grade’ is a hobby term; no hobby talk please. ” It may have selected it as Pouch worthy” / ” silver is likely silver here, Bronze is likely Bronze, in-Pouch everything likely, these are relics we are not forProfit, if you do not digest that easily please shop elsewhere” /. ” orders get canceled due to the warm homes , Address Verification (our policy) (We follow e-bay Policy) we are high security; it is nothing personal ” /. ” there is no trade if you do not correspond well, we’ve had this stuff a long time ” /. To all’old coin treasure-hunters’ we hope you find the compounds you seek.. Our trades are as-is guys & gals,, please.. A warm home is not seeking economical gains from our families assets David accepts through donations. All trades are for the families blessing; the item pictured in the listing merely delivers it. We are not for everyone in Papa’s Pouch, it is nothing personal. Everything Is Authentic in-Pouch to the in-Ark Noah’s Ark diary, books & labels attached to these assets. Our Pouch/Ark books are correct. We appreciate you have your books, we have ours. We may include a less popular heirloom with your package as a gift, to be sure you are happy. A warm home sends a warm hello. History Trade-value & content are unknown as Pouch Assets are too old & even relic in age. Supporters / customers include Collectors, Hollywood Movie & TV Companies, People Bored At Home. Hobbiers; Students, History Buffs; Antique Lovers, M. 3 Zoo’s which is pretty cool, school districts & their history teachers; so many who need a blessing which were owned by. Families a Long time. We have cool stuff in Papa’s Pouch. A warm message from you saves us time, maybe a better free gift > we have plenty here to share. Thank You For Your Support! By the way: Some heirlooms were named by a relative at some point & labeled as such ie: Michael, Jack, CrazyHorse, Eve, John, Jesus Anton Charlotte Bruce Ben Benny Bethany Marcus Cleo Peter Patricia Philip Alan Adam Ethan Joseph. & The title here may have errors, the facts are the photos. Warm homes only is the job; everyone happy is the job; Only on E-bay Please. People see errors in our listings and wish to start trouble / steal assets or our time. If you feel something may not be to your liking Walk Away Please, & do not play games. Newer Heirlooms were likely Grandfathers Levy’s or donated; he may have bought it on a cruise; we may have bought it at a garage sale; great grandfather loved “genuine authentic patina book-weight history” (hobby terms) ; while grandfather & his brothers (my Papa) loved the depictions/ unusual & Big Stuff. History, Content, & Trade Value Are Unknown for all heirlooms we are trading. In the event you do not digest that easily, it is ok, much respect to you; we are not for everyone, please shop elsewhere. Papa’s Pouch Atlantic City NJ. The item “Ancient BC Greece Roman Coin Cleopatra Mark Antony Caesar Empire Unknown AE God” is in sale since Wednesday, July 11, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Greek (450 BC-100 AD)”. The seller is “my_pappas_pouch” and is located in Atlantic City, New Jersey. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada.
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: Cleaned
  • Certification: Uncertified
  • Composition: Partial Silver

Jul 16 2018

Hadrian 117AD Very Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Aeternitas SOL LUNA i58520

Hadrian 117AD Very Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Aeternitas SOL LUNA i58520

Hadrian 117AD Very Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Aeternitas SOL LUNA i58520

Hadrian 117AD Very Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Aeternitas SOL LUNA i58520

Item: i58520 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Hadrian – Roman Emperor: 117-138 A. Silver Denarius 19mm (3.29 grams) Struck circa 117-138 A. Reference: RIC 81; RSC 1114; IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate, heroic bust right, draped far shoulder P M TR P COS III, Aeternitas standing left, holding heads of Sol and Luna. Eternity (or forever) is endless time. It is often referenced in the context of religion , in the concept of immortality , whereby death is conquered, and people may live for an unlimited amount of time cf. The existence of gods or God is said to endure eternally and sometimes also the natural cosmos, in respect to both past and future. By contrast, the concept of a mathematically infinite duration, is called sempiternity or everlasting. Whereas the eternal is said to be unchanging and outside time; a potentially sempiternal span of time can never come to pass in actuality. Aristotle argued that cosmos has no beginning. The idea of eternity. The metaphysics of eternity studies that which necessarily exists “outside” or independently of space and time. Another important question is whether ” information ” or Form is separable from mind and matter. Theists say that God is eternally existent. How this is understood depends on which definition of eternity is used. On one hand, God may exist in eternity, a timeless existence where categories of past, present, and future just do not apply. On the other hand, God will exist for or through eternity, or at all times , having already existed for an infinite amount of time and continuing to exist for an infinite amount of time. One other definition states that God exists outside the human concept of time, but also inside of time. The reasoning for this definition is that if God did not exist both outside time and inside time, God would not be able to interact with humans. Aristotle established a distinction between actual infinity and a potentially infinite count, for example, instead of saying that there are an infinity of primes, Euclid prefers instead to say that there are more prime numbers than contained in any given collection of prime numbers. According to Aristotle, a future span of time must be a potential infinity, because another element can always be added to a series that is inexhaustible: “For generally the infinite has this mode of existence: one thing is always being taken after another, and each thing that is taken is always finite, but always different”. Augustine of Hippo wrote that time exists only within the created universe, so that God exists outside time. In the eminence of thy ever-present eternity, thou precedest all times past, and extendest beyond all future times, for they are still to come and when they have come, they will be past. But Thou art always the Selfsame and thy years shall have no end. Thy years neither go nor come; but ours both go and come in order that all separate moments may come to pass. All thy years stand together as one, since they are abiding. Nor do thy years past exclude the years to come because thy years do not pass away. All these years of ours shall be with thee, when all of them shall have ceased to be. Thy years are but a day, and thy day is not recurrent, but always today. Thy “today” yields not to tomorrow and does not follow yesterday. Thy “today” is eternity. Confessions , Book XI, Chapter XIII. See all the biblical passage 2Pe:3:8: But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. Eternity is often symbolized by the image of a snake swallowing its own tail, known as Ouroboros (or Uroboros), though the symbol can also carry a number of other connotations. The circle is also commonly used as a symbol for eternity. The related concept, infinity , is symbolized by , which may be based on the Ouroboros. Hadrian – Roman Emperor : 117-138 A. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus , and Divus Hadrianus after his apotheosis , known as Hadrian in English ; 24 January 76 10 July 138) was emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia , Hadrian was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica or, less probably, in Rome , from a well-established family which had originated in Picenum in Italy and had subsequently settled in Italica , Hispania Baetica (the republican Hispania Ulterior), near the present day location of Seville, Spain. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian’s father. Trajan never officially designated a successor, but, according to his wife, Pompeia Plotina , Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan’s wife was well-disposed toward Hadrian: Hadrian may well have owed his succession to her. Hadrian’s presumed indebtedness to Plotina was widely regarded as the reason for Hadrian’s succession. However, there is evidence that he accomplished his succession on his own governing and leadership merits while Trajan was still alive. For example, between the years AD 100108 Trajan gave several public examples of his personal favour towards Hadrian, such as betrothing him to his grandniece, Vibia Sabina , designating him quaestor Imperatoris , comes Augusti , giving him Nerva’s diamond “as hope of succession”, proposing him for consul suffectus , and other gifts and distinctions. The young Hadrian was Trajan’s only direct male family/marriage/bloodline. The support of Plotina and of L. Licinius Sura (died in AD 108) were nonetheless extremely important for Hadrian, already in this early epoch. Although it was an accepted part of Hadrian’s personal history that Hadrian was born in Italica located in the province called Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula , comprising modern Spain and Portugal), his biography in Augustan History states that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian, but Hispanian for many generations. However, this may be a ruse to make Hadrian look like a person from Rome instead of a person hailing from the provinces. His father was the Hispano-Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer , who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome. Hadrians forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri , an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan. His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman Senatorial family. Hadrians elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina , married with the triple consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus , his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino. His parents died in 86 when Hadrian was ten, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajans Praetorian Prefect). Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus (“Greekling”). Hadrian visited Italica when (or never left it until) he was 14, when he was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. His first military service was as a tribune of the Adiutrix Legio II. Later, he was to be transferred to the Minervia Legio I in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen. His career before becoming emperor follows: decemvir stlitibus iudicandis – sevir turmae equitum Romanorum – praefectus Urbi feriarum Latinarum – tribunus militum legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis (95, in Pannonia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis V Macedonicae (96, in Moesia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis XXII Primigeniae Piae Fidelis (97, in Germania Superior) – quaestor (101) – ab actis senatus – tribunus plebis (105) – praetor (106) – legatus legionis I Minerviae Piae Fidelis (106, in Germania Inferior) – legatus Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae Inferioris (107) – consul suffectus (108) – septemvir epulonum (before 112) – sodalis Augustalis (before 112) – archon Athenis (112/13) – legatus Syriae (117). Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the Macedonica V) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian’s military skill is not well attested; however, his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent. Hadrian joined Trajan’s expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajans staff. Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command. Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan’s heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Since the document was signed by Plotina, it has been suggested that Trajan may have already been dead. The Roman empire in 125 AD, under the rule of Hadrian. Castel Sant’Angelo , the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum. This famous statue of Hadrian in Greek dress was revealed in 2008 to have been forged in the Victorian era by cobbling together a head of Hadrian and an unknown body. For years the statue had been used by historians as proof of Hadrian’s love of Hellenic culture. Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus , was instantly dismissed. The Senate’s endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight Hadrian’s legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate and the Syrian armies. Hadrian did not at first go to Rome he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian’s former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he “discovered” a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial they were hunted down and killed out of hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initiative. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan’s men. Hadrian and the military. Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian’s reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan’s conquests in Mesopotamia , considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. The peace policy was strengthened by the erection of permanent fortifications along the empire’s borders limites , sl. The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian’s Wall in Great Britain , and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications , forts, outposts and watchtowers , the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, even threat. Cultural pursuits and patronage. Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian’s Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d’Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d’Este. In Rome , the Pantheon , originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome’s ancient buildings and was highly influential to many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus , famed architect of the Forum of Trajan , dismissed his designs. When Trajan , predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems. ” “Pumpkins refers to Hadrian’s drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this later story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward. Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer whether Marius Maximus or someone else on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography. Hadrian was a passionate hunter, already from the time of his youth according to one source. In northwest Asia, he founded and dedicated a city to commemorate a she-bear he killed. It is documented that in Egypt he and his beloved Antinous killed a lion. In Rome, eight reliefs featuring Hadrian in different stages of hunting on a building that began as a monument celebrating a kill. Another of Hadrian’s contributions to “popular” culture was the beard, which symbolised his philhellenism. Except for Nero (also a great lover of Greek culture), all Roman emperors before Hadrian were clean shaven. Most of the emperors after Hadrian would be portrayed with beards. Their beards, however, were not worn out of an appreciation for Greek culture but because the beard had, thanks to Hadrian, become fashionable. Hadrian had a face covered in warts and scars, and this may have partially motivated Hadrian’s beard growth. Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus , Heliodorus and Favorinus , but was generally considered an Epicurean , as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts , baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him “the Empire’s first servant”, and British historian Edward Gibbon admired his “vast and active genius”, as well as his “equity and moderation”. In 1776, he stated that Hadrian’s epoch was part of the “happiest era of human history”. While visiting Greece in 126, Hadrian attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion , failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes. Hadrian had a close relationship, widely reported to have been romantic, with a Greek youth, Antinous , whom he met in Bithynia in 124 when the boy was thirteen or fourteen. While touring Egypt in 130, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis , and had Antinous deified – an unprecedented honour for one not of the ruling family. Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber , in Rome , a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant’Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus. According to Cassius Dio a gigantic equestrian statue was erected to Hadrian after his death. It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small. The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero , once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii , to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad. Hadrian’s visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian’s will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt , this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship. At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class. Hadrian’s first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire’s very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed to Britannia. Hadrian’s Wall (Vallum Hadriani), a fortification in Northern England (viewed from Vercovicium). Hadrian’s Gate , in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 CE. Prior to Hadrian’s arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia , spanning roughly two years (119121). It was here where in 122 he initiated the building of Hadrian’s Wall (the exact Latin name of which is unknown). The purpose of the wall is academically debated. In 1893, Haverfield stated categorically that the Wall was a means of military defence. This prevailing, early 20th century view was challenged by Collingwood. Since then, other points of view have been put forwards; the wall has been seen as a marker to the limits of Romanitas , as a monument to Hadrian to gain glory in lieu of military campaigns, as work to keep the Army busy and prevent mutiny and waste through boredom, or to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future small scale invasions and unwanted immigration from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland). Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes , built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction; nevertheless, the Western third of the wall, from modern-day Carlisle to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone. This problem also led to the narrowing of the width of the wall, from the original 12 feet to 7, saving masonry. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian’s will to improve and develop within the Empire , rather than waging wars and conquering. Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled. By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania. In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels. However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt. When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates , he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king Osroes I. He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea. He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia , the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous , a young boy who was destined to become the emperor’s beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous’s drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14. It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite. After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably more than a mere whim lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city’s construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble. Temple of Zeus in Athens. The Pantheonn was rebuilt by Hadrian. The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians’ request he conducted a revision of their constitution among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name. During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their “restorer”. He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian’s lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous’s home in Bithynia. By March 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building the Temple of Olympian Zeus it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct. On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade. Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon. Also completed by then was Hadrian’s villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian. Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day. Greece, Asia and Egypt. In September 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries. This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece. Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time Hadrian set off for Ephesus. In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile , Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated. The emperor was grief stricken. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinopolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died Cassius Dio, LIX. 11; Historia Augusta , Hadrian. Hadrians movements subsequent to the founding of Antinopolis on October 30, 130 are obscure. See also: Bar Kokhba revolt. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem , in Judaea , left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 6673. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus , the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple , which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision , which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence “barbaric”. These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain , and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian’s report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation “I and the legions are well”. However, Hadrian’s army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio , during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar , a fortified city 10 km. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian only allowed the Jews to bury their dead after a period of six days. According to the Babylonian Talmud , after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism , which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph “may his bones be crushed” (or , the Aramaic equivalent), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple. Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation or the end of the Second Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of Venus and Roma on the former site of Nero’s Golden House. About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession. In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the “four consulars” executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia , Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138. Following the death of Aelius Caesar, Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrians close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesars daughter Ceionia Fabia). Hadrians precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part. It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius who was Annius Veruss uncle who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus’ daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative. The ancient sources present Hadrian’s last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness. The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian’s brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus’ grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death. Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would “long for death but be unable to die”. The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions. Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62. The cause of death is believed to have been heart failure. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta record details of his failing health, and a study published in 1980 drew attention to classical sculptures of Hadrian that show he had diagonal earlobe creases a characteristic associated with coronary heart disease. Hadrian was buried first at Puteoli , near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius , his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius , who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius. According to the Historia Augusta Hadrian composed shortly before his death the following poem. Quae nunc abibis in loca. Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos.. Little soul, roamer and charmerr. Body’s guest and companion. Into what places will you now depart. Pale, stiff, and nude. An end to all your jokes.. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store” for on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “Hadrian 117AD Very Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Aeternitas SOL LUNA i58520″ is in sale since Monday, January 16, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Hadrian
  • Composition: Silver

Jul 16 2018

Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600

Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600

Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600

Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600

Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600

Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600

Item: i58600 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Kingdom of Bosporus Rheskuporis II – King, circa 211-227 A. Rheskuporis II & Roman Emperor Elagabalus Electrum Stater 19mm (7.48 grams)? I? = 515 BE = 218/219 A. Reference: MacDonald 558/3; Sear GIC 5483 var. Anohin 635b Certification: NGC Ancients VF Strike: 5/5 Surface: 2/5 3989520-007?? C???? C?? C????? I?? C, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Rheskuporis II right; trident before. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Elagabalus right; beneath, ? I? = year 515 of Bosporan Era = 218/219 A. Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver , with trace amounts of copper and other metals. The ancient Greeks called it’gold’ or’white gold’, as opposed to’refined gold’. Its color ranges from pale to bright yellow, depending on the proportions of gold and silver. The name “electrum” is the Latinized form of the Greek word???????? (èlektron), mentioned in the Odyssey referring to a metallic substance consisting of gold alloyed with silver. The same word was also used for the substance amber , likely because of the pale yellow colour of certain varieties, and it is from amber’s electrostatic properties that the modern English words “electron” and “electricity” are derived. The gold content of naturally occurring electrum in modern Western Anatolia ranges from 70% to 90%, in contrast to the 4555% of gold in electrum used in ancient Lydian coinage of the same geographical area. This suggests that one reason for the invention of coinage in that area was to increase the profits from seigniorage by issuing currency with a lower gold content than the commonly circulating metal. Electrum was used as early as the third millennium BC in Old Kingdom of Egyptt , sometimes as an exterior coating to the pyramidions atop ancient Egyptian pyramids and obelisks. It was also used in the making of ancient drinking vessels. The first metal coins ever made were of electrum and date back to the end of the 7th century or the beginning of the 6th century BC. For several decades, the medals awarded with the Nobel Prize have been made of gold-plated green gold. Elagabalus – Emperor: 218-222 A. Elagabalus Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, ca. 203 11 March 222, also known as Heliogabalus , was Roman Emperor from 218 to 222. A member of the Severan Dynasty , he was Syrian on his mother’s side, the son of Julia Soaemias and Sextus Varius Marcellus. In his early youth he served as a priest of the god Elagabal (in Latin, Elagabalus) in the hometown of his mother’s family, Emesa. As a private citizen, he was probably named Sextus Varius Avitus Bassianus. Upon becoming emperor he took the name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus. He was called Elagabalus only after his death. In 217, the emperor Caracalla was assassinated and replaced by his Praetorian prefect , Marcus Opellius Macrinus. Caracalla’s maternal aunt, Julia Maesa , successfully instigated a revolt among the Third Legion to have her eldest grandson (and Caracalla’s cousin), Elagabalus, declared emperor in his place. Macrinus was defeated on 8 June 218, at the Battle of Antioch. Elagabalus, barely fourteen years old, became emperor, initiating a reign remembered mainly for sexual scandal and religious controversy. Later historians suggest Elagabalus showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. He replaced the traditional head of the Roman pantheon , Jupiter , with the deity of whom he was high priest, Elagabal. He forced leading members of Rome’s government to participate in religious rites celebrating this deity, over which he personally presided. Elagabalus was married as many as five times, lavished favors on male courtiers popularly thought to have been his lovers, employed a prototype of whoopee cushions at dinner parties, and was reported to have prostituted himself in the imperial palace. His behavior estranged the Praetorian Guard , the Senate , and the common people alike. Amidst growing opposition, Elagabalus, just 18 years old, was assassinated and replaced by his cousin Alexander Severus on 11 March 222, in a plot formulated by his grandmother, Julia Maesa, and carried out by disaffected members of the Praetorian Guard. Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for extreme eccentricity , decadence and zealotry. This tradition has persisted, and in writers of the early modern age he suffers one of the worst reputations among Roman emperors. Edward Gibbon , for example, wrote that Elagabalus abandoned himself to the grossest pleasures and ungoverned fury. Niebuhr , “The name Elagabalus is branded in history above all others” because of his unspeakably disgusting life. The Bosporan Kingdom , also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus Greek. ????????????????????????????? Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou , was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch. It was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea. The Bosporan Kingdom was the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. It was a Roman province from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero. The 1st and 2nd centuries BC saw a period of renewed golden age of the Bosporan state. At the end of the 2nd century, King Sauromates II inflicted a critical defeat on the Scythians and included all the territories of the Crimea in the structure of his state. The prosperity of the Bosporan Kingdom was based on the export of wheat, fish and slaves. The profit of the trade supported a class whose conspicuous wealth is still visible from newly discovered archaeological finds, excavated, often illegally, from numerous burial barrows known as kurgans. The once-thriving cities of the Bosporus left extensive architectural and sculptural remains, while the kurgans continue to yield spectacular Greco-Sarmatian objects, the best examples of which are now preserved in the Hermitage in St. These include gold work, vases imported from Athens , coarse terracottas, textile fragments and specimens of carpentry and marquetry. Pantikapeon and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea, along with their modern names. The whole area was dotted with Greek cities: in the west, Panticapaeum (Kerch)the most significant city in the region, Nymphaeum and Myrmekion ; on the east Phanagoria (the second city of the region), Kepoi , Germonassa , Portus Sindicus and Gorgippia. These Greek colonies were originally settled by Milesians in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. 540 BC was a colony of Teos , and the foundation of Nymphaeum may have had a connection with Athens ; at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian League in the 5th century. Geography of the Bosporan Kingdom. See also: Roman Crimea. The Bosporan Kingdom was centred around the Kerch Strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov , known in antiquity as the Cimmerian Bosporus from where the kingdom’s name derived. Kings of Cimmerian Bosporan. See Also: List of kings of Cimmerian Bosporus. According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus xii. 31 the region was governed between 480 and 438 BC by a line of kings called the Archaeanactidae , probably a ruling family, usurped by a tyrant called Spartocus (438 431 BC), who was a Thracian. Spartocus founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c. 110 BC, known as the Spartocids. The Spartocids left many inscriptions, indicating that the earliest members of the house ruled under the titles of archons of the Greek cities and kings of various minor native tribes, notably the Sindi (from central Crimea) and other branches of the Maeotae. Surviving material (texts, inscriptions and coins) do not supply enough information to reconstruct a complete chronology of kings of the region. Bosporan Phiale (top view), 4th century BC. Satyrus (431 387 BC), successor to Spartocus, established his rule over the whole region, adding Nymphaeum to his kingdom and besieging Theodosia , which was wealthy because, unlike other cities in the region, it had a port which was free of ice throughout the year, allowing it to trade grain with the rest of the Greek world, even in winter. Satyrus’ son Leucon (387 347 BC) would eventually take the city. He was succeeded jointly by his two sons, Spartocus II, and Paerisades; Spartocus died in 342, allowing Paerisades to reign alone until 310. After Paerisades’ death, a civil war between his sons Satyrus and Eumelus was fought. Satyrus defeated his younger brother Eumelus at the Battle of the River Thatis in 310 BC but was then killed in battle, giving Eumelus the throne. Eumelus’ successor was Spartocus III (303 283 BC) and after him Paerisades II. Succeeding princes repeated the family names, so it is impossible to assign them a definite order. The last of them, however, Paerisades V, unable to make headway against increasingly violent attacks from nomadic tribes in the area, called in the help of Diophantus , general of King Mithridates VI of Pontus , leaving him his kingdom. Paerisades was killed by a Scythian named Saumacus who led a rebellion against him. The house of Spartocus was well known as a line of enlightened and wise princes; although Greek opinion could not deny that they were, strictly speaking, tyrants , they are always described as dynasts. They maintained close relations with Athens , their best customer for the Bosporan grain exports: Leucon I of Bosporus created privileges for Athenian ships at Bosporan ports. The Attic orators make numerous references to this. In return the Athenians granted Leucon Athenian citizenship and made decrees in honour of him and his sons. The northern Black sea shores of the Pontic Kingdom (actual Crimea and Kerch peninsula) shown as part of the empire of Mithridates VI of Pontus. After his defeat by Roman General Pompey in 63 BC, King Mithridates VI of Pontus fled with a small army from Colchis (modern Georgia) over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans. His eldest living son, Machares , regent of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father, so Mithridates had Machares killed, acquiring the throne for himself. Mithridates then ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war. In 63 BC, Pharnaces , the youngest son of Mithridates, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates’s Pontic army. Mithridates VI withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum , where he committed suicide. Pompey buried Mithridates VI in a rock-cut tomb in either Sinope or Amasia. The capital of the Kingdom of Pontus. The stele of Staphhilos from the Panticapaeum , depicting a soldier with the traditional Bosporan long hair and beard. After the death of Mithridates VI (63 BC), Pharnaces II (63 47 BC) supplicated to Pompey, and then tried to regain his dominion during Julius Caesar’s Civil War , but was defeated by Caesar at Zela and was later killed by his former governor and son-in-law Asander. Before the death of Pharnaces II, Asander had married Pharnaces IIs daughter Dynamis. Asander and Dynamis were the ruling monarchs until Caesar commanded a paternal uncle of Dynamis, Mithridates II to declare war on the Bosporan Kingdom and claimed the kingship for himself. Asander and Dynamis were defeated by Caesars ally and went into political exile. However, after Caesars death in 44 BC, the Bosporan Kingdom was restored to Asander and Dynamis by Caesars great nephew and heir Octavian. Asander ruled as an archon and later as king until his death in 17 BC. After the death of Asander, Dynamis was compelled to marry a Roman usurper called Scribonius, but the Romans under Agrippa intervened and established Polemon I of Pontus (16 8 BC) in his place. Polemon married Dynamis in 16 BC and she died in 14 BC. Polemon ruled as king until his death in 8 BC. After the death of Polemon, Aspurgus , the son of Dynamis and Asander, succeeded Polemon. The Bosporan Kingdom of Aspurgus was a client state of the Roman Empire , protected by Roman garrisons. Aspurgus (8 BC 38 AD) founded a dynasty of kings which endured with a couple of interruptions until 341 AD. Aspurgus adopted the Imperial Roman names “Tiberius Julius” when he received Roman citizenship and enjoyed the patronage of the first two Roman Emperors , Augustus and Tiberius. All of the following kings adopted these two Roman names followed by a third name, of Thracian (Kotys, Rhescuporis or Rhoemetalces) or local origin (such as Sauromates, Eupator, Ininthimeus, Pharsanzes, Synges, Terianes, Theothorses or Rhadamsades). Ruins of Panticapaeum , modern Kerch , the capital of the Bosporan Kingdom. The Roman client kings of the dynasty had descended from King Mithridates VI of Pontus and his first wife, his sister Laodice , through Aspurgus. The kings adopted a new calendar (the “Pontic Era”) introduced by Mithridates VI, starting with 297 BC to date their coins. Bosporan kings struck coinage throughout its period as a client state, which included gold staters bearing portraits of both the Roman emperor and Bosporan king. Like the Roman, Bosporan coinage became increasingly debased during the 3rd century. The coinage makes their lineages fairly clear to historians, though scarcely any events from their reigns are recorded. The Bosporan Kingdom covered the eastern half of Crimea and the Taman peninsula, and extended along the east coast of the Maeotian marshes to Tanais at the mouth of the Don in the north-east, a great market for trade with the interior. Throughout the period there was perpetual war with the native tribes of Scythians and Sarmatians , and in this the Bosporan Kingdom was supported by its Roman suzerains, who lent the assistance of garrisons and fleets. In 62 AD for reasons unknown, Roman emperor Nero deposed the Bosporan king Cotys I. It is possible that Nero wanted to minimise the power of local client rulers and wanted the Bosporans to be subsumed into the Roman empire. The Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as part of the Roman province of Moesia Inferior from 63 to 68. In 68, the new Roman emperor Galba restored the Bosporan Kingdom to Rhescuporis I , the son of Cotys I. The balance of power amongst local tribes was severely disturbed by westward migration in the 3rd4th centuries. With the coins of the last king Rhescuporis VI in 341, constructing a chronology becomes very difficult. The kingdom was probably finally overrun by the Huns , who defeated the nearby Alans in 375/376 and moved rapidly westwards towards the Roman empire. A few centuries after the Hunnic invasion, the Bosporan cities enjoyed a revival, under Byzantine and Bulgarian protection. The ancient Greek city of Phanagoria became the capital of Old Great Bulgaria between 632 and 665. From time to time Byzantine officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which constituted an archbishopric. A relevant Byzantine usage of the term is found in a newly discovered seal of a general of the early 11th century as of?? ??? (??), i. Of the Cimmerian Bosporos. They also held Tamatarcha on the eastern side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and 11th centuries became the seat of the Kievan Rus principality of Tmutarakan , which in turn gave way to Tatar domination. Following the Diaspora , and aided by the Khazars , Judaism emerged in the region, and Jewish communities developed in some of the cities of the region (especially Tanais). The Jewish or Thracian influence on the region may have inspired the foundation of a cult to the “Most High God, ” a distinct regional cult which emerged in the 1st century AD, which professed monotheism without being distinctively Jewish or Christian. Although considered rare among collectors prior to the demise of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Bosporan coins are now well known on the international coin markets, hinting at the quantities produced. Several large series were produced by Bosporan cities from the 5th century BC, particularly in Panticapaeum. Gold staters of Panticapaeum bearing Pan’s head and a griffin are especially remarkable for their weight and fine workmanship. There are coins with the names of the later Spartocids and a complete series of dated solidi issued by the later or Achaemenian dynasty. In them may be noticed the swift degeneration of the gold solidus through silver and potin to bronze. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store” for on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “Bosporus King RHESKUPORIS II & Roman ELAGABALUS Electrum Ancient Coin NGC i58600″ is in sale since Wednesday, January 18, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.