Dec 18 2017

CELTIC Barbarous Barbarian ANCIENT Silver Roman Coin of JULIA SOAEMIAS i54922

CELTIC Barbarous Barbarian ANCIENT Silver Roman Coin of JULIA SOAEMIAS i54922

CELTIC Barbarous Barbarian ANCIENT Silver Roman Coin of JULIA SOAEMIAS i54922

Item: i54922 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Celtic or Barbarian tribe of Gaul, Britain or Danube area issue making coins in the style of. Roman Empress Mother of Elagabalus, Roman Emperor 218-222 A. Silver Denarius 19mm (2.95 grams) Barbarous Barbarian or Celtic struck coin Reference: Cf. RIC IV 248; cf. RSC 22a IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVGVSTA, Draped bust right. ES, Vesta seated left, holding simpulum and scepter. Numismatic Note: The Celtic peoples would issue their own versions of the coins of their neighbors, such as the Roman which have their own unique Celticized style to behold. The Celts, in ancient times, imitated the ancient Roman coins of the time period, this one of Elagabalus. The reason they did this as they traded with the Roman world and their coins were popular and recognized for trade, so they struck their own. You can see the distinct Celtic style embodied on this coin. One thing to note is the Celtic coins have blundered legends, as a lot of the time, the engravers of the dies did not know how to read or write in Latin, and perhaps that it took a very skilled engraver to make the letters correctly. Or /slts/, see Celtic pronunciation of were a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age and Roman-era Europe who spoke Celtic languages. Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples. Core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC. Maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BC. Lusitanian area of Iberia where Celtic presence is uncertain. The “six Celtic nations” which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period. Areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today. The earliest archaeological culture commonly accepted as Celtic, or rather Proto-Celtic , was the central European Hallstatt culture c. 800-450 BC, named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt , Austria. By the later La Tène period c. 450 BC up to the Roman conquest, this Celtic culture had expanded over a wide range of regions, whether by diffusion or migration : to the British Isles (Insular Celts), the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians , Celtici and Gallaeci), much of Central Europe , (Gauls) and following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians). The earliest directly attested examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions, beginning from the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested only in inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic is attested from about the 4th century AD in ogham inscriptions , although it is clearly much earlier. Literary tradition begins with Old Irish from about the 8th century. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature , such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge (The Cattle Raid of Cooley), survive in 12th-century recensions. According to the theory of John T. Koch and others, the Tartessian language may have been the earliest directly attested Celtic language with the Tartessian written script used in the inscriptions based on a version of a Phoenician script in use around 825 BC. By mid 1st millennium AD, following the expansion of the Roman Empire and the Great Migrations (Migration Period) of Germanic peoples , Celtic culture and Insular Celtic had become restricted to Ireland and to the western and northern parts of Great Britain (Wales , Scotland , Cornwall and the Isle of Man) and northern France (Brittany). The Continental Celtic languages ceased to be widely used by the 6th century. Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels (Irish , Scottish and Manx), the Brythonic Celts (Welsh , Cornish , and Bretons) of the medieval and modern periods. A modern ” Celtic identity ” was constructed in the context of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain (Wales, Scotland, Cornwall and the Isle of Man) and Ireland. In France a similar revival of Breton is taking place in Brittany. Julia Soaemias Bassiana 180. Was the mother of Roman Emperor Elagabalus and ruled over the Roman Empire during the minority of her son’s rule. Julia was the daughter of Julia Maesa , a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Syrian noble Julius Avitus. Julia was born and raised in Emesa (modern Homs , Syria). She was a niece of empress Julia Domna and emperor Septimius Severus and a sister of Julia Avita Mamaea. Her husband was Sextus Varius Marcellus , a Syrian Roman of an Equestrian family. As members of the imperial Roman family, they lived in Rome, where their numerous children were born. In 217, her cousin, Emperor Caracalla , was killed and Macrinus ascended to the imperial throne. Julia’s family was allowed to return to Syria with the whole of their financial assets. They would not allow the usurper to stand unopposed. Together with her mother, Julia plotted to substitute Macrinus with her son Elagabalus. To legitimise this plot, Julia and her mother spread the rumour that the thirteen-year-old boy was Caracalla’s illegitimate son. In 218 Macrinus was killed and Bassianus became emperor with the name of Elagabalus. Julia became the de facto ruler of Rome, since the teenager was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose, mainly because of the strange sexual behaviour and the eastern religious practices of Elagabalus. Julia Soaemias and Elagabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222. Julia was later declared public enemy and her name erased from all records. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CELTIC Barbarous Barbarian ANCIENT Silver Roman Coin of JULIA SOAEMIAS i54922″ is in sale since Thursday, March 10, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Other Ancient Coins”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Dec 18 2017

Roman Republic 66BC Rome MUSE Urania of ASTRONOMY Ancient Silver Coin NGC i60126

Roman Republic 66BC Rome MUSE Urania of ASTRONOMY Ancient Silver Coin NGC i60126

Roman Republic 66BC Rome MUSE Urania of ASTRONOMY Ancient Silver Coin NGC i60126

Roman Republic 66BC Rome MUSE Urania of ASTRONOMY Ancient Silver Coin NGC i60126

Roman Republic 66BC Rome MUSE Urania of ASTRONOMY Ancient Silver Coin NGC i60126

Item: i60126 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Pomonius Musa moneyer Silver Denarius 19mm (3.88 grams) Rome mint, circa 66 B. Reference: Pomponia 22; B. 410/8 Certification: NGC Ancients VF 4375823-270 Laureate head of Apollo right, star behind. Urania standing left, pointing with wand to a globe ona tripod, Q. POMONI on right, MVSA on left. Urania was the muse of Astronomy. In Greek and Roman mythology , Apollo , is one of the most important and diverse of the Olympian deities. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; archery ; medicine and healing; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto , and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. Apollo was worshiped in both ancient Greek and Roman religion , as well as in the modern Greco – Roman Neopaganism. As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god – the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius , yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague as well as one who had the ability to cure. Amongst the god’s custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists , and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musagetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. In Hellenistic times, especially during the third century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios , god of the sun , and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene , goddess of the moon. In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the first century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161-215). Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the third century CE. Meaning’heavenly’ or’of heaven’ was, in Greek mythology , the muse of astronomy and a daughter of Zeus by Mnemosyne and also a great granddaughter of Uranus. Some accounts list her as the mother of the musician Linus by Apollo , and Hymenaeus also is said to have been a son of Urania. She is often associated with Universal Love and the Holy Spirit. Eldest of the divine sisters, Urania inherited Zeus’ majesty and power and the beauty and grace of her mother Mnemosyne. Those who are most concerned with philosophy and the heavens are dearest to her. Those who have been instructed by her she raises aloft to heaven, for it is a fact that imagination and the power of thought lift men’s souls to heavenly heights. Urania, o’er her star-bespangled lyre. With touch of majesty diffused her soul. A thousand tones, that in the breast inspire. Exalted feelings, o er the wires’gan roll. How at the call of Jove the mist unfurled. And o’er the swelling vaultthe glowing sky. The new-born stars hung out their lamps on high. And rolled their mighty orbs to music’s sweetest sound. From An Ode To Music by James G. During the Renaissance , Urania began to be considered the Muse for Christian poets. In the invocation to Book 7 of John Milton’s epic poem Paradise Lost , the poet invokes Urania to aid his narration of the creation of the cosmos, though he cautions that it is “[t]he meaning, not the name I call” (7.5). Urania dresses in a cloak embroidered with stars and keeps her eyes and attention focused on the Heavens. She is usually represented with a celestial globe to which she points with a little staff. She is able to foretell the future by the arrangement of the stars. Urania in Astronomy and Navigation. Her name has been used to name astronomical observatories such as the Urania in Berlin , Budapest , Bucharest , Vienna , Zurich , Antwerp and Uraniborg on the island of Hven. The main belt asteroid 30 Urania was also named after her. In University of São Paulo , the logo of the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences bears Urania. The official seal of the U. Naval Observatory portrays Urania. Urania is a sail training vessel for the Royal Netherlands Naval College. There has been a Hr. Urania in the Royal Netherlands Navy since 1832. Other uses of “Urania”. Urania is the name traditionally given to the eighth book of Herodotus’ Histories. Urania Cottage was a refuge for fallen women established by the writer Charles Dickens in Lime Grove, Shepherds Bush, London in the late 1840s. The funding was provided by millionaire and philanthropist Angela Burdett-Coutts , of the well-known banking family. Some of the inmates may have provided inspiration for certain of the female characters in Dickens’ novels. At Columbia University (end of 18th century) there was a Urania Society, for the improvement of oratory skills, felicity of composition and aptitude to debate philosophical topics. DeWitt Clinton joined that society. There is a Urania Street in New Orleans , between Polymnia (“Polyhymnia”) and Felicity Streets. Muse magazine features Urania as one of the characters in the Kokopelli and Co. Comic strip by Larry Gonick published in each issue of the magazine. She is the only original muse who remains among the “new muses” featured in the magazine. Urania is the name of a popular female-fronted rock band in Honduras. Urania is used as the muse in Paradise Lost books 7 and 9. Urania is invoked in Shelley’s Adonais. To Urania’ is a poem, and a book of poetry by Joseph Brodsky nytimes. The Roman Republic Latin. Was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy , traditionally dated around 509 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate. A complex constitution gradually developed, centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. Except in times of dire national emergency, public offices were limited to one year, so that, in theory at least, no single individual could dominate his fellow citizens. Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar , 44 BC. Roman society was hierarchical. The evolution of the Constitution of the Roman Republic was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome’s land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry back to the early history of the Roman kingdom, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome’s highest offices were repealed or weakened, and a new aristocracy emerged from among the plebeian class. The leaders of the Republic developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked. During the first two centuries of its existence the Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula , Greece, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, despite the Republic’s traditional and lawful constraints against any individual’s acquisition of permanent political powers, Roman politics was dominated by a small number of Roman leaders, their uneasy alliances punctuated by a series of civil wars. The victor in one of these civil wars, Octavian , reformed the Republic as a Principate , with himself as Rome’s “first citizen” (princeps). The Senate continued to sit and debate. Annual magistrates were elected as before, but final decisions on matters of policy, warfare, diplomacy and appointments were privileged to the princeps as “first among equals” later to be known as imperator due to the holding of imperium , from which the term emperor is derived. His powers were monarchic in all but name, and he held them for his lifetime, on behalf of the Senate and people of Rome. The Roman Republic was never restored, but neither was it abolished, so the exact date of the transition to the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44 BC, the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Roman Senate’s grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian under the first settlement and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic. Many of Rome’s legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations. Latin , the language of the Romans, has influenced language across parts of Europe and the world. The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The Roman constitution was not formal or even official. It was largely unwritten, uncodified, and constantly evolving. The Roman Forum , the commercial, cultural, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government. Senate of the Roman Republic. The Senate’s ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the Senate. This esteem and prestige was based on both precedent and custom, as well as the high calibre and prestige of the Senators. The Senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consulta. This was officially “advice” from the Senate to a magistrate. In practice, however, these were usually obeyed by the magistrates. The focus of the Roman Senate was directed towards foreign policy. Though it technically had no official role in the management of military conflict, the Senate ultimately was the force that oversaw such affairs. Not all those rights were available to every citizen – women could be citizens, but were denied the rights to vote or hold elected office. An adult male citizen with the full complement of legal and political rights was called optimo jure. The optimo jure elected their assemblies, whereupon the assemblies elected magistrates, enacted legislation, presided over trials in capital cases, declared war and peace, and forged or dissolved treaties. There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the comitia (“committees”), which were assemblies of all optimo jure. The second was the concilia (“councils”), which were assemblies of specific groups of optimo jure. Assembly of the Centuries. Citizens were organized on the basis of centuries and tribes. The centuries and the tribes would each gather into their own assemblies. The Comitia Centuriata (“Century Assembly”) was the assembly of the centuries. The president of the Comitia Centuriata was usually a consul. The centuries would vote, one at a time, until a measure received support from a majority of the centuries. The Comitia Centuriata would elect magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). It also elected censors. Only the Comitia Centuriata could declare war, and ratify the results of a census. It also served as the highest court of appeal in certain judicial cases. Assembly of the Tribes. The assembly of the tribes, the Comitia Tributa, was presided over by a consul, and was composed of 35 tribes. The tribes were not ethnic or kinship groups, but rather geographical subdivisions. The order that the thirty-five tribes would vote in was selected randomly by lot. Once a measure received support from a majority of the tribes, the voting would end. While it did not pass many laws, the Comitia Tributa did elect quaestors, curule aediles , and military tribunes. The Plebeian Council was an assembly of plebeians, the non-patrician citizens of Rome, who would gather into their respective tribes. They elected their own officers, plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles. Usually a plebeian tribune would preside over the assembly. This assembly passed most laws, and could also act as a court of appeal. Since it was organised on the basis of the tribes, its rules and procedures were nearly identical to those of the Comitia Tributa. Each magistrate was vested with a degree of maior potestas (“major power”). Each magistrate could veto any action that was taken by a magistrate of an equal or lower rank. Plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles , on the other hand, were independent of the other magistrates. Magisterial powers, and checks on those powers. Each republican magistrate held certain constitutional powers. Only the People of Rome (both plebeians and patricians) had the right to confer these powers on any individual magistrate. The most powerful constitutional power was imperium. Imperium was held by both consuls and praetors. Imperium gave a magistrate the authority to command a military force. All magistrates also had the power of coercion. This was used by magistrates to maintain public order. While in Rome, all citizens had a judgement against coercion. This protection was called provocatio (see below). Magistrates also had both the power and the duty to look for omens. This power would often be used to obstruct political opponents. One check on a magistrate’s power was his collegiality. Each magisterial office would be held concurrently by at least two people. Another such check was provocatio. Provocatio was a primordial form of due process. It was a precursor to habeas corpus. This created problems for some consuls and praetors, and these magistrates would occasionally have their imperium extended. In effect, they would retain the powers of the office (as a promagistrate), without officially holding that office. Consuls, Praetors, Censors, Aediles, Quaestors, Tribunes, and Dictators. Of Marius, had been put on full display. The populares party took full advantage of this opportunity by allying itself with Marius. Several years later, in 88 BC, a Roman army was sent to put down an emerging Asian power, king Mithridates of Pontus. The army, however, was defeated. One of Marius’ old quaestors, Lucius Cornelius Sulla , had been elected consul for the year, and was ordered by the senate to assume command of the war against Mithridates. Marius, a member of the ” populares ” party, had a tribune revoke Sulla’s command of the war against Mithridates. Sulla, a member of the aristocratic (” optimates “) party, brought his army back to Italy and marched on Rome. Sulla was so angry at Marius’ tribune that he passed a law intended to permanently weaken the tribunate. With Sulla gone, the populares under Marius and Lucius Cornelius Cinna soon took control of the city. During the period in which the populares party controlled the city, they flouted convention by re-electing Marius consul several times without observing the customary ten-year interval between offices. They also transgressed the established oligarchy by advancing unelected individuals to magisterial office, and by substituting magisterial edicts for popular legislation. Sulla soon made peace with Mithridates. Sulla and his supporters then slaughtered most of Marius’ supporters. Sulla, having observed the violent results of radical popular reforms, was naturally conservative. As such, he sought to strengthen the aristocracy, and by extension the senate. Sulla made himself dictator, passed a series of constitutional reforms , resigned the dictatorship, and served one last term as consul. He died in 78 BC. Pompey, Crassus and the Catilinarian Conspiracy. A Roman marble head of Pompey (now found in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek). In 77 BC, the senate sent one of Sulla’s former lieutenants, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (“Pompey the Great”), to put down an uprising in Spain. Around the same time, another of Sulla’s former lieutenants, Marcus Licinius Crassus , had just put down the Spartacus led gladiator/slave revolt in Italy. Upon their return, Pompey and Crassus found the populares party fiercely attacking Sulla’s constitution. They attempted to forge an agreement with the populares party. If both Pompey and Crassus were elected consul in 70 BC, they would dismantle the more obnoxious components of Sulla’s constitution. The two were soon elected, and quickly dismantled most of Sulla’s constitution. Around 66 BC, a movement to use constitutional, or at least peaceful, means to address the plight of various classes began. After several failures, the movement’s leaders decided to use any means that were necessary to accomplish their goals. The movement coalesced under an aristocrat named Lucius Sergius Catilina. The movement was based in the town of Faesulae, which was a natural hotbed of agrarian agitation. The rural malcontents were to advance on Rome, and be aided by an uprising within the city. After assassinating the consuls and most of the senators, Catiline would be free to enact his reforms. The conspiracy was set in motion in 63 BC. The consul for the year, Marcus Tullius Cicero , intercepted messages that Catiline had sent in an attempt to recruit more members. As a result, the top conspirators in Rome (including at least one former consul) were executed by authorisation (of dubious constitutionality) of the senate, and the planned uprising was disrupted. Cicero then sent an army, which cut Catiline’s forces to pieces. The most important result of the Catilinarian conspiracy was that the populares party became discredited. The prior 70 years had witnessed a gradual erosion in senatorial powers. The violent nature of the conspiracy, in conjunction with the senate’s skill in disrupting it, did a great deal to repair the senate’s image. The Senate, elated by its successes against Catiline, refused to ratify the arrangements that Pompey had made. Pompey, in effect, became powerless. Caesar and Pompey, along with Crassus, established a private agreement, now known as the First Triumvirate. Under the agreement, Pompey’s arrangements would be ratified. Caesar would be elected consul in 59 BC, and would then serve as governor of Gaul for five years. Crassus was promised a future consulship. Caesar became consul in 59 BC. His colleague, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , was an extreme aristocrat. Caesar submitted the laws that he had promised Pompey to the assemblies. Bibulus attempted to obstruct the enactment of these laws, and so Caesar used violent means to ensure their passage. Caesar was then made governor of three provinces. He facilitated the election of the former patrician Publius Clodius Pulcher to the tribunate for 58 BC. Clodius set about depriving Caesar’s senatorial enemies of two of their more obstinate leaders in Cato and Cicero. Clodius was a bitter opponent of Cicero because Cicero had testified against him in a sacrilege case. Clodius attempted to try Cicero for executing citizens without a trial during the Catiline conspiracy, resulting in Cicero going into self-imposed exile and his house in Rome being burnt down. Clodius also passed a bill that forced Cato to lead the invasion of Cyprus which would keep him away from Rome for some years. Clodius also passed a bill that gave the populace a free grain dole, which had previously just been subsidised. The end of the First Triumvirate. Clodius formed armed gangs that terrorised the city and eventually began to attack Pompey’s followers, who in response funded counter-gangs formed by Titus Annius Milo. The political alliance of the triumvirate was crumbling. Domitius Ahenobarbus ran for the consulship in 55 BC promising to take Caesar’s command from him. Eventually, the triumvirate was renewed at Lucca. Pompey and Crassus were promised the consulship in 55 BC, and Caesar’s term as governor was extended for five years. Crassus led an ill-fated expedition with legions led by his son, Caesar’s lieutenant, against the Kingdom of Parthia. This resulted in his defeat and death at the Battle of Carrhae. Finally, Pompey’s wife, Julia, who was Caesar’s daughter, died in childbirth. This event severed the last remaining bond between Pompey and Caesar. Beginning in the summer of 54 BC, a wave of political corruption and violence swept Rome. This chaos reached a climax in January of 52 BC, when Clodius was murdered in a gang war by Milo. On 1 January 49 BC, an agent of Caesar presented an ultimatum to the senate. The ultimatum was rejected, and the senate then passed a resolution which declared that if Caesar did not lay down his arms by July of that year, he would be considered an enemy of the Republic. On 7 January of 49 BC, the senate passed a senatus consultum ultimum , which vested Pompey with dictatorial powers. Pompey’s army, however, was composed largely of untested conscripts. On 10 January, Caesar crossed the Rubicon with his veteran army (in violation of Roman laws) and marched towards Rome. Caesar’s rapid advance forced Pompey, the consuls and the Senate to abandon Rome for Greece. Caesar entered the city unopposed. The period of transition (4929 BC). By 29 BC, Rome had completed its transition from being a city-state with a network of dependencies, to being the capital of a world empire. With Pompey defeated and order restored, Caesar wanted to ensure that his control over the government was undisputed. The powers which he would give himself would ultimately be used by his imperial successors. He would assume these powers by increasing his own authority, and by decreasing the authority of Rome’s other political institutions. Caesar would hold both the dictatorship and the tribunate, but alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship. In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers. This made his person sacrosanct, gave him the power to veto the senate, and allowed him to dominate the Plebeian Council. In 46 BC, Caesar was given censorial powers, which he used to fill the senate with his own partisans. Caesar then raised the membership of the Senate to 900. This robbed the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and made it increasingly subservient to him. While the assemblies continued to meet, he submitted all candidates to the assemblies for election, and all bills to the assemblies for enactment. Thus, the assemblies became powerless and were unable to oppose him. Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. Since his absence from Rome would limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. Caesar’s assassination and the Second Triumvirate. Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC. The assassination was led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus. Most of the conspirators were senators, who had a variety of economic, political, or personal motivations for carrying out the assassination. Many were afraid that Caesar would soon resurrect the monarchy and declare himself king. Others feared loss of property or prestige as Caesar carried out his land reforms in favor of the landless classes. Virtually all the conspirators fled the city after Caesar’s death in fear of retaliation. The civil war that followed destroyed what was left of the Republic. After the assassination, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar’s adopted son and great-nephew, Gaius Octavian. Along with Marcus Lepidus , they formed an alliance known as the Second Triumvirate. They held powers that were nearly identical to the powers that Caesar had held under his constitution. As such, the Senate and assemblies remained powerless, even after Caesar had been assassinated. The conspirators were then defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC. Eventually, however, Antony and Octavian fought against each other in one last battle. Antony was defeated in the naval Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and he committed suicide with his love, Cleopatra. Julius Caesar , from the bust in the British Museum , in Cassell’s History of England (1902). Life in the Roman Republic revolved around the city of Rome, and its famed seven hills. The city also had several theatres , gymnasiums , and many taverns, baths and brothels. Throughout the territory under Rome’s control, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas , and in the capital city of Rome, to the residences on the elegant Palatine Hill , from which the word ” palace ” is derived. The vast majority of the population lived in the city center, packed into apartment blocks. Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temples, as did the city of Rome itself. Aqueducts brought water to urban centers and wine and cooking oil were imported from abroad. Landlords generally resided in cities and left their estates in the care of farm managers. To stimulate a higher labour productivity, many landlords freed large numbers of slaves. Beginning in the middle of the 2nd century BC, Greek culture was increasingly ascendant, in spite of tirades against the “softening” effects of Hellenised culture. By the time of Augustus, cultured Greek household slaves taught the Roman young (sometimes even the girls). Greek sculptures adorned Hellenistic landscape gardening on the Palatine or in the villas, and much of Roman cuisine was essentially Greek. Roman writers disdained Latin for a cultured Greek style. Social history and structure. Many aspects of Roman culture were borrowed from the Greeks. In architecture and sculpture , the difference between Greek models and Roman paintings are apparent. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome. Rome has also had a tremendous impact on European cultures following it. Its significance is perhaps best reflected in its endurance and influence, as is seen in the longevity and lasting importance of works of Virgil and Ovid. Latin, the Republic’s primary language, remains used for liturgical purposes by the Roman Catholic Church, and up to the 19th century was used extensively in scholarly writings in, for example, science and mathematics. Roman law laid the foundations for the laws of many European countries and their colonies. The center of the early social structure was the family, which was not only marked by blood relations but also by the legally constructed relation of patria potestas. The Pater familias was the absolute head of the family; he was the master over his wife, his children, the wives of his sons, the nephews, the slaves and the freedmen, disposing of them and of their goods at will, even putting them to death. Roman law recognised only patrician families as legal entities. Generally, mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation. It is estimated that over 25% of the Roman population was enslaved. Roman clad in a toga. Men typically wore a toga , and women a stola. The woman’s stola differed in looks from a toga, and was usually brightly coloured. The cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. The tunic worn by plebeians , or common people, like shepherds and slaves, was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool. A knight or magistrate would wear an augusticlavus , a tunic bearing small purple studs. Senators wore tunics with broad red stripes, called tunica laticlavia. Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians. Boys, up until the festival of Liberalia , wore the toga praetexta , which was a toga with a crimson or purple border. The toga virilis , (or toga pura) was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome. The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning. Even footwear indicated a person’s social status. Patricians wore red and orange sandals, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. The Romans also invented socks for those soldiers required to fight on the northern frontiers, sometimes worn in sandals. Romans had simple food habits. Staple food was generally consumed at around 11 o’clock, and consisted of bread, salad, cheese, fruits, nuts, and cold meat left over from the dinner the night before. The Roman poet, Horace mentions another Roman favorite, the olive, in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: As for me, olives, endives , and smooth mallows provide sustenance. The family ate together, sitting on stools around a table. Fingers were used to eat solid foods and spoons were used for soups. Wine was considered a staple drink, consumed at all meals and occasions by all classes and was quite cheap. Cato the Elder once advised cutting his rations in half to conserve wine for the workforce. Many types of drinks involving grapes and honey were consumed as well. Drinking on an empty stomach was regarded as boorish and a sure sign for alcoholism, the debilitating physical and psychological effects of which were known to the Romans. An accurate accusation of being an alcoholic was an effective way to discredit political rivals. Prominent Roman alcoholics included Mark Antony , and Cicero’s own son Marcus (Cicero Minor). Even Cato the Younger was known to be a heavy drinker. Following various military conquests in the Greek East , Romans adapted a number of Greek educational precepts to their own fledgling system. Physical training to prepare the boys to grow as Roman citizens and for eventual recruitment into the army. Conforming to discipline was a point of great emphasis. Girls generally received instruction from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving, and sewing. Schooling in a more formal sense was begun around 200 BC. Education began at the age of around six, and in the next six to seven years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of reading, writing and counting. By the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking. Oratory was an art to be practiced and learnt, and good orators commanded respect. The native language of the Romans was Latin. Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin , an artificial and highly stylised and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the actual spoken language was Vulgar Latin , which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar, vocabulary, and eventually pronunciation. Rome’s expansion spread Latin throughout Europe, and over time Vulgar Latin evolved and dialectised in different locations, gradually shifting into a number of distinct Romance languages. Many of these languages, including French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish, flourished, the differences between them growing greater over time. Although English is Germanic rather than Roman in origin, English borrows heavily from Latin and Latin-derived words. Roman literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest works we possess are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Virgil represents the pinnacle of Roman epic poetry. His Aeneid tells the story of flight of Aeneas from Troy and his settlement of the city that would become Rome. Lucretius , in his On the Nature of Things , attempted to explicate science in an epic poem. The genre of satire was common in Rome, and satires were written by, among others, Juvenal and Persius. The rhetorical works of Cicero are considered to be some of the best bodies of correspondence recorded in antiquity. In the 3rd century BC, Greek art taken as booty from wars became popular, and many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. Portrait sculpture during the period utilised youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, often depicting Roman victories. Music was a major part of everyday life. The word itself derives from Greek (mousike), “(art) of the Muses “. Many private and public events were accompanied by music, ranging from nightly dining to military parades and manoeuvres. In a discussion of any ancient music, however, non-specialists and even many musicians have to be reminded that much of what makes our modern music familiar to us is the result of developments only within the last 1,000 years; thus, our ideas of melody, scales, harmony, and even the instruments we use would not be familiar to Romans who made and listened to music many centuries earlier. Over time, Roman architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction technology became developed and refined. The Roman concrete has remained a riddle, and even after more than 2,000 years some Roman structures still stand magnificently. The architectural style of the capital city was emulated by other urban centers under Roman control and influence. Roman cities were well planned, efficiently managed and neatly maintained. The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius (“Field of Mars”), which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers. Later, the Campus became Rome’s track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Equestrian sports, throwing, and swimming were also preferred physical activities. In the countryside, pastime included fishing and hunting. Board games played in Rome included dice (Tesserae or Tali), Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and Ludus duodecim scriptorum and Tabula, predecessors of backgammon. There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances. Roman religious beliefs date back to the founding of Rome, around 800 BC. However, the Roman religion commonly associated with the republic and early empire did not begin until around 500 BC, when Romans came in contact with Greek culture, and adopted many of the Greek religious beliefs. Private and personal worship was an important aspect of religious practices. In a sense, each household was a temple to the gods. Each household had an altar (lararium), at which the family members would offer prayers, perform rites, and interact with the household gods. Many of the gods that Romans worshiped came from the Proto-Indo-European pantheon , others were based on Greek gods. The two most famous deities were Jupiter (the king God) and Mars (the god of war). With its cultural influence spreading over most of the Mediterranean, Romans began accepting foreign gods into their own culture, as well as other philosophical traditions such as Cynicism and Stoicism. The structural history of the Roman military describes the major chronological transformations in the organisation and constitution of the Roman armed forces. The Roman military was split into the Roman army and the Roman navy , although these two branches were less distinct than they tend to be in modern defence forces. Within the top-level branches of army and navy, structural changes occurred both as a result of positive military reform and through organic structural evolution. During this period, Roman soldiers seem to have been modelled after those of the Etruscans to the north, who themselves seem to have copied their style of warfare from the Greeks. Traditionally, the introduction of the phalanx formation into the Roman army is ascribed to the city’s penultimate king, Servius Tullius (ruled 578 to 534 BC). Each subsequent rank consisted of those with less wealth and poorer equipment than the one before it. One disadvantage of the phalanx was that it was only effective when fighting in large, open spaces, which left the Romans at a disadvantage when fighting in the hilly terrain of central Italian peninsula. In the 4th century BC, the Romans abandoned the phalanx in favour of the more flexible manipular formation. This change is sometimes attributed to Marcus Furius Camillus and placed shortly after the Gallic invasion of 390 BC; it is more likely, however, that they were copied from Rome’s Samnite enemies to the south, possibly as a result of Samnite victories during the Second Samnite War (326 to 304 BC). During this period, an army formation of around 5,000 men (of both heavy and light infantry) was known as a legion. The manipular army was based upon social class, age and military experience. Maniples were units of 120 men each drawn from a single infantry class. The maniples were typically deployed into three discrete lines based on the three heavy infantry types. Each first line maniple were leather-armoured infantry soldiers who wore a bronze breastplate and a bronze helmet adorned with 3 feathers approximately 30 cm (12 in) in height and carried an iron-clad wooden shield. They were armed with a sword and two throwing spears. The second infantry line was armed and armoured in the same manner as was the first infantry line. The third infantry line was the last remnant of the hoplite-style (the Greek-style formation used occasionally during the early Republic) troops in the Roman army. They were armed and armoured in the same manner as were the soldiers in the second line, with the exception that they carried a lighter spear. The three infantry classes may have retained some slight parallel to social divisions within Roman society, but at least officially the three lines were based upon age and experience rather than social class. Young, unproven men would serve in the first line, older men with some military experience would serve in the second line, and veteran troops of advanced age and experience would serve in the third line. The heavy infantry of the maniples were supported by a number of light infantry and cavalry troops, typically 300 horsemen per manipular legion. The cavalry was drawn primarily from the richest class of equestrians. There was an additional class of troops who followed the army without specific martial roles and were deployed to the rear of the third line. Their role in accompanying the army was primarily to supply any vacancies that might occur in the maniples. The light infantry consisted of 1,200 unarmoured skirmishing troops drawn from the youngest and lower social classes. They were armed with a sword and a small shield, as well as several light javelins. Rome’s military confederation with the other peoples of the Italian peninsula meant that half of Rome’s army was provided by the Socii , such as the Etruscans, Umbrians, Apulians, Campanians, Samnites, Lucani, Bruttii, and the various southern Greek cities. Polybius states that Rome could draw on 770,000 men at the beginning of the Second Punic War, of which 700,000 were infantry and 70,000 met the requirements for cavalry. Rome’s Italian allies would be organized in alae , or wings , roughly equal in manpower to the Roman legions, though with 900 cavalry instead of 300. A small navy had operated at a fairly low level after about 300 BC, but it was massively upgraded about forty years later, during the First Punic War. After a period of frenetic construction, the navy mushroomed to a size of more than 400 ships on the Carthaginian (“Punic”) pattern. Once completed, it could accommodate up to 100,000 sailors and embarked troops for battle. The navy thereafter declined in size. The extraordinary demands of the Punic Wars , in addition to a shortage of manpower, exposed the tactical weaknesses of the manipular legion, at least in the short term. In 217 BC, near the beginning of the Second Punic War , Rome was forced to effectively ignore its long-standing principle that its soldiers must be both citizens and property owners. During the 2nd century BC, Roman territory saw an overall decline in population, partially due to the huge losses incurred during various wars. This was accompanied by severe social stresses and the greater collapse of the middle classes. As a result, the Roman state was forced to arm its soldiers at the expense of the state, which it had not had to do in the past. The distinction between the heavy infantry types began to blur, perhaps because the state was now assuming the responsibility of providing standard-issue equipment. In addition, the shortage of available manpower led to a greater burden being placed upon Rome’s allies for the provision of allied troops. Eventually, the Romans were forced to begin hiring mercenaries to fight alongside the legions. The legion after the reforms of Gaius Marius (10727 BC). Bust of Gaius Marius , instigator of the Marian reforms. In a process known as the Marian reforms , Roman consul Gaius Marius carried out a programme of reform of the Roman military. In 107 BC, all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for entry into the Roman army. This move formalised and concluded a gradual process that had been growing for centuries, of removing property requirements for military service. The distinction between the three heavy infantry classes, which had already become blurred, had collapsed into a single class of heavy legionary infantry. The heavy infantry legionaries were drawn from citizen stock, while non-citizens came to dominate the ranks of the light infantry. The army’s higher-level officers and commanders were still drawn exclusively from the Roman aristocracy. Unlike earlier in the Republic, legionaries were no longer fighting on a seasonal basis to protect their land. Instead, they received standard pay, and were employed by the state on a fixed-term basis. As a consequence, military duty began to appeal most to the poorest sections of society, to whom a salaried pay was attractive. A destabilising consequence of this development was that the proletariat acquired a stronger and more elevated position within the state. The legions of the late Republic were, structurally, almost entirely heavy infantry. The legion’s main sub-unit was called a cohort and consisted of approximately 480 infantrymen. The cohort was therefore a much larger unit than the earlier maniple sub-unit, and was divided into six centuries of 80 men each. Each century was separated further into 10 “tent groups” of 8 men each. Legions additionally consisted of a small body, typically 120 men, of Roman legionary cavalry. The cavalry troops were used as scouts and dispatch riders rather than battlefield cavalry. Legions also contained a dedicated group of artillery crew of perhaps 60 men. Each legion was normally partnered with an approximately equal number of allied (non-Roman) troops. However, the most obvious deficiency of the Roman army remained its shortage of cavalry, especially heavy cavalry. As Rome’s borders expanded and its adversaries changed from largely infantry-based to largely cavalry-based troops, the infantry-based Roman army began to find itself at a tactical disadvantage, particularly in the East. After having declined in size following the subjugation of the Mediterranean, the Roman navy underwent short-term upgrading and revitalisation in the late Republic to meet several new demands. Under Caesar , an invasion fleet was assembled in the English Channel to allow the invasion of Britannia ; under Pompey , a large fleet was raised in the Mediterranean Sea to clear the sea of Cilician pirates. During the civil war that followed, as many as a thousand ships were either constructed or pressed into service from Greek cities. The core of the campaign history of the Roman Republican military is the account of the Roman military’s land battles. Despite the encompassing of lands around the periphery of the Mediterranean sea, naval battles were typically less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome. As with most ancient civilisations, Rome’s military served the triple purposes of securing its borders, exploiting peripheral areas through measures such as imposing tribute on conquered peoples, and maintaining internal order. From the outset, Rome’s military typified this pattern and the majority of Rome’s campaigns were characterised by one of two types. The first is the territorial expansionist campaign, normally begun as a counter-offensive, in which each victory brought subjugation of large areas of territory. The second is the civil war, of which examples plagued the Roman Republic in its final century. Roman armies were not invincible, despite their formidable reputation and host of victories. Over the centuries the Romans ” produced their share of incompetents ” who led Roman armies into catastrophic defeats. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest of Rome’s enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal , to win the battle but lose the war. The history of Rome’s campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses. Early Republic (458274 BC). Early Italian campaigns (458396 BC). The first Roman republican wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region. Initially, Rome’s immediate neighbours were either Latin towns and villages, or else tribal Sabines from the Apennine hills beyond. One by one Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities that were either under Etruscan control or else Latin towns that had cast off their Etruscan rulers. Rome defeated Latin cities in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 496 BC, the Battle of Mons Algidus in 458 BC, the Battle of Corbione in 446 BC, the Battle of Aricia , and an Etruscan city in the Battle of the Cremera in 477 BC. By the end of this period, Rome had effectively completed the conquest of their immediate Etruscan and Latin neighbours, as well as secured their position against the immediate threat posed by the tribespeople of the nearby Apennine hills. Celtic invasion of Italia (390387 BC). By 390 BC, several Gallic tribes had begun invading Italy from the north as their culture expanded throughout Europe. The Romans were alerted of this when a particularly warlike tribe invaded two Etruscan towns from the north. These two towns were not far from Rome’s sphere of influence. These towns, overwhelmed by the size of the enemy in numbers and ferocity, called on Rome for help. The Romans met them in pitched battle at the Battle of Allia River around 390387 BC. The Gauls, under their chieftain Brennus , defeated the Roman army of around 15,000 troops and proceeded to pursue the fleeing Romans back to Rome itself and sacked the city before being either driven off or bought off. Now that the Romans and Gauls had bloodied one another, intermittent warfare was to continue between the two in Italy for more than two centuries. The Celtic problem would not be resolved for Rome until the final subjugation of all Gaul by Julius Caesar at the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC. Roman expansion into Italia (343282 BC). Map showing Roman expansion in Italy. After recovering surprisingly swiftly from the sack of Rome, the Romans immediately resumed their expansion within Italy. The First Samnite War of between 343 BC and 341 BC was a relatively short affair: the Romans beat the Samnites in two battles, but were forced to withdraw from the war before they could pursue the conflict further due to the revolt of several of their Latin allies in the Latin War. Rome bested the Latins in the Battle of Vesuvius and again in the Battle of Trifanum , after which the Latin cities were obliged to submit to Roman rule. The Second Samnite War , from 327 BC to 304 BC, was a much longer and more serious affair for both the Romans and Samnites. The fortunes of the two sides fluctuated throughout its course. The Romans then proved victorious at the Battle of Bovianum and the tide turned strongly against the Samnites from 314 BC onwards, leading them to sue for peace with progressively less generous terms. By 304 BC the Romans had effectively annexed the greater degree of the Samnite territory, founding several colonies. Seven years after their defeat, with Roman dominance of the area looking assured, the Samnites rose again and defeated a Roman army in 298 BC, to open the Third Samnite War. With this success in hand they managed to bring together a coalition of several previous enemies of Rome. In the Battle of Populonia in 282 BC Rome finished off the last vestiges of Etruscan power in the region. Pyrrhic War (280275 BC). Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus. By the beginning of the 3rd century, Rome had established itself as a major power on the Italian Peninsula , but had not yet come into conflict with the dominant military powers in the Mediterranean Basin at the time: Carthage and the Greek kingdoms. When a diplomatic dispute between Rome and a Greek colony erupted into open warfare in a naval confrontation, the Greek colony appealed for military aid to Pyrrhus , ruler of the northwestern Greek kingdom of Epirus. Motivated by a personal desire for military accomplishment, Pyrrhus landed a Greek army of some 25,000 men on Italian soil in 280 BC. Despite early victories, Pyrrhus found his position in Italy untenable. Rome steadfastly refused to negotiate with Pyrrhus as long as his army remained in Italy. Facing unacceptably heavy losses with each encounter with the Roman army, Pyrrhus withdrew from the peninsula (thus deriving the term ” pyrrhic victory “). In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. While Beneventum was indecisive, Pyrrhus realised his army had been exhausted and reduced, by years of foreign campaigns, and seeing little hope for further gains, he withdrew completely from Italy. The conflicts with Pyrrhus would have a great effect on Rome. Rome had shown it was capable of pitting its armies successfully against the dominant military powers of the Mediterranean, and that the Greek kingdoms were incapable of defending their colonies in Italy and abroad. Rome quickly moved into southern Italia, subjugating and dividing the Greek colonies. Now, Rome effectively dominated the Italian peninsula, and won an international military reputation. Punic Wars (264146 BC). Theatre of the Punic Wars. The First Punic War began in 264 BC when settlements on Sicily began to appeal to the two powers between which they lay Rome and Carthage to solve internal conflicts. The war saw land battles in Sicily early on, but the theatre shifted to naval battles around Sicily and Africa. Before the First Punic War there was no Roman navy to speak of. The new war in Sicily against Carthage , a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles were catastrophic disasters for Rome. However, after training more sailors and inventing a grappling engine, a Roman naval force was able to defeat a Carthaginian fleet, and further naval victories followed. The Carthaginians then hired Xanthippus of Carthage , a Spartan mercenary general, to reorganize and lead their army. He managed to cut off the Roman army from its base by re-establishing Carthaginian naval supremacy. With their newfound naval abilities, the Romans then beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again at the Battle of the Aegates Islands and leaving Carthage without a fleet or sufficient coin to raise one. For a maritime power the loss of their access to the Mediterranean stung financially and psychologically, and the Carthaginians sued for peace. Continuing distrust led to the renewal of hostilities in the Second Punic War when Hannibal Barca attacked a Spanish town, which had diplomatic ties to Rome. Hannibal then crossed the Italian Alps to invade Italy. Hannibal’s successes in Italy began immediately, and reached an early climax at the Battle of Cannae , where 70,000 Romans were killed. In three battles, the Romans managed to hold off Hannibal but then Hannibal smashed a succession of Roman consular armies. By this time Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal Barca sought to cross the Alps into Italy and join his brother with a second army. Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively on the Metaurus River. Unable to defeat Hannibal himself on Italian soil, the Romans boldly sent an army to Africa under Scipio Africanus with the intention of threatening the Carthaginian capital. Hannibal was recalled to Africa, and defeated at the Battle of Zama. Carthage never managed to recover after the Second Punic War. And the Third Punic War that followed was in reality a simple punitive mission to raze the city of Carthage to the ground. Carthage was almost defenseless and when besieged offered immediate surrender, conceding to a string of outrageous Roman demands. The Romans refused the surrender, and the city was stormed after a short siege and completely destroyed. Ultimately, all of Carthage’s North African and Spanish territories were acquired by Rome. Kingdom of Macedonia, the Greek poleis, and Illyria (215148 BC). Rome’s preoccupation with its war with Carthage provided an opportunity for Philip V of the kingdom of Macedonia , located in the north of the Greek peninsula , to attempt to extend his power westward. Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibal’s camp in Italy, to negotiate an alliance as common enemies of Rome. However, Rome discovered the agreement when Philip’s emissaries were captured by a Roman fleet. The First Macedonian War saw the Romans involved directly in only limited land operations, but they ultimately achieved their objective of pre-occupying Philip and preventing him from aiding Hannibal. Macedonia began to encroach on territory claimed by Greek city states in 200 BC and these states pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. Rome gave Philip an ultimatum that he must submit several parts of Greater Macedonia to Rome and give up his designs on Greece. Philip refused, and Rome declared war starting the Second Macedonian War. Ultimately, in 197 BC, the Romans decisevely defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae , subsequently Macedonia was reduced to a central rump state. Rome now turned its attentions to one of the Greek kingdoms, the Seleucid Empire , in the east. A Roman force defeated the Seleucids at the Battle of Thermopylae and forced them to evacuate Greece. The Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them in the decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. In 179 BC, Philip died and his talented and ambitious son, Perseus, took his throne and showed a renewed interest in Greece. Rome declared war on Macedonia again, starting the Third Macedonian War. Perseus initially had some success against the Romans. However, Rome responded by simply sending another stronger army. The second consular army decisively defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC and the Macedonians duly capitulated, ending the Third Macedonian War. The Kingdom of Macedonia was then divided by the Romans into four client republics. The Fourth Macedonian War, fought from 150 BC to 148 BC, was fought against a Macedonian pretender to the throne who was attempting to re-establish the old Kingdom. The Romans swiftly defeated the Macedonians at the Second battle of Pydna. The Achaean League chose this moment to rebel against Roman domination but was swiftly defeated. Corinth was besieged and destroyed in 146 BC, the same year as the destruction of Carthage , which led to the league’s surrender. Late Republic (14730 BC). Jugurthine War (111104 BC). The Jugurthine War of 111104 BC was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of the North African kingdom of Numidia. It constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa, after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. Following Jugurtha’s usurpation of the throne of Numidia, a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars, Rome felt compelled to intervene. Jugurtha impudently bribed the Romans into accepting his usurpation. Jugurtha was finally captured not in battle but by treachery. The Celtic threat (121 BC) and the new Germanic threat (113101 BC). In 121 BC, Rome came into contact with two Celtic tribes (from a region in modern France), both of which they defeated with apparent ease. The Cimbrian War (113101 BC) was a far more serious affair than the earlier clashes of 121 BC. The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons migrated from northern Europe into Rome’s northern territories, and clashed with Rome and her allies. At the Battle of Aquae Sextiae and the Battle of Vercellae both tribes were virtually annihilated, which ended the threat. Internal unrest (13571 BC). The extensive campaigning abroad by Roman generals, and the rewarding of soldiers with plunder on these campaigns, led to a general trend of soldiers becoming increasingly loyal to their generals rather than to the state. Rome was also plagued by several slave uprisings during this period, in part because vast tracts of land had been given over to slave farming in which the slaves greatly outnumbered their Roman masters. In the last century BC at least twelve civil wars and rebellions occurred. This pattern did not break until Octavian (later Caesar Augustus) ended it by becoming a successful challenger to the Senate’s authority, and was made princeps (emperor). Between 135 BC and 71 BC there were three “Servile Wars” involving slave uprisings against the Roman state. The third and final uprising was the most serious, involving ultimately between 120,000 and 150,000. Slaves under the command of the gladiator Spartacus. Additionally, in 91 BC the Social War broke out between Rome and its former allies in Italy over dissent among the allies that they shared the risk of Rome’s military campaigns, but not its rewards. Although they lost militarily, the allies achieved their objectives with legal proclamations which granted citizenship to more than 500,000 Italians. The internal unrest reached its most serious state, however, in the two civil wars that were caused by the consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla at the beginning of 82 BC. In the Battle of the Colline Gate at the very door of the city of Rome, a Roman army under Sulla bested an army of the Roman Senate and entered the city. Sulla’s actions marked a watershed in the willingness of Roman troops to wage war against one another that was to pave the way for the wars which ultimately overthrew the Republic, and caused the founding of the Roman Empire. Conflicts with Mithridates (8963 BC) and the Cilician pirates (67 BC). Mithridates the Great was the ruler of Pontus , a large kingdom in Asia Minor (modern Turkey), from 120 to 63 BC. The massacre was the official reason given for the commencement of hostilities in the First Mithridatic War. The Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper, but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival, Gaius Marius. A peace was made between Rome and Pontus, but this proved only a temporary lull. The Second Mithridatic War began when Rome tried to annex a province that Mithridates claimed as his own. In the Third Mithridatic War , first Lucius Licinius Lucullus and then Pompey the Great were sent against Mithridates. Mithridates was finally defeated by Pompey in the night-time Battle of the Lycus. The Mediterranean had at this time fallen into the hands of pirates, largely from Cilicia. Pompey was nominated as commander of a special naval task force to campaign against the pirates. It took Pompey just forty days to clear the western portion of the sea of pirates and restore communication between Iberia (Spain), Africa, and Italy. Caesar’s early campaigns (5950 BC). Map of the Gallic Wars. During a term as praetor in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain), Pompey’s contemporary Julius Caesar defeated two local tribes in battle. Following his term as consul in 59 BC, he was then appointed to a five-year term as the proconsular Governor of Cisalpine Gaul (current northern Italy), Transalpine Gaul (current southern France) and Illyria (the modern Balkans). Not content with an idle governorship, Caesar strove to find reason to invade Gaul, which would give him the dramatic military success he sought. When two local tribes began to migrate on a route that would take them near (not into) the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, Caesar had the barely sufficient excuse he needed for his Gallic Wars , fought between 58 BC and 49 BC. Caesar defeated large armies at major battles 58 BC and 57 BC. In 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions into Britain , becoming the first Roman to do so. Caesar then defeated a union of Gauls at the Battle of Alesia , completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. By 50 BC, the entirety of Gaul lay in Roman hands. Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and, other than the crisis of the 3rd century, remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the western empire in 476. Triumvirates and Caesarian ascension (5330 BC). By 59 BC an unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate was formed between Gaius Julius Caesar , Marcus Licinius Crassus , and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (“Pompey the Great”) to share power and influence. In 53 BC, Crassus launched a Roman invasion of the Parthian Empire (modern Iraq and Iran). After initial successes, he marched his army deep into the desert; but here his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and slaughtered at the Battle of Carrhae in which Crassus himself perished. The death of Crassus removed some of the balance in the Triumvirate and, consequently, Caesar and Pompey began to move apart. While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, Pompey proceeded with a legislative agenda for Rome that revealed that he was at best ambivalent towards Caesar and perhaps now covertly allied with Caesar’s political enemies. In 51 BC, some Roman senators demanded that Caesar not be permitted to stand for consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, which would have left Caesar defenceless before his enemies. Caesar chose civil war over laying down his command and facing trial. By the spring of 49 BC, the hardened legions of Caesar crossed the river Rubicon and swept down the Italian peninsula towards Rome, while Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome. Afterwards Caesar turned his attention to the Pompeian stronghold of Iberia (modern Spain) but decided to tackle Pompey himself in Greece. Pompey initially defeated Caesar, but failed to follow up on the victory, and was decisively defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, despite outnumbering Caesar’s forces two to one, albeit with inferior quality troops. Pompey fled again, this time to Egypt, where he was murdered. Pompey’s death did not result in an end to the civil war as Caesar’s enemies were manifold and continued to fight on. In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army, but ultimately came back to defeat the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in the Battle of Thapsus , after which the Pompeians retreated yet again to Iberia. Caesar then defeated the combined Pompeian forces at the Battle of Munda. Caesar was now the primary figure of the Roman state, enforcing and entrenching his powers and his enemies feared that he had ambitions to become an autocratic ruler. Arguing that the Roman Republic was in danger a group of senators hatched a conspiracy and murdered Caesar in the Senate in March 44 BC. Mark Antony , Caesar’s lieutenant, condemned Caesar’s assassination, and war broke out between the two factions. Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Caesar’s adopted son and chosen heir, Gaius Octavian , was entrusted with the command of the war against him. At the Battle of Mutina Antony was defeated by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa , who were both killed. Octavian came to terms with Caesarians Antony and Lepidus in 43 BC when the Second Triumvirate was formed. In 42 BC Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought the Battle of Philippi with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeated Octavian, Antony defeated Cassius, who committed suicide. Brutus joined him shortly afterwards. However, civil war flared again when the Second Triumvirate of Octavian, Lepidus and Mark Antony failed. The ambitious Octavian built a power base of patronage and then launched a campaign against Mark Antony. At the naval Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece, Octavian decisively defeated Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian was granted a series of special powers including sole “imperium” within the city of Rome, permanent consular powers and credit for every Roman military victory, since all future generals were assumed to be acting under his command. In 27 BC Octavian was granted the use of the names “Augustus” and “Princeps” indicating his primary status above all other Romans, and he adopted the title “Imperator Caesar” making him the first Roman Emperor. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store” for on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “Roman Republic 66BC Rome MUSE Urania of ASTRONOMY Ancient Silver Coin NGC i60126″ is in sale since Friday, March 17, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Era: Roman: Republic
  • Material: Silver
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification Number: 4375823-270
  • Grade: VF

Dec 17 2017

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100

Untested and has not been researched. Thanks for shopping with me. (Penny not included) Happy Holidays. The item “Ancient roman coins unclean lot of 100″ is in sale since Sunday, December 10, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Other Ancient Coins”. The seller is “ladyamyarts” and is located in Ashville, Ohio. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Dominican republic, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica.

Dec 17 2017

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Septimius Severus, 193-211 AD, Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD, AR 20mm. Holding wreath and branch. RIC 125a and 503a. Septimius Severus (/svrs/; Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorumthe customary succession of officesunder the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors. After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. Niger was defeated in 194 at the Battle of Issus in Cilicia. Later that year Severus waged a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province. Severus defeated Albinus three years later at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul. After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. Furthermore, he enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian’s Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In 208 he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210. The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under his reign, encompassing an area of 2 million square miles(5.18 million square kilometers). Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta. With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Thursday, December 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: Beautiful Iridescent Tone. High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Septimius Severus
  • Date: 198-202 AD

Dec 17 2017

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227

Item: i58227 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Denarius 18mm (3.15 grams) Rome mint, late April-December 20, 69 A. CBN 69 Certification: NGC Ancients Ch VF Strike: 4/5 Surface: 2/5 4375810-009 A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P Laureate head right. LIBERTAS RESTITVTA Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long rod. References to the restoration of liberty as the message on this coin was one of the most common themes during the civil war. LIBERTAS – Liberty is represented in two ways on coins: the one as a woman with a naked head, which is the image of Roman Liberty; the other having her head covered with a veil, and adorned with a diadem, is the effigy of the goddess of liberty, whose temple was on Mount Aventine. The veil is in this case the token of divinity, as indeed the diadem is the ornament of a goddess. Liberty is represented not only on consular medals, but also with considerable frequency on those of the imperial series. Goddesses named for and representing the concept Liberty have existed in many cultures, including classical examples dating from the Roman Empire and some national symbols such as the British ” Britannia ” or the Irish ” Kathleen Ni Houlihan “. The ancient Roman goddess Libertas was honored during the second Punic War by a temple erected on the Aventine Hill in Rome by the father of Tiberius Gracchus. A statue in her honor was also raised by Clodius on the site of Marcus Tullius Cicero’s house after it had been razed. The figure also resembles Sol Invictus, the Roman god of sun. Aulus Vitellius Germanicus , born Aulus Vitellius and commonly known as Vitellius (24 September or 7 September and according to Suetonius, 12 September or 15 September 15 22 December 69), was the eighth Roman Emperor , who reigned from 16 April 69 to 22 December of the same year. Vitellius acceded to this position following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho , in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Vitellius was the first to add the honorific cognomen Germanicus to his name instead of Caesar upon his accession; the latter name had fallen into disrepute in many quarters because of the actions of Nero. His claim to the throne was soon challenged by legions stationed in the Eastern provinces, who proclaimed their commander Vespasian emperor in his place. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for Vitellius at the Second Battle of Bedriacum. When he realised his support was wavering, Vitellius prepared to abdicate in favour of Vespasian, but was executed in Rome by Flavian forces on December 22 of 69. The item “VITELLIUS 69AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC VF i58227″ is in sale since Wednesday, January 11, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Vitellius
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: Ch VF
  • Certification Number: 4375810-009

Dec 16 2017

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF

[6560] JULIAN II’the Apostate’ or Philosopher, 361-363 A. Gold Solidus 22mm, 4.29gm. Fine style and Very Rare. RIC 195, Depeyrot 15/2 Certification: NGC Ancients VF Strike: 5/5 Surface: 2/5 4371775-006 FL CL IVULIA- NVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. VIRTVS EXERCI -TVS ROMANORVM, Helmeted soldier standing right, head left, holding trophy and placing other hand on crouching captive. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Flavius Claudius Julianus , known also as Julian , Julian the Apostate or Julian the Philosopher (331/332 – 26 June 363, Greek:), was Roman Emperor (Caesar, November 355 to February 360; Augustus, February 360 to June 363), last of the Constantinian dynasty. Julian was a man of “unusually complex character”: he was “the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters”. Julian was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire and it was his desire to bring the empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to save it from “dissolution”. He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the cost of Christianity. His rejection of Christianity in favour of Neo-Platonic paganism caused him to be called Julian the Apostate by the church, as Edward Gibbon wrote. In 363, after a reign of only 19 months as absolute ruler of the Roman Empire, Julian died in Persia during a campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Flavius Claudius Julianus, born in May or June 332 or 331 in Constantinople, was the son of Julius Constantius (consul in 335), half brother of Emperor Constantine I, and his second wife, Basilina, both Christians. His paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, praetorian prefect of the East under emperor Licinius from 315 to 324 and consul after 325. The name of Julian’s maternal grandmother is unknown. In the turmoil after the death of Constantine in 337, in order to establish himself as sole emperor, Julian’s zealous Arian Christian cousin Constantius II led a massacre of Julian’s family. Constantius II ordered the murders of many descendants from the second marriage of Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving only Constantius and his brothers Constantine II and Constans I, and their cousins, Julian and Gallus (Julian’s half-brother), as the surviving males related to Emperor Constantine. Constantius II, Constans I, and Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors, each ruling a portion of Roman territory. Julian and Gallus were excluded from public life and given a strictly Arian Christian education. Initially growing up in Bithynia, raised by his maternal grandmother, at the age of seven he was under the guardianship of Eusebius of Nicomedia, the semi-Arian Christian Bishop of Nicomedia, and taught by Mardonius, a Gothic eunuch, whom Julian wrote warmly of later. After Eusebius died in 342, both Julian and Gallus were exiled to the imperial estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here Julian met the Christian bishop George of Cappadocia, who lent him books from the classical tradition. At the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt briefly in Constantinople and Nicomedia. He became a lector, a minor office in the Christian church, and his later writings show a detailed knowledge of the Bible, likely acquired in his early life. Looking back on his life in 362, Julian wrote, in his thirty-first year, that he had spent twenty years in the way of Christianity and twelve in the true way (ie the way of Helios). Julian studied Neoplatonism in Asia Minor in 351, at first under Aedesius, the philosopher, and then Neoplatonic theurgy from Aedesius’ student, Maximus of Ephesus. He was summoned to Constantius’ court in Milan in 354 and kept there for a year; in the summer and fall of 355, he was permitted to study in Athens. While there, Julian became acquainted with two men who later became both bishops and saints: Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil the Great; in the same period, Julian was also initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries, which he would later try to restore. Constantine II died in 340 when he attacked his brother Constans. Constans in turn fell in 350 in the war against the usurper Magnentius. This left Constantius II as the sole remaining emperor. In need of support, in 351 he made Julian’s half-brother, Gallus, Caesar of the East, while Constantius II himself turned his attention westward to Magnentius, whom he defeated decisively that year. In 354 Gallus, who had imposed a rule of terror over the territories under his command, was executed. Julian was summoned to court, and held for a year, under suspicion of treasonable intrigue, first with his brother and then with Claudius Silvanus; he was cleared, in part because the Empress Eusebia intervened on his behalf, and he was sent to Athens. Julian expresses his gratitude to the empress Eusebia in his third oration. The item “JULIAN II the Apostate Philosopher 361AD Ancient Roman Gold Solidus Coin NGC VF” is in sale since Tuesday, August 08, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Material: Gold
  • Denomination: Solidus
  • Ruler: Julian II
  • Certification: NGC
  • Grade: VF
  • Composition: Gold
  • Certification Number: 4371775-006
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman

Dec 16 2017

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men’s Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men's Ring

Dear Customer, Thank you for taking a look around my shop. I appreciate your interest! I use Authentic Ancient Coins and Objects unless stated. I have worn both and you can tell the difference. The ancient coins seem to possess a power (if you will) as they have passed thru many hands and have been owned by many people over thousands of years! I feel the essence of all these people are infused in the objects! My pricing reflects the cost of obtaining authentic ancient items and I only use solid Gold, Platinum and Silver. These metals are an investment and hold their VALUE! My goal is to make something you will be proud to pass on to your family. Sincerely, Di Simply This Ring Crosses over to ART… You are in a “time machine” looking at the face of Caligula! The PORTRAIT on this piece is one of the most REALISTIC I’ve seen. Authentic Bronze Emperor Caligula one of most desired and sought of all ancient Roman Coins. Setting is Solid Sterling Silver with accents size 12 easily resized. Total weight of ring is 16.08 Grams Ring Resizing Available! Caligula was the popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), Roman emperor (AD 37-41). Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula’s father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome’s most beloved public figures. The young Gaius earned the nickname “Caligula” (meaning “little soldier’s boot”, the diminutive form of caliga , hob-nailed military boot) from his father’s soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. The conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Untouched by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the Emperor on the island of Capri in AD 31, to where Tiberius, himself, had withdrawn five years earlier. With the death of Tiberius in AD 37, Caligula succeeded his grand uncle and adoptive grandfather as emperor. There are few surviving sources about the reign of Emperor Caligula, although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first six months of his reign. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources is questionable, it is known that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor, as opposed to countervailing powers within the principate. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and luxurious dwellings for himself, and initiated the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, and courtiers. The conspirators’ attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted: on the day of the assassination of Caligula, the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula’s uncle, Claudius, the next Roman emperor. Youth and early career. Julia Drusilla, sister of Caligula. As a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus, on campaigns in the north of Germania. The soldiers were amused that Gaius was dressed in a miniature soldier’s uniform, including boots and armour. He was soon given his nickname Caligula , meaning “little (soldier’s) boot” in Latin, after the small boots he wore as part of his uniform. Gaius, though, reportedly grew to dislike this nickname. Suetonius claims that Germanicus was poisoned in Syria by an agent of Tiberius, who viewed Germanicus as a political rival. After the death of his father, Caligula lived with his mother until her relations with Tiberius deteriorated. Tiberius would not allow Agrippina to remarry for fear her husband would be a rival. Agrippina and Caligula’s brother, Nero, were banished in 29 AD on charges of treason. The adolescent Caligula was then sent to live first with his great-grandmother (and Tiberius’s mother) Livia. Following Livia’s death, he was sent to live with his grandmother Antonia. In 30 AD, his brother, Drusus Caesar, was imprisoned on charges of treason and his brother Nero died in exile from either starvation or suicide. Suetonius writes that after the banishment of his mother and brothers, Caligula and his sisters were nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius under the close watch of soldiers. In 31 AD, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri, where he lived for six years. To the surprise of many, Caligula was spared by Tiberius. According to historians, Caligula was an excellent natural actor and, recognizing danger, hid all his resentment towards Tiberius. An observer said of Caligula, Never was there a better servant or a worse master! Caligula claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother: however, having brought the weapon into Tiberius’s bedroom he did not kill the Emperor but instead threw the dagger down on the floor. Supposedly Tiberius knew of this but never dared to do anything about it. Suetonius claims that Caligula was already cruel and vicious: he writes that, when Tiberius brought Caligula to Capri, his purpose was to allow Caligula to live in order that he… Prove the ruin of himself and of all men, and that he was rearing a viper for the Roman people and a Phaethon for the world. In 33 AD, Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship, a position he held until his rise to emperor. Meanwhile, both Caligula’s mother and his brother Drusus died in prison. Caligula was briefly married to Junia Claudilla, in 33, though she died during childbirth the following year. Caligula spent time befriending the Praetorian prefect, Naevius Sutorius Macro, an important ally. Macro spoke well of Caligula to Tiberius, attempting to quell any ill will or suspicion the Emperor felt towards Caligula. In 35 AD, Caligula was named joint heir to Tiberius’s estate along with Tiberius Gemellus. When Tiberius died on 16 March 37 AD, his estate and the titles of the principate were left to Caligula and Tiberius’s own grandson, Gemellus, who were to serve as joint heirs. Although Tiberius was 78 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered. Tacitus writes that the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, smothered Tiberius with a pillow to hasten Caligula’s accession, much to the joy of the Roman people, while Suetonius writes that Caligula may have carried out the killing, though this is not recorded by any other ancient historian. Seneca the elder and Philo, who both wrote during Tiberius’s reign, as well as Josephus record Tiberius as dying a natural death. Backed by Macro, Caligula had Tiberius’ will nullified with regards to Gemellus on grounds of insanity, but otherwise carried out Tiberius’ wishes. Caligula Depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors , by Eustache Le Sueur, 1647. Caligula accepted the powers of the principate as conferred by the senate and entered Rome on 28 March amid a crowd that hailed him as “our baby” and “our star, ” among other nicknames. Caligula is described as the first emperor who was admired by everyone in all the world, from the rising to the setting sun. Caligula was loved by many for being the beloved son of the popular Germanicus, and because he was not Tiberius. It was said by Suetonius that over 160,000 animals were sacrificed during three months of public rejoicing to usher in the new reign. Philo describes the first seven months of Caligula’s reign as completely blissful. Caligula’s first acts were said to be generous in spirit, though many were political in nature. To gain support, he granted bonuses to those in the military including the Praetorian Guard, city troops and the army outside Italy. He destroyed Tiberius’s treason papers, declared that treason trials were a thing of the past, and recalled those who had been sent into exile. Caligula collected and brought back the bones of his mother and of his brothers and deposited their remains in the tomb of Augustus. In October 37 AD, Caligula fell seriously ill or perhaps was poisoned. He recovered from his illness soon thereafter, but many believed that the illness turned the young emperor toward the diabolical as he started to kill off or exile those who were close to him or whom he saw as a serious threat. Perhaps his illness reminded him of his mortality and of the desire of others to advance into his place. He had his cousin and adopted son Tiberius Gemellus executed – an act that outraged Caligula’s and Gemellus’s mutual grandmother Antonia Minor. She is said to have committed suicide, although Suetonius hints that Caligula actually poisoned her. He had his father-in-law Marcus Junius Silanus and his brother-in-law Marcus Lepidus executed as well. His uncle Claudius was spared only because Caligula preferred to keep him as a laughing stock. His favorite sister Julia Drusilla died in 38 AD of a fever: his other two sisters, Livilla and Agrippina the Younger, were exiled. He hated being the grandson of Agrippa and slandered Augustus by repeating a falsehood that his mother was actually conceived as the result of an incestuous relationship between Augustus and his daughter Julia the Elder. In AD 38, Caligula focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius. He allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders. Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of democratic elections. Cassius Dio said that this act though delighting the rabble, grieved the sensible, who stopped to reflect, that if the offices should fall once more into the hands of the many… Many disasters would result. During the same year, though, Caligula was criticized for executing people without full trials and for forcing his supporter Macro to commit suicide. Financial crisis and famine. According to Cassius Dio, a financial crisis emerged in AD 39. Suetonius places the beginning of this crisis in 38. Caligula’s political payments for support, generosity and extravagance had exhausted the state’s treasury. Ancient historians state that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates. Historians describe a number of Caligula’s other desperate measures. Caligula began auctioning the lives of the gladiators at shows. Wills that left items to Tiberius were reinterpreted to leave the items instead to Caligula. Centurions who had acquired property during plundering were forced to turn over spoils to the state. According to Suetonius, in the first year of Caligula’s reign he squandered 2,7 billion sesterces that Tiberius had amassed. His nephew Nero Caesar both envied and admired the fact that Gaius had run through the vast wealth Tiberius had left him in so short a time. The Vatican Obelisk was first brought from Egypt to Rome by Caligula. It was the centerpiece of a large racetrack he built. A brief famine of unknown extent occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but Suetonius claims it resulted from Caligula’s seizure of public carriages; according to Seneca, grain imports were disturbed because Caligula repurposed grain boats for a pontoon bridge. Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, though others were for himself. Josephus describes Caligula’s improvements to the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily, allowing increased grain imports from Egypt, as his greatest contributions. These improvements may have been in response to the famine. Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta. He expanded the imperial palace. He began the aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, which Pliny the Elder considered engineering marvels. He built a large racetrack known as the circus of Gaius and Nero and had an Egyptian obelisk (now known as the “Vatican Obelisk”) transported by sea and erected in the middle of Rome. At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods. He had new roads built and pushed to keep roads in good condition. He had planned to rebuild the palace of Polycrates at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo at Ephesus and to found a city high up in the Alps. He planned to dig a canal through the isthmus in Greece and sent a chief centurion to survey the work. The hull of one of two ships recovered from Lake Nemi during the 1930s. This massive vessel served as an elaborate floating palace to the Emperor. In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons, stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighboring port of Puteoli. It was said that the bridge was to rival that of the Persian king, Xerxes’, crossing of the Hellespont. Caligula, who could not swim, then proceeded to ride his favorite horse, Incitatus, across, wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great. This act was in defiance of a prediction by Tiberius’s soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes that Caligula had “no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae”. Caligula had two large ships constructed for himself, which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi during the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini. The ships are among the largest vessels in the ancient world. Thirteen years after being raised, the ships were burned during an attack in the Second World War, and almost nothing remains of their hulls, though many archeological treasures remain intact in the museum at Lake Nemi and in the Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo) at Rome. Feud with the senate. In AD 39, relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate deteriorated. The subject of their disagreement is unknown. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure of Tiberius for Capri in AD 26 and Caligula’s accession. Additionally, Tiberius’s treason trials had eliminated a number of pro-Julian senators such as Asinius Gallus. Caligula reviewed Tiberius’s records of treason trials and decided that numerous senators, based on their actions during these trials, were not trustworthy. He ordered a new set of investigations and trials. He replaced the consul and had several senators put to death. Suetonius reports that other senators were degraded by being forced to wait on him and run beside his chariot. Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula faced a number of additional conspiracies against him. A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law was foiled in late 39. Soon afterwards, the Governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy. In AD 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia – even challenging Neptune in his campaign. The conquest of Britannia was fully realized by his successors. Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then had him suddenly executed. Mauretania was annexed by Caligula and subsequently divided into two provinces, Mauretania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis, separated by the river Malua. Pliny claims that division was the work of Caligula, but Dio states that in 42 AD an uprising took place, which was subdued by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, only after which the division took place. This confusion might mean that Caligula originally made the decision to divide the province, but the implementation was postponed because of the rebellion. The first known equestrian governor of the two provinces was one Marcus Fadius Celer Flavianus, in office in 44 AD. Details on the Mauretanian events of 39-44 are unclear. Cassius Dio wrote an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. Caligula’s move seemingly had a strictly personal political motive – that is, fear and jealousy of his cousin Ptolemy – and thus the expansion may not have been prompted by pressing military or economic needs. However, the rebellion of Tacfarinas had shown how exposed Africa Proconsularis was to its west and how the Mauretanian client kings were unable to provide protection to the province, and it is thus possible that Caligula’s expansion was a prudent response to potential future threats. There seemed to be a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted. This campaign is derided by ancient historians with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germanic tribesmen at his triumph and Roman troops ordered to collect seashells as “spoils of the sea”. The few primary sources disagree on what precisely occurred. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. The mission may have been to accept the surrender of the British chieftain Adminius. “Seashells”, or conchae in Latin, may be a metaphor for something else such as female genitalia (perhaps the troops visited brothels) or boats (perhaps they captured several small British boats). Ruins of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. Ancient resources as well as recent archaeological evidence suggest that, at one point, Caligula had the palace extended to annex this structure. When several kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he cried out Let there be one lord, one king. In AD 40, Caligula began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into his political role. Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo. Reportedly, he began referring to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and he was referred to as “Jupiter” on occasion in public documents. A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome. The Temple of Castor and Pollux on the forum was linked directly to the imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula. He would appear here on occasion and present himself as a god to the public. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods and replaced with his own in some temples. It is said that he wished to be worshipped as ” Neos Helios, ” the New Sun. Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins. Caligula’s religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. Augustus had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from. Caligula took things a step further and had those in Rome, including senators, worship him as a tangible, living god. Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in AD 37. The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman Law and the rights of Jews in the empire. Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula’s mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. In AD 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus. According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews. Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues. As a result, riots broke out in the city. Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him. In AD 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. Riots again erupted in Alexandria in AD 40 between Jews and Greeks. Jews were accused of not honoring the emperor. Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia. Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it. In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem, a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism. In this context, Philo wrote that Caligula “regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his”. The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order. Roman sestertius depicting Caligula, c. The reverse shows Caligula’s three sisters, Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia Livilla, with whom Caligula was rumoured to have carried on incestuous relationships. Cameo depicting Caligula and a personification of Rome. Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger describe Caligula as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex. Once, at some games at which he was presiding, he ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the crowd into the arena during intermission to be eaten by animals because there were no criminals to be prosecuted and he was bored. While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men. They state he sent troops on illogical military exercises, turned the palace into a brothel, and, most famously, planned or promised to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul, and actually appointed him a priest. The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government. Caligula’s actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the senate, the nobility and the equestrian order. According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. Eventually, a successful murder was planned by officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea. The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it. The situation escalated when, in 40 AD, Caligula announced to the senate that he would be leaving Rome permanently and moving to Alexandria, in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshiped as a living god. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula’s repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators to quickly put their plot into action. According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. Suetonius sees the motive in Caligula calling Chaerea derogatory names. Caligula would mock Chaerea with names like “Priapus” and “Venus”. On 22 January 41, although Suetonius dates it as 24, Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula while he was addressing an acting troupe of young men during a series of games and dramatics held for the Divine Augustus. Details on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea was first to stab Caligula, followed by a number of conspirators. Suetonius records that Caligula’s death was similar to that of Julius Caesar’s. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea). The cryptoporticus (underground corridor) where this event took place was discovered beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill. By the time Caligula’s loyal Germanic guard responded, the Emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike. The senate attempted to use Caligula’s death as an opportunity to restore the republic. Chaerea attempted to convince the military to support the senate. The military, though, remained loyal to the office of the emperor. The grieving Roman people assembled and demanded that Caligula’s murderers be brought to justice. Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and stabbed Caligula’s wife, Caesonia, and killed their young daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall. They were unable to reach Caligula’s uncle, Claudius, who was spirited out of the city, after being found by a soldier hiding behind a palace curtain, to the nearby Praetorian camp. Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard and ordered the execution of Chaerea and any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula. According to Suetonius, Caligula’s body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus; in 410, during the Sack of Rome the tomb’s ashes were scattered. Fanciful renaissance depiction of Caligula. The history of Caligula’s reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived – the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo’s works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus , give some details on Caligula’s early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca’s various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula’s personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators. At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula. Caligula’s sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula’s reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against Caligula. The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina’s son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they too are lost. The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula’s death. Cassius Dio’s work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula’s reign. A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula’s assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula’s life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Annals , Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder’s Natural History has a few brief references to Caligula. There are few surviving sources on Caligula and no surviving source paints Caligula in a favorable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in modern knowledge of the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligula’s reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligula’s military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate. All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula’s unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis. The question of whether or not Caligula was insane (especially after his illness early in his reign) remains unanswered. Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. Seneca states that Caligula became arrogant, angry and insulting once becoming emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from. According to Josephus, power made Caligula incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god. Philo of Alexandria reports that Caligula became ruthless after nearly dying of an illness in the eighth month of his reign in AD 37. Juvenal reports he was given a magic potion that drove him insane. Suetonius said that Caligula suffered from “falling sickness”, or epilepsy, when he was young. Modern historians have theorized that Caligula lived with a daily fear of seizures. Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula could not swim. Epileptics are discouraged from swimming in open waters because unexpected fits in such difficult rescue circumstances can be fatal. Additionally, Caligula reportedly talked to the full moon. Epilepsy was long associated with the moon. Some modern historians think that Caligula suffered from hyperthyroidism. This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula’s irritability and his “stare” as described by Pliny the Elder. Possible rediscovery of burial site. On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula’s burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor. The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard. The item “Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula! Men’s Ring” is in sale since Friday, June 16, 2017. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Men’s Jewelry\Rings”. The seller is “fabioandstella” and is located in McKeesport, Pennsylvania. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Brand: Ancientmeetsvintage
  • Metal: Sterling Silver
  • Sizable: Yes
  • Ring Size: 12
  • Style: Statement
  • Color: Silver
  • Main Stone: Authentic Ancient Roman Caligula
  • Theme: Rome

Dec 16 2017

L Flaminius Chilo Ancient Roman Republican Silver Denarius Coin 023251

L Flaminius Chilo Ancient Roman Republican Silver Denarius Coin 023251

ANCIENT ROMAN REPUBLICAN SILVER DENARIUS COIN. Silver, 3.89 grams, 18.02 mm. Obverse: no legend, helmeted head of Roma right, X under chin. Reverse: no legend, Victory, holding wreath, driving galloping biga right, L FLAMINI over CILO below. Crawford 302/1; Sydenham 540; Flaminia 1; Sear 179. GB 795 7410 88; Margin scheme applies. Export licences may be required for some items. Under British law an export permit is required for all coins and antiquities over 50 years old found in UK soil. If required we make your application free of charge. Although this results in a delay, this export document ensures that your item is exported legally, and is an additional guarantee that your item is 100% authentic as described. Items are sent to you on 14 days approval. Belgravia developments (UK) Ltd. T/a TimeLine Originals; Company reg. Mary’s Lane, Upminster Essex, England, RM14 3PH. The item “L FLAMINIUS CHILO ANCIENT ROMAN REPUBLICAN SILVER DENARIUS COIN 023251″ is in sale since Friday, March 09, 2012. This item is in the category “Coins\Coins\Ancient\Roman\Roman Republican (c.300-27 BC)”. The seller is “timelineoriginals” and is located in Upminster. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Civilisation: Roman
  • Period: Roman Republican (c.300 – 27 BC)
  • Metal: Silver

Dec 15 2017

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H

Item: Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 474-491 A. Condition: Check the pictures to see exact condition of the item. If you are satisfied with what you receive please leave feedback and I will return it. The item “Tremissis ZENO Gold Filled Ancient Roman Coin Fouree 2079H” is in sale since Sunday, November 26, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “treasures_of_ancient_rome” and is located in .. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Material: Bronze
  • Ruler: Zeno
  • Denomination: Tremissis

Dec 15 2017

Ring with Bronze Ancient Roman Coin and. 8 CTW Diamonds 14kt Yellow Gold

Ring with Bronze Ancient Roman Coin and. 8 CTW Diamonds 14kt Yellow Gold

Ring with Bronze Ancient Roman Coin and. 8 CTW Diamonds 14kt Yellow Gold

Ring with Bronze Ancient Roman Coin and. 8 CTW Diamonds 14kt Yellow Gold. A 14kt yellow gold ring with a bronze Ancient Roman coin and approximately. 8 total carat of diamonds. Free Steaming for Life. The Jewelry Gallery of Oyster Bay, a division of the award winning Coin Galleries of Oyster Bay, has opened multiple locations on Long Island for your convenience. Growing up with family principals, and knowledge of the sentimental value behind jewelry; this business was established with the primary concern being the satisfaction of our customers. We have extensive knowledge in all things jewelry, from precious metals to gems. We take our customers needs very seriously, treating them as family and finding them the perfect piece at the best possible value. Our locations are as clean and pristine as our gems, accommodating to families, and stocked with experts eager to help you find exactly what youre looking for. There is no shortage of options, as our cases are filled with varieties of sparkling precious metals and flawless gems with an extensive array of both simple and ornate designs. Our wide selection of unique pieces are perfect gifts for any occasion, with quality and prices that can’t be beat. By taking the time to discuss who the gift is for and their unique preferences in combination with our seasoned expertise, we can make educated recommendations ensuring that what you chose is a gift to be remembered. Our unique business allows for you to get the highest quality item at the most competitive price. We are located in New York. You will be assigned an authorization number at that time. Please note custom pieces are non-refundable. How to Pick a Diamond. Picking the perfect engagement ring can be a daunting task. With the stress of creating an unforgettable proposal, planning a wedding, etc. Let us guide you in your quest to select the perfect diamond for that special person in your life. Our feeling is that this should be an exciting and fun experience! One way to put your nerves at east is to educate yourself! Below, you can find information about diamonds. Deciding the shape of the diamond you want to propose with is the first step in selecting a stone. Any shape aside from round brilliant is considered a fancy cut. While a setting can be changed with relative ease, the shape generally cannot be altered. Diamonds can be set in illusion settings to allow them to appear as a different shape (for instance, a round diamond in a cushion shaped setting). When selecting a stone one must keep in mind the 4 C’s. Colorless (D) is the most valuable and rarest. Generally, any diamond with color between grades D-J cannot be detected to the untrained naked eye. All diamonds have inclusions unless they have the clarity grade IF (internally flawless). That is the most valuable and rarest. Generally, flaws cannot be detected by the naked eye in any diamonds with the grades VVS1-SI2. A good way to remember it is that you can see flaws with your naked eye in diamonds with clarity I1-I3. Cut affects the brilliance or sparkle of a diamond. It can make a stone appear brighter or darker. Carat is a measure of weight. Not to be confused with karat. Karat is the purity of gold. Diamonds are weighed on a precise scale to determine the carat. When selecting a diamond, you need to decide what qualities are important to you and your significant other. Why Choose The Jewelry Gallery of Oyster Bay. All of our diamond engagement rings come with an independent third party appraisal from either GIA, IGI or EGL, some of the most respected grading companies in the world. We have a large selection of gorgeous settings for you to choose from in stock in our store. We carry modern halo settings, vintage, platinum, gold, simple and ornate! We have various catalogues in the event you would like an even larger selection! And you always have the option of creating a custom piece. Please note, for retail purposes our diamonds are displayed in settings. We often re-set and sell our diamonds in a setting of your choice. If the setting is similar in value, the price will remain relatively the same. Depending on the setting of your choice the price may vary (more or less). Do not be deterred if you find the diamond of your dreams but it is not in the setting of your choice. If you can dream it, we can create it! Here at The Jewelry Gallery of Oyster Bay we are more than happy to work with clients on custom designing any piece. This is always a nice option to have for future anniversaries, vow renewals, and other special occasions! We will notify you of any work that should be completed to maintain your perfect piece. FREE STEAMING FOR LIFE. Diamond costs increase the further down the distribution chain they go. High street retailers can add around 300-900% mark-up on prices to cover overheads and profits. We have a relaxed layaway program! We at The Jewelry Gallery of Oyster Bay are dedicated to doing everything we can to keep our customers 100% satisfied. We are here for you for everything you need. Gemological Institute of America. The item “Ring with Bronze Ancient Roman Coin and. 8 CTW Diamonds 14kt Yellow Gold” is in sale since Tuesday, July 25, 2017. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Fine Jewelry\Fine Rings\Diamond”. The seller is “thejewelrygalleryob” and is located in Oyster Bay, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Metal: Yellow Gold
  • Metal Purity: 14k