Augustus & Julius Caesar 27BC Authentic Ancient Roman Republic Coin i33461

Augustus & Julius Caesar 27BC Authentic Ancient Roman Republic Coin i33461

Augustus & Julius Caesar 27BC Authentic Ancient Roman Republic Coin i33461

Item: i33461 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Augustus – Roman Emperor: 27 B. Augustus & Julius Caesar Bronze 20mm (6.80 grams) from the ancient Greek city of Thessalonica circa 27BC – 14 A. Reference: RPC 1555; Moushmov 6659, BMC 58, SGI 151 E, laureate head of Julius Caesar right. EAONIKEN, bare head of Augustus right. Numismatic Note: This coin was struck during the reign of Augustus 27BC-14 A. After the death of Julius Caesar, to honor his adoptive father. Very rare and highly-coveted authentic ancient Roman coin. Gaius Julius Caesar July 100 BC 15 March 44 BC was a Roman general , statesman , Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate , among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar’s conquest of Gaul , completed by 51 BC, extended Rome’s territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion , leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Ides of March Julian calendar (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar’s adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus , rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Early life and career. Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia , which claimed descent from Iulus , son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas , supposedly the son of the goddess Venus. The cognomen “Caesar” originated, according to Pliny the Elder , with an ancestor who was born by caesarean section (from the Latin verb to cut, caedere , caes-). The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations : that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair (Latin caesaries); that he had bright grey eyes (Latin oculis caesiis); or that he killed an elephant (caesai in Moorish) in battle. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar’s father, also called Gaius Julius Caesar , governed the province of Juliaa Asia , Caesar’s aunt, married Aurelia Cottaa Gaius Marius. N 85 BC, Caesar’s father died suddenly, so at sixteen Caesar was the head of the family. His coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle, Gaius Marius, and his rival. Both sides, whenever they were in the ascendancy, carried out bloody purges of their political opponents. While Marius and his ally, Lucius Cornelius Cinna , were i n control of the city, Caesar was nominated to be the new Co high priest of Jupiter rneliaaa Vestal Virginsns. Gaius Marius, Caesar’s uncle. Caesar left Rome and joined the army, where he won the Civic Crown for his part in an important siege. On a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes’s fleet, he spent so long at his court that rumors of an affair with the king arose, which Caesar would vehemently deny for the rest of his life. Ironically, the loss of his priesthood had allowed him to pursue a military career, as the high priest of Jupiter was not permitted to touch a horse, sleep three nights outside his own bed or one night outside Rome, or look upon an army. Hearing of Sulla’s death in 78 BC, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. Lacking means since his inheritance was confiscated, he acquired a modest house in extortionion Subura and corruption. On the way across the. Aegean Sea<, Caesar was kidnapped by. Piratestes< and held prisoner. He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. When the pirates thought to demand a ransom of twenty. Talentsnts< of silver, he insisted they ask for fifty. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. He had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivitya promise the pirates had taken as a joke. As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of. Auxiliariesies< to repel an incursion from the east. On his return to Rome, he was elected military ry. Quaestor for 69 BC. And during that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia , and included images of her husband Marius, unseen since the days of Sulla, in the funeral procession. His wife, Cornelia, also died that year. After her funeral, in the spring or early summer of 69 BC, Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Spain. While there he is said to have encountered a statue of Alexander the Great , and realized with dissatisfaction he was now at an age when Alexander had the world at his feet, while he had achieved comparatively little. On his return in 67 BC. In 63 BC, he ran for election to the post of Pontifex Maximus , chief priest of the Roman state religion. He ran against two powerful senators. There were accusations of bribery by all sides. Caesar won comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing. When Cicero , who was consul that year, exposed Catiline. After his praetorship, Caesar was appointed to govern Spain , but he was still in considerable debt and needed to satisfy his creditors before he could leave. He turned to Marcus Licinius Crassus , one of Rome's richest men. In return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey , Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others. Even so, to avoid becoming a private citizen and thus be open to prosecution for his debts, Caesar left for his province before his praetorship had ended. In Spain, he conquered two local tribes and was hailed as imperatortor by his troops, reformed the law regarding debts, and completed his governorship in high esteem. As >As imperator, Caesar was entitled to a triumph. However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen. He could not do both in the time available. He asked the senate for permission to stand in absentia, but Cato blocked the proposal. Faced with the choice between a triumph and the consulship, Caesar chose the consulship. Consulship and military campaignsigns. In 60 BC, Caesar sought election as consul for 59 BC, along with two other candidates. The election was sordid even Cato, with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favor of one of Caesar’s opponents. Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus. Caesar was already in Crassus’ political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey. Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate (“rule of three men”), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter Julia Calpurnia , who was the daughter of another powerful senator. Caesar proposed a law for the redistribution of public lands to the poor, a proposal supported by Pompey, by force of arms if need be, and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate’s opponents. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavorable and thus void the new law, but was driven from the forum by Caesar’s armed supporters. His bodyguardsards had their ceremonial axes broken, two high magistrates accompanying him were wounded, and he had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts to obstruct Caesar’s legislation proved ineffective. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as the consulship of Julius and Caesar. When Caesar was first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit his future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than the the governorship of a province, as his military command duty after his year in office was over. With the help of political allies, Caesar later overturned this, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine GaulGaul (northern Italy) and Illyricum (southeastern Europe), with Transalpine Gaul (southern France) later added, giving him command of four legions. The term of his governorship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the usual one. When his consulship ended, Caesar narrowly avoided prosecution for the irregularities of his year in office, and quickly left for his province. Or by military adventurism. Caesar had four legions under his command, two of his provinces bordered on unconquered territory, and parts of Gaul were known to be unstable. Some of Rome’s Gallic allies had been defeated by their rivals at the Battle of Magetobriga , with the help of a contingent of of Germanic tribes. The Romans feared these tribes were preparing to migrate south, closer to Italy, and that they had warlike intent. Caesar raised two new legions and defeated these tribes. In response to Caesar’s earlier activities, the tribes in the north-east began to arm themselves. Caesar treated this as an aggressive move and, after an inconclusive engagement against the united tribes, he conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one of his legions began the conquest of the tribes in the far north (directly opposite ite Britain). During the spring of 56 BC, the Triumvirs held a conference, as Rome was in turmoil and Caesar’s political alliance was coming undone. The Lucca Conference renewed the the First Triumvirate and extended Caesar’s governorship for another five years. The conquest of the north was soon completed, while a few pockets of resistance remained. Caesar now had a secure base from which to launch an invasion of Britain. The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar’s conquests. In 55 BC, Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed it up by building a bridge across the Rhine and making a show of force in Germanic territory, before returning and dismantling the bridge. Late that summer, having subdued two other tribes, he crossed into Britain, claiming that the Britons had aided one of his enemies the previous year possibly the Veneti of of Brittany<. While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to re-secure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece in marriage, but Pompey declined. In 53 BC BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of the east. Rome was on the edge of civil war. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married the daughter of a political opponent of Caesar. The Triumvirate was dead. In 52 BC another, larger revolt erupted in Gaul, led by Vercingetorix. Vercingetorix managed to unite the Gallic tribes and proved an astute commander, defeating Caesar in several engagements, but Caesar's elaborate siege-works at the Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender. Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year. Gaul was effectively conquered. Plutarch claimed that the army had fought against three million men during the Gallic Wars , of whom one million died, and another million were enslaved<. The Romans subjugated 300 tribes and destroyed 800 cities. However, in view of the difficulty in finding accurate counts in the first place, Caesar's propagandistic purposes, and the common exaggeration of numbers in ancient texts, the stated totals of enemy combatants are likely to be too high. In 50 BC, the Senate , led by Pompey<, ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished. Caesar thought he would be prosecuted if he entered Rome without the immunity enjoyed by a magistrate. Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. In January 49 BC, Caesar crossed the Rubiconcon river (the frontier boundary of Italy) with only one legion and ignited civil war. Upon crossing the Rubicon , Caesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander , in Greek, " the die is cast<". Erasmusmus , however, notes that the more accurate translation of the Greek imperative mood would be "alea icta esto" let< the die be cast. Pompey and much of the Senate fled to the south, having little confidence in his newly raised troops. Despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, Pompey did not intend to fight. Caesar pursued Pompey, hoping to capture him before his legions could escape. Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could capture him. Heading for or Spain , Caesar left Italy under the control of Mark Antony. In an exceedingly short engagement later that year, he decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus<. A bust of of Cleopatra VII. In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator<, with Mark rk Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in command); Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after eleven days, resigned this dictatorship. Caesar then became involved with an Egyptian civil war between the child pharaoh and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, en, Cleopatra. Perhaps as a result of the pharaoh's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra. He withstood the Siege of Alexandria and later he defeated the pharaoh's forces at the Battle of the Nile in 47 BC and installed Cleopatra as ruler. Caesar and Cleopatra celebrated their victory with a triumphal procession on the Nile in the spring of 47 BC. The royal barge was accompanied by 400 additional ships, and Caesar was introduced to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs. Caesar and Cleopatra never married, as Roman law recognized marriages only between two Roman citizens. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage, which lasted fourteen years in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery and may have fathered a son called led Caesarion. Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber. Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed Dictator, with a term of one year. After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontusntus; his victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies. On his way to Pontus, Caesar visited from 27 to 29 May 47 BC, 2527 May greggreg. Tarsus , where he met enthusiastic support, but where, according to Cicero , Cassius was planning to kill him at this point. Thence, he proceeded to Africa to deal with the remnants of Pompey's senatorial supporters. He quickly gained a significant victory in 46 BC over Cato, who then committed suicide. After this victory, he was appointed Dictator for ten years. Pompey's sons escaped to Spain; Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of of Munda in March 45 BC. During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC and 45 BC (this last time without a colleague). WWhile he was still campaigning in Spain, the Senate began bestowing honors on Caesar. Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him. Great games and celebrations were held in April to honor Caesars victory at Munda. Plutarch writes that many Romans found the triumph held following Caesar's victory to be in poor taste, as those defeated in the civil war had not been foreigners, but instead fellow Romans. On Caesar's return to Italy in September 45 BC, he filed his will, naming his grandnephew Gaius Octavius (Octavian) as his principal heir, leaving his vast estate and property including his name. Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Marcus Junius Brutus would be the next heir in succession. In his will he also left a substantial gift to the citizens of Rome. During his early career, Caesar had seen how chaotic and dysfunctional the Roman Republic had become. The republican machinery had broken down under the weight of imperialism , the central government had become powerless, the provinces had been transformed into independent principalities under the absolute control of their governors, and the army had replaced the constitution as the means of accomplishing political goals. With a weak central government, political corruption had spiraled out of control, and the status quo had been maintained by a corrupt aristocracy, which saw no need to change a system that had made its members rich. Between his crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, and his assassination< in 44 BC, Caesar established a new constitution, which was intended to accomplish three separate goals. First, he wanted to suppress all armed resistance out in the provinces, and thus bring order back to the empire. Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. Finally, he wanted to knit together the entire empire into a single cohesive unit. The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters. To accomplish the other two goals, he needed to ensure that his control over the government was undisputed, and so he assumed these powers by increasing his own authority, and by decreasing the authority of Rome's other political institutions. Finally, he enacted a series of reforms that were meant to address several long neglected issues, the most important of which was his reform of the calendar. Not everything went Caesar's way. When Arsinoe IV , Egypt's former queen, was paraded in chains, the spectators admired her dignified bearing and were moved to pity. Triumphal games were held, with beast-hunts involving 400 lions, and gladiator contests. A naval battle was held on a flooded basin at the Field of Mars<. At the Circus us Maximus<, two armies of war captives, each of 2,000 people, 200 horse and 20 elephants, fought to the death. Again, some bystanders complained, this time at Caesar's wasteful extravagance. A riot broke out, and only stopped when Caesar had two rioters sacrificed by the priests on the Field of Mars. After the triumph, Caesar set forth to passing an ambitious legislative agenda. He ordered a census be taken, which forced a reduction in the grain dole, and that jurors could only come from the Senate or the equestrian ranks. After this, he passed a law that rewarded families for having many children, to speed up the repopulation of Italy. Then he outlawed professional guilds, except those of ancient foundation, since many of these were subversive political clubs. He then passed a term limit law applicable to governors. He passed a debt restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed. The he Forum of Caesar<, with its Temple of Venus Genetrix , was then built, among many other public works. From 47 to 44 BC he made plans for the distribution of land to about 15,000 of his veterans. The most important change, however, was his reform of the calendar. The calendar at the time was regulated by the movement of the moon, and this had resulted in a great deal of disorder. Caesar replaced this calendar with the Egyptian calendar, which was regulated by the sun. He set the length of the year to 365.25 days by adding an an intercalary/leap day< at the end of February every fourth year. To bring the calendar into alignment with the seasons, he decreed that three extra months be inserted into 46 BC (the ordinary intercalary month at the end of February, and two extra months after November). Thus, the he Julian calendar< opened on 1 January 45 BC. This calendar is almost identical to the current Western calendardar. Shortly before his assassination, he passed a few more reforms. He established a police force, appointed officials to carry out his land reforms, and ordered the rebuilding of Carthageage and Corinth. His assassination prevented further and larger schemes, which included the construction of an unprecedented temple to Mars, a huge theater, and a library on the scale of the Library of Alexandria<. He also wanted to convert rt Ostia to a major port, and cut a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth. Militarily, he wanted to conquer the Dacians , Parthians , and avenge the loss at Carrhae. Thus, he instituted a massive mobilization. Shortly before his assassination, the Senate named him censor for life and Father of the Fatherland, and the month of Quintilis< was renamed July in his honor. He was granted further honors, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch; coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular ar cult , with Mark Antony< as his high priest. The history of Caesar's political appointments is complex and uncertain. Caesar held both the dictatorship and the tribunate , but alternated between the consulship< and the Proconsulship. His powers within the state seem to have rested upon these magistracies. He was first appointed dictator in 49 BC possibly to preside over elections, but resigned his dictatorship within eleven days. In 48 BC, he was re-appointed dictator, only this time for an indefinite period, and in 46 BC, he was appointed dictator for ten years. In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed dictator for life. Under Caesar, a significant amount of authority was vested in his lieutenants, mostly because Caesar was frequently out of Italy. In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers, which made his person sacrosanct and allowed him to veto the Senate, although on at least one occasion, tribunes did attempt to obstruct him. The offending tribunes in this case were brought before the Senate and divested of their office. This was not the first time that Caesar had violated a tribune's sacrosanctity. After he had first marched on Rome in 49 BC, he forcibly opened the treasury although a tribune had the seal placed on it. After the impeachment of the two obstructive tribunes, Caesar, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the Tribunician College. In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title of "Prefect of the Morals", which was an office that was new only in name, as its powers were identical to those of the he censors<. Thus, he could hold censorial powers, while technically not subjecting himself to the same checks that the ordinary censors were subject to, and he used these powers to fill the Senate with his own partisans. He also set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honors upon him. He was, for example, given the title of "Father of the Fatherland" and " imperatortor <". Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during senate meetings. Caesar then increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, which created a large pool of experienced magistrates, and allowed Caesar to reward his supporters. Caesar even took steps to transform Italy into a province, and to link more tightly the other provinces of the empire into a single cohesive unit. This addressed the underlying problem that had caused the he Social War decades earlier, where individuals outside Rome and Italy were not considered "Roman", and thus were not given full citizenship rights. This process, of fusing the entire Roman Empire into a single unit, rather than maintaining it as a network of unequal principalities, would ultimately be completed by Caesar's successor, the emperor Augustus. All the appointments were of his own partisans, which robbed the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and made the Senate increasingly subservient to him. To minimize the risk that another general might attempt to challenge him, Caesar passed a law that subjected governors to term limits. Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the he Parthian Empire<. Since his absence from Rome might limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. On the Ides of March (15 March; see Roman calendar) of 44 BC, Caesar was due to appear at a session of the Senate. Mark Antony , having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified Liberator named Servilius Casca , and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off. The plotters, however, had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of Theatre of Pompey , where the session was to be held, and detain him outside. (Plutarch, however, assigns this action to delay Antony to Brutus Albinus<). When he heard the commotion from the senate chamber, Antony fled. According to to Plutarch , as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic. Caesar then cried to Cimber, Why, this is violence! " "Ista quidem vis est! The he senators< encircle Caesar. A 19th century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty. At the same time, Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, Casca, you villain, what are you doing? " Casca, frightened, shouted, "Help, brother! Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius , around 60 or more men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase. " transliterated as "Kai ai su, teknon? <": "You too, child? However, for himself, Suetonius says Caesar said nothing. Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase Et tu, Brute? <" "And you, Brutus? ", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus? ";this derives from Shakespeare's Julius Caesarsar , where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? < Then fall, Caesar. It has no basis in historical fact and Shakespeare's use of Latin here is not from any assertion that Caesar would have been using the language, rather than the Greek reported by Suetonius, but because the phrase was already popular when the play was written. According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building. Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: People of Rome, we are once again free! They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumor of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it. Caesar's body was cremated, and on the site of his cremation the he Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum<). Nowadays, only its altar remains. A lifesize wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had gathered there started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighboring buildings. In the ensuing chaos Mark Antony , >, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar) , and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would end in the formation of the Roman Empire. Aftermath of the assassination. The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar’s death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The Roman middle and lower classes<, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates , perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavian his sole heir, bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the Liberators' civil war , fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position. To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia< on 27 November 43 BC, the Second Triumvirateate< was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. It formally deifiedied Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius< ("Son of a god"). Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of of proscription , abandoned since Sulla. It engaged in the legally sanctioned murder of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its forty-five legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. Antony and Octavius defeated them at Philippiippi. Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus , Caesar's adopted heir. Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium ,, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name that raised him to the status of a deity. Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia , the Caucasus and Scythia , and then march back to Germania. See also: Divus Julius and Caesar's Comet. Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title Divus Iulius or Divus Julius (the divine Julius or the deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. The appearance of a comet during games in his honour was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honors during his lifetime. And shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his flamen (priest). Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. After the death of Antony, Octavian , as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (son of a god). Health and physical appearance. Based on remarks by Plutarch, Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsyepsy.. Modern scholarship is "sharply divided" on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s. Despite the commonly held belief that Caesar suffered from epilepsy, several specialists in headache medicine believe that a more accurate diagnosis would be migraine headache. Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a parasitic infection in the brainain< by a tapeworm. Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had ad absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia ,, which can cause epileptoid seizures. In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsypsy< and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination. A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: r: Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf<. No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defense. The Roman historian an Suetonius describes Caesar as tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes. Using the Latin alphabet as it existed in the day of Caesar i. Without lower case letters, "J", or "U", Caesar's name would be rendered "GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR"; the form "CAIVS" is also attested, using the old Roman representation of G by C; it is an antique form of the more common "GAIVS". The standard abbreviation was, and this is not archaic, C. The letterform "Æ" is a ligature , which is often encountered in Latin inscriptions where it was used to save space, and is nothing more than the letters "ae". In Classical Latin, it was pronounced. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek , during Caesar's time, his family name was written , reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser. In Vulgar Latin , the plosive /k/ before front vowels< began, due to palatalization , to be pronounced as an affricate hence renderings like. In German regional pronunciations of Latin , as well as the title of Tsar. With the evolution of the Romance languages , the affricate [ts] became a fricative [s] thus. In many regional pronunciations, including the French one, from which the modern English pronunciation is derived. The original /k/ is preserved in Norse mythology , where he is manifested as the legendary king Kjárr. Caesar's's cognomen would itself become a title; it was greatly promulgated by the Bible, by the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became the German Kaiser and Slavic Tsar /Czar. The last tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria whose reign ended in 1946; for two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name. Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder. Mother Aurelia (related to the Aurelii Cottae). Julia Caesaris "Major" (the elder). Julia Caesaris "Minor" (the younger). First marriage to Cornelia Cinnilla , from 83 BC until her death in childbirth in 69 or 68 BC. Second marriage to Pompeia , from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC. Third marriage to Calpurnia Pisonis , from 59 BC until Caesar's death. Julia with Cornelia Cinnilla, born in 83 or 82 BC. Caesarion , with Cleopatra VII <, born 47 BC. He was killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus. Adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood, who later became Emperor Augustus. Marcus Junius Brutus : The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. Grandson from Julia and Pompey , dead at several days, unnamed. < mother of Cleopatra VII Caesarion. Servilia Caepionis mother of Brutus. Eunoë, queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes. Gaius Marius (married to his Aunt Julia). Julius us Sabinus , a Gaul of the Lingones at the time of the Batavian rebellion < of AD 69, claimed to be the great-grandson of Caesar on the grounds that his great-grandmother had been Caesar's lover during the Gallic war. Roman society viewed the passive role during <, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar. According to Cicero, sexual activity Bibulus , >, Gaius Memmius , and others (mainly Caesar’s enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The tales were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. It is very likely that the rumors were spread only as a form of character assassination; Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio , even under oath on one occasion. This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. A favorite tactic used by the opposition was to accuse a popular political rival as living a Hellenistic lifestyle based on Greek and Eastern culture, where homosexuality and a lavish lifestyle were more acceptable than in Roman tradition. Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra < were lovers, but later apologised. Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor. During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latineven Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived. A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato , a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources. The Commentarii de Bello Gallico , usually known in English as The Gallic Wars, seven books each covering one year of his campaigns in Gaul and southern Britain in the 50s BC, with the eighth book written by Aulus Hirtius on the last two years. Commentarii de Bello Civili > (The Civil War), events of the Civil War from Caesar’s perspective, until immediately after Pompey’s death in Egypt. Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt. De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria. De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa; and. De Bello Hispaniensi > (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula. These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of dispatches from the front. They were important in shaping Caesar’s public image and enhancing his reputation when he was away from Rome for long periods. They may have been presented as public readings. As a model of clear and direct Latin style, The Gallic Warsars traditionally has been studied by first- or second-year Latin students. Chronology of his life. The statue known as the. Augustus of Prima Porta , 1st century. 16 January 27 BC 19 August AD 14. Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Divi Filius Augustus. 23 September 63 BC. 19 August AD 14 (aged 75). Tiberius , stepson by 3rd wife. (4038 BC) Livia Drusilla. (37 BC 14 AD). Julia the Elder Gaius Caesar. And the fall of the. Assassination of Julius Caesar. Theatre of Pompey , Cicero. Imperator Caesar Divi F. 23 September 63 BC 19 August 14 AD was the founder of the. Emperor , ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. Born into an old, wealthy. Family, in 44 BC Augustus was. By his maternal great-uncle. Following Caesar’s assassination. Marcus Lepidus , he formed the. To defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at. Phillipi , the Triumvirate divided the. Among themselves and ruled as. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the. By Augustus in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the. Executive magistrates , and the. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including. Supreme military command , and those of. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself. Constitutional framework became known as the. Principate , the first phase of the. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the. Despite continuous wars or imperial expansion on the Empire’s frontiers and one. Over the imperial succession, the Mediterranean world remained at peace for more than two centuries. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing. Raetia , expanded possessions in. Germania , and completed the conquest of. Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of. Client states , and made peace with the. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed. Courier system, established a standing army, established the. Praetorian Guard , created official. For Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in 14 AD at the age of 75. He may have died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law), Tiberius. Throughout his life, the man historians refer to as. Was known by many names. At birth he was named. Historians typically refer to him simply as. (or Octavian) between his birth in 63 until his posthumous adoption by. Upon his adoption by Caesar, he took Caesar’s name and become. Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. Roman adoption naming standards. Though he quickly dropped “Octavianus” from his name and his contemporaries referred to him as “Caesar” during this period, historians refer to him as. Between 44 BC and 27 BC. As part of his actions to strengthen his political ties to Caesar’s former soldiers, in 42 BC, following the. Of Caesar, Octavian added. (Son of the Divine) to his name, becoming. Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius. In 38 BC, Octavian replaced his. Title by which troops hailed their leader after military success , officially becoming. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius. In 27 BC, following his defeat of. Voted new titles for him, officially becoming. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus. It is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of. Augustus , which historians use in reference from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. Early life of Augustus. While his paternal family was from the town of. Velletri , approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC. He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the. Palatine Hill , very close to the. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus , his. Possibly commemorating his father’s victory at. Over a rebellious band of slaves. Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father’s home village at. Octavius only mentions his father’s. Family briefly in his memoirs. His paternal great-grandfather was a military tribune in. His grandfather had served in several local political offices. His father, also named Gaius Octavius , had been governor of. Atia , was the niece of. In 59 BC, when he was four years old, his father died. His mother married a former governor of Syria. Philippus claimed descent from. Alexander the Great , and was elected. Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius. Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother (and Julius Caesar’s sister). In 52 or 51 BC, Julia Caesaris died. Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother. From this point, his mother and stepfather took a more active role in raising him. And was elected to the. The following year he was put in charge of the. That were staged in honor of the. Temple of Venus Genetrix , built by Julius Caesar. Nicolaus of Damascus , Octavius wished to join Caesar’s staff for his campaign in. Africa , but gave way when his mother protested. In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in. Hispania , where he planned to fight the forces of. Pompey , Caesar’s late enemy, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel. When he had recovered, he sailed to the front, but was shipwrecked; after coming ashore with a handful of companions, he crossed hostile territory to Caesar’s camp, which impressed his great-uncle considerably. Reports that after that time, Caesar allowed the young man to share his carriage. When back in Rome, Caesar deposited a new will with the. Vestal Virgins , naming Octavius as the prime beneficiary. The Death of Caesar , by. On 15 March 44 BC, Octavius’s adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by. (15 March) 44 BC, Octavius was studying and undergoing military training in. Rejecting the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in. Macedonia , he sailed to. To ascertain whether he had any potential political fortunes or security. After landing at Lupiae near. Brundisium , he learned the contents of Caesar’s will, and only then did he decide to become Caesar’s political heir as well as heir to two-thirds of his estate. Having no living legitimate children. Caesar had adopted his great-nephew Octavius as his son and main heir. Adoption , Octavius assumed his great-uncle’s name. Although Romans who had been adopted into a new family usually retained their old. For one who had been an Octavius. For one who had been an Aemilius, etc. There is no evidence that he ever bore the name Octavianus , as it would have made his modest origins too obvious. Despite the fact that he never officially bore the name. Octavianus , however, to save confusing the dead dictator with his heir, historians often refer to the new Caesarbetween his adoption and his assumption, in 27 BC, of the name Augustusas. Later charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favours, though. Suetonius , in his work. Lives of the Twelve Caesars , describes Antony’s accusation as political slander. To make a successful entry into the upper echelons of the Roman political hierarchy, Octavian could not rely on his limited funds. After a warm welcome by Caesar’s soldiers at Brundisium. Octavian demanded a portion of the funds that were allotted by Caesar for the intended war against. In the Middle East. This amounted to 700 million. Stored at Brundisium, the staging ground in Italy for military operations in the east. Octavian made another bold move in 44 BC when without official permission he appropriated the annual tribute that had been sent from Rome’s. Octavian began to bolster his personal forces with Caesar’s veteran legionaries and with troops designated for the Parthian war, gathering support by emphasizing his status as heir to Caesar. On his march to Rome through Italy, Octavian’s presence and newly acquired funds attracted many, winning over Caesar’s former veterans stationed in. By June he had gathered an army of 3,000 loyal veterans, paying each a salary of 500. A statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated ca. Arriving in Rome on 6 May 44 BC. Octavian found the consul. Mark Antony , Caesar’s former colleague, in an uneasy truce with the dictator’s assassins; they had been granted a general amnesty on 17 March, yet Antony succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome. This was due to his “inflammatory” eulogy given at Caesar’s funeral, mounting public opinion against the assassins. Although Mark Antony was amassing political support, Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar. Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he, at first, opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status. During the summer he managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers, however, who saw the younger heir as the lesser evil and hoped to manipulate him, or to bear with him during their efforts to get rid of Antonius. Began to attack Antony in a. Portraying Antony as the greatest threat to the order of the Senate. With opinion in Rome turning against him and his year of consular power nearing its end, Antony attempted to pass laws which would lend him control over. Cisalpine Gaul , which had been assigned as part of his province, from. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus , one of Caesar’s assassins. Octavian meanwhile built up a private army in Italy by recruiting Caesarian veterans, and on 28 November won over two of Antony’s legions with the enticing offer of monetary gain. In the face of Octavian’s large and capable force, Antony saw the danger of staying in Rome, and to the relief of the Senate, he fled to Cisalpine Gaul, which was to be handed to him on 1 January. First conflict with Antony. Bust of Augustus in. After Decimus Brutus refused to give up. Cisalpine Gaul , Antony besieged him at. The resolutions passed by the Senate to stop the violence were rejected by Antony, as the Senate had no army of its own to challenge him; this provided an opportunity for Octavian, who already was known to have armed forces. Cicero also defended Octavian against Antony’s taunts about Octavian’s lack of noble lineage; he stated we have no more brilliant example of traditional piety among our youth. This was in part a rebuttal to Antony’s opinion of Octavian, as Cicero quoted Antony saying to Octavian, You, boy, owe everything to your name. In this unlikely alliance orchestrated by the arch anti-Caesarian senator Cicero, the Senate inducted Octavian as senator on 1 January 43 BC, yet he also was given the power to vote alongside the former consuls. In addition, Octavian was granted. (commanding power), which made his command of troops legal, sending him to relieve the siege along with. (the consuls for 43 BC). In April 43 BC, Antony’s forces were defeated at the battles of. Mutina , forcing Antony to retreat to. Both consuls were killed, however, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies. After heaping many more rewards on Decimus Brutus than on Octavian for defeating Antony, the Senate attempted to give command of the consular legions to Decimus Brutus, yet Octavian decided not to cooperate. Instead, Octavian stayed in the. And refused to aid any further offensive against Antony. In July, an embassy of. Sent by Octavian entered Rome and demanded that he receive the consulship left vacant by Hirtius and Pansa. Octavian also demanded that the decree declaring Antony a public enemy should be rescinded. When this was refused, he marched on the city with eight legions. He encountered no military opposition in Rome, and on 19 August 43 BC was elected consul with his relative. Meanwhile, Antony formed an alliance with. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus , another leading Caesarian. Final War of the Roman Republic. Anthony and Cleopatra , by. Meanwhile, Antony’s campaign against Parthia turned disastrous, tarnishing his image as a leader, and the mere 2,000 legionaries sent by Octavian to Antony were hardly enough to replenish his forces. On the other hand, Cleopatra could restore his army to full strength, and since he already was engaged in a romantic affair with her, he decided to send Octavia back to Rome. Octavian used this to spread. Implying that Antony was becoming less than Roman because he rejected a legitimate Roman spouse for an Oriental. In 36 BC, Octavian used a political ploy to make himself look less autocratic and Antony more the villain by proclaiming that the civil wars were coming to an end, and that he would step down as triumvir, if only Antony would do the same; Antony refused. After Roman troops captured the. In 34 BC, Antony made his son Alexander Helios the ruler of Armenia; he also awarded the title “Queen of Kings” to Cleopatra, acts which Octavian used to convince the Roman Senate that Antony had ambitions to diminish the preeminence of Rome. When Octavian became consul once again on 1 January 33 BC, he opened the following session in the Senate with a vehement attack on Antony’s grants of titles and territories to his relatives and to his queen. Defecting consuls and senators rushed over to the side of Antony in disbelief of the propaganda (which turned out to be true), yet so did able ministers desert Antony for Octavian in the autumn of 32 BC. These defectors, Munatius Plancus and Marcus Titius, gave Octavian the information he needed to confirm with the Senate all the accusations he made against Antony. By storming the sanctuary of the Vestal Virgins, Octavian forced their chief priestess to hand over Antony’s secret will, which would have given away Roman-conquered territories as kingdoms for his sons to rule, alongside plans to build a tomb in Alexandria. For him and his queen to reside upon their deaths. In late 32 BC, the Senate officially revoked Antony’s powers as consul and declared war on Cleopatra’s regime in Egypt. Battle of Actium , by Lorenzo Castro, painted 1672, National Maritime Museum, London. In early 31 BC, while Antony and Cleopatra were temporarily stationed in Greece, Octavian gained a preliminary victory when the navy under the command of Agrippa successfully ferried troops across the. While Agrippa cut off Antony and Cleopatra’s main force from their supply routes at sea, Octavian landed on the mainland opposite the island of Corcyra modern. Corfu and marched south. Trapped on land and sea, deserters of Antony’s army fled to Octavian’s side daily while Octavian’s forces were comfortable enough to make preparations. In a desperate attempt to break free of the. Naval blockade , Antony’s fleet sailed through the bay of. On the western coast of Greece. It was there that Antony’s fleet faced the much larger fleet of smaller, more maneuverable ships under commanders Agrippa and. On 2 September 31 BC. Antony and his remaining forces were spared only due to a last-ditch effort by Cleopatra’s fleet that had been waiting nearby. Octavian pursued them, and after another defeat in Alexandria on 1 August 30 BC, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide; Antony fell on his own sword and was taken by his soldiers back to Alexandria where he died in Cleopatra’s arms. Cleopatra died soon after, reputedly by the venomous bite of an. Having exploited his position as Caesar’s heir to further his own political career, Octavian was only too well aware of the dangers in allowing another to do so and, reportedly commenting that “two Caesars are one too many”, he ordered. Caesarion Julius Caesar’s son by Cleopatrato be killed, whilst sparing Cleopatra’s children by Antony, with the exception of Antony’s. Octavian had previously shown little mercy to military combatants and acted in ways that had proven unpopular with the Roman people, yet he was given credit for pardoning many of his opponents after the Battle of Actium. Constitutional Reforms of Augustus. Of Octavian, circa 30 BC. After Actium and the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian was in a position to rule the entire Republic under an unofficial. But would have to achieve this through incremental power gains, courting the Senate and the people, while upholding the republican traditions of Rome, to appear that he was not aspiring to dictatorship or monarchy. Marching into Rome, Octavian and. Were elected as dual. Years of civil war had left Rome in a state of near lawlessness, but the Republic was not prepared to accept the control of Octavian as a despot. At the same time, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars amongst the Roman generals, and even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the city of Rome and the. Octavian’s aims from this point forward were to return Rome to a state of stability, traditional legality and civility by lifting the overt political pressure imposed on the courts of law and ensuring free elections in name at least. Augustus in popular culture. Laureate bust of Augustus. Augustus’ reign laid the foundations of a regime that lasted for nearly fifteen hundred years through the ultimate. Decline of the Western Roman Empire. Both his adoptive surname, Caesar, and his title. Became the permanent titles of the rulers of. For fourteen centuries after his death, in use both at. Became the word for. Emperor , as in the German. And in the Bulgarian and subsequently Russian. Continued until the state religion of the Empire was changed to. Consequently, there are many excellent statues and busts of the first emperor. He had composed an account of his achievements, the. Res Gestae Divi Augusti , to be inscribed in bronze in front of. Copies of the text were inscribed throughout the Empire upon his death. The inscriptions in Latin featured translations in Greek beside it, and were inscribed on many public edifices, such as the temple in. Monumentum Ancyranum , called the “queen of inscriptions” by historian. There are a few known written works by Augustus that have survived. This includes his poems. Ajax , an autobiography of 13 books, a philosophical treatise, and his written rebuttal to Brutus. However, historians are able to analyze existing letters penned by Augustus to others for additional facts or clues about his personal life. Many consider Augustus to be Rome’s greatest emperor; his policies certainly extended the Empire’s life span and initiated the celebrated. The Roman Senate wished subsequent emperors to ” be more fortunate than Augustus and better than Trajan “. Augustus was intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as. Julius Caesar , and was influenced on occasion by his third wife, Livia (sometimes for the worse). Nevertheless, his legacy proved more enduring. The city of Rome was utterly transformed under Augustus, with Rome’s first institutionalized. Force, and the establishment of the municipal. As a permanent office. The police force was divided into cohorts of 500 men each, while the units of firemen ranged from 500 to 1,000 men each, with 7 units assigned to 14 divided city sectors. Praefectus vigilum , or “Prefect of the Watch” was put in charge of the. Vigiles , Rome’s fire brigade and police. With Rome’s civil wars at an end, Augustus was also able to create a. For the Roman Empire, fixed at a size of 28 legions of about 170,000 soldiers. This was supported by numerous. Units of 500 soldiers each, often recruited from recently conquered areas. With his finances securing the maintenance of roads throughout Italy, Augustus also installed an official. System of relay stations overseen by a military officer known as the. Besides the advent of swifter communication amongst Italian polities, his extensive building of roads throughout Italy also allowed Rome’s armies to march swiftly and at an unprecedented pace across the country. In the year 6 Augustus established the. Aerarium militare , donating 170 million sesterces to the new military treasury that provided for both active and retired soldiers. One of the most enduring institutions of Augustus was the establishment of the. In 27 BC, originally a personal bodyguard unit on the battlefield that evolved into an imperial guard as well as an important political force in Rome. They had the power to intimidate the Senate, install new emperors, and depose ones they disliked; the last emperor they served was. Maxentius , as it was. Who disbanded them in the early 4th century and destroyed their barracks, the. Augustus in an Egyptian-style depiction, a stone carving of the Kalabsha Temple. Although the most powerful individual in the Roman Empire, Augustus wished to embody the spirit of Republican virtue and norms. He also wanted to relate to and connect with the concerns of the plebs and lay people. He achieved this through various means of generosity and a cutting back of lavish excess. In the year 29 BC, Augustus paid 400. Each to 250,000 citizens, 1,000 sesterces each to 120,000 veterans in the colonies, and spent 700 million sesterces in purchasing land for his soldiers to settle upon. He also restored 82 different temples to display his care for the. In 28 BC, he melted down 80 silver statues erected in his likeness and in honor of him, an attempt of his to appear frugal and modest. The longevity of Augustus’ reign and its legacy to the Roman world should not be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Wrote, the younger generations alive in AD 14 had never known any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters might have turned out differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican oligarchy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a. Monarchy in these years. Augustus’ own experience, his patience, his tact, and his political acumen also played their parts. He directed the future of the Empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor’s expense. Augustus’ ultimate legacy was the peace and prosperity the Empire enjoyed for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor. Every Emperor of Rome adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, which gradually lost its character as a name and eventually became a title. The Augustan era poets Virgil and Horace praised Augustus as a defender of Rome, an upholder of moral justice, and an individual who bore the brunt of responsibility in maintaining the empire. However, for his rule of Rome and establishing the principate, Augustus has also been subjected to criticism throughout the ages. The contemporary Roman jurist. AD 10/11, fond of the days of pre-Augustan republican. In which he had been born, openly criticized the Augustan regime. In the beginning of his. Annals , the Roman historian. 117 wrote that Augustus had cunningly subverted Republican Rome into a position of slavery. He continued to say that, with Augustus’ death and swearing of loyalty to Tiberius, the people of Rome simply traded one slaveholder for another. Tacitus, however, records two contradictory but common views of Augustus. Fragment of a bronze equestrian statue of Augustus, 1st century AD. Intelligent people praised or criticized him in varying ways. One opinion was as follows. Filial duty and a national emergency, in which there was no place for law-abiding conduct, had driven him to civil warand this can neither be initiated nor maintained by decent methods. He had made many concessions to Anthony and to Lepidus for the sake of vengeance on his father’s murderers. When Lepidus grew old and lazy, and Anthony’s self-indulgence got the better of him, the only possible cure for the distracted country had been government by one man. However, Augustus had put the state in order not by making himself king or dictator, but by creating the Principate. The Empire’s frontiers were on the ocean, or distant rivers. Armies, provinces, fleets, the whole system was interrelated. Roman citizens were protected by the law. Provincials were decently treated. Rome itself had been lavishly beautified. Force had been sparingly usedmerely to preserve peace for the majority. According to the second opposing opinion. Filial duty and national crisis had been merely pretexts. In actual fact, the motive of Octavian, the future Augustus, was lust for power… There had certainly been peace, but it was a blood-stained peace of disasters and assassinations. In a recent biography on Augustus. Asserts that through the centuries, judgments on Augustus’ reign have oscillated between these two extremes but stresses that. Opposites do not have to be mutually exclusive, and we are not obliged to choose one or the other. The story of his career shows that Augustus was indeed ruthless, cruel, and ambitious for himself. This was only in part a personal trait, for upper-class Romans were educated to compete with one another and to excel. However, he combined an overriding concern for his personal interests with a deep-seated patriotism, based on a nostalgia of Rome’s antique virtues. In his capacity as princeps , selfishness and selflessness coexisted in his mind. While fighting for dominance, he paid little attention to legality or to the normal civilities of political life. He was devious, untrustworthy, and bloodthirsty. But once he had established his authority, he governed efficiently and justly, generally allowed freedom of speech, and promoted the rule of law. He was immensely hardworking and tried as hard as any. Parliamentarian to treat his senatorial colleagues with respect and sensitivity. He suffered from no delusions of grandeur. Tacitus was of the belief that. 9698 successfully mingled two formerly alien ideas, principate and liberty. The 3rd-century historian Cassius Dio acknowledged Augustus as a benign, moderate ruler, yet like most other historians after the death of Augustus, Dio viewed Augustus as an. (AD 3965) was of the opinion that Caesar’s victory over Pompey and the fall of. (95 BC46 BC) marked the end of traditional liberty in Rome; historian Chester G. Writes of his avoidance of criticizing Augustus, perhaps Augustus was too sacred a figure to accuse directly. Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome , criticized Augustus for installing tyranny over Rome, and likened what he believed. Great Britain’s virtuous. To Rome’s moral Republic of the 2nd century BC. In his criticism of Augustus, the admiral and historian. (16581741) compared Augustus to the puritanical tyrant. Thomas Gordon and the. (16891755) both remarked that Augustus was a coward in battle. Memoirs of the Court of Augustus , the. (17011757) deemed Augustus a. Machiavellian ruler , “a bloodthirsty vindicative usurper”, “wicked and worthless”, “a mean spirit”, and a “tyrant”. Coin of Augustus found at the. Pudukottai hoard, from an. Ancient Tamil country , Pandyan Kingdom. Reforms had a great impact on the subsequent success of the Empire. Augustus brought a far greater portion of the Empire’s expanded land base under consistent, direct taxation from Rome, instead of exacting varying, intermittent, and somewhat arbitrary tributes from each local province as Augustus’ predecessors had done. This reform greatly increased Rome’s net revenue from its territorial acquisitions, stabilized its flow, and regularized the financial relationship between Rome and the provinces, rather than provoking fresh resentments with each new arbitrary exaction of tribute. The measures of taxation in the reign of Augustus were determined by population. Census , with fixed quotas for each province. An equally important reform was the abolition of private. Kingdom, southern coast of the. This is also an imitation of a coin of Augustus. Egypt’s immense land rents to finance the Empire’s operations resulted from Augustus’ conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government. As it was effectively considered Augustus’ private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor’s patrimonium. Instead of a legate or proconsul, Augustus installed a prefect from the equestrian class to administer Egypt and maintain its lucrative seaports; this position became the highest political achievement for any equestrian besides becoming. Prefect of the Praetorian Guard. The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions. As well as bread and circuses for the population of Rome. The month of August Latin. Augustus is named after Augustus; until his time it was called. Named so because it had been the sixth month of the original. And the Latin word for six is. Commonly repeated lore has it that August has 31 days because Augustus wanted his month to match the length of. Julius Caesar’s July, but this is an invention of the 13th century scholar. Sextilis in fact had 31 days before it was renamed, and it was not chosen for its length see. Macrobius , Sextilis was renamed to honor Augustus because several of the most significant events in his rise to power, culminating in the fall of. Alexandria , fell in that month. Category:Augustan building projects. Vitruvius and De architectura. Close up on the sculpted detail of the. (Altar of Peace), 13 BC to 9 BC. On his deathbed, Augustus boasted “I found a Rome of bricks; I leave to you one of marble”. Although there is some truth in the literal meaning of this. Asserts that it was a metaphor for the Empire’s strength. Could be found in buildings of Rome before Augustus, but it was not extensively used as a building material until the reign of Augustus. Although this did not apply to the. Slums, which were still as rickety and fire-prone as ever, he did leave a mark on the monumental topography of the centre and of the. Campus Martius , with the. (Altar of Peace) and monumental sundial, whose central. Sculptures decorating the Ara Pacis visually augmented the written record of Augustus’ triumphs in the. Its reliefs depicted the imperial pageants of the praetorians , the Vestals, and the citizenry of Rome. He also built the. Temple of Caesar , the. Baths of Agrippa , and the. Temple of Mars Ultor. Other projects were either encouraged by him, such as the. Theatre of Balbus , and Agrippa’s construction of the. Pantheon , or funded by him in the name of others, often relations e. Was built before his death to house members of his family. To celebrate his victory at the Battle of Actium, the. Was built in 29 BC near the entrance of the. Temple of Castor and Pollux , and widened in 19 BC to include a triple-arch design. There are also many buildings outside of the city of Rome that bear Augustus’ name and legacy, such as the. In modern Spain, the. In today’s southern France, as well as the. La Turbie , located near. The Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne , late 1st century BC. After the death of Agrippa in 12 BC, a solution had to be found in maintaining Rome’s water supply system. This came about because it was overseen by Agrippa when he served as aedile, and was even funded by him afterwards when he was a private citizen paying at his own expense. In that year, Augustus arranged a system where the Senate designated three of its members as prime commissioners in charge of the water supply and to ensure that Rome’s aqueducts did not fall into disrepair. In the late Augustan era, the commission of five senators called the. Curatores locorum publicorum iudicandorum. (translated as “Supervisors of Public Property”) was put in charge of maintaining public buildings and temples of the state cult. Augustus created the senatorial group of the. (translated as “Supervisors for Roads”) for the upkeep of roads; this senatorial commission worked with local officials and contractors to organize regular repairs. Of architectural style originating from ancient Greece was the dominant architectural style in the age of Augustus and the imperial phase of Rome. Once commented that Rome was unworthy of its status as an imperial capital, yet Augustus and Agrippa set out to dismantle this sentiment by transforming the appearance of Rome upon the classical Greek model. Physical appearance and official images. Suetonius , writing about a century after Augustus’ death, described his appearance as:… Unusually handsome and exceedingly graceful at all periods of his life, though he cared nothing for personal adornment. He was so far from being particular about the dressing of his hair, that he would have several barbers working in a hurry at the same time, and as for his beard he now had it clipped and now shaved, while at the very same time he would either be reading or writing something… He had clear, bright eyes… His teeth were wide apart, small, and ill-kept; his hair was slightly curly and inclining to. Golden ; his eyebrows met. His ears were of moderate size, and his nose projected a little at the top and then bent ever so slightly inward. His complexion was between dark and fair. He was short of stature (although Julius Marathus, his freedman and keeper of his records, says that he was five feet and nine inches in height), but this was concealed by the fine proportion and symmetry of his figure, and was noticeable only by comparison with some taller person standing beside him. His official images were very tightly controlled and idealized, drawing from a tradition of. Royal portraiture rather than the tradition of realism in. He first appeared on. At the age of 19, and from about 29 BC “the explosion in the number of Augustan portraits attests a concerted propaganda campaign aimed at dominating all aspects of civil, religious, economic and military life with Augustus’ person”. The early images did indeed depict a young man, but although there were gradual changes his images remained youthful until he died in his seventies, by which time they had “a distanced air of ageless majesty”. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “Augustus & Julius Caesar 27BC Authentic Ancient Roman Republic Coin i33461″ is in sale since Friday, December 27, 2013. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Augustus & Julius Caesar

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