Jul 6 2018

PROBUS 280AD Ancient Silvered Roman Coin Rare SOL Sun God Horse i21927

PROBUS 280AD Ancient Silvered Roman Coin Rare SOL Sun God Horse i21927

PROBUS 280AD Ancient Silvered Roman Coin Rare SOL Sun God Horse i21927

Item: i21927 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Probus – Roman Emperor: 276-282 A. Silvered Bronze Antoninianus 24mm (4.75 grams) Cyzicus mint: 280 A. Reference: RIC 911h, C 683 IMP CM AVR PROBVS P F AVG – Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop. SOLI INVICTO Exe: CM/XXI – Sol riding oncoming quadriga, raising hand and holding whip with globe. A quadriga (Latin quadri- , four, and iugum , yoke) is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast (the Roman Empire’s equivalent of Ancient Greek tethrippon). It was raced in the Ancient Olympic Games and other contests. It is represented in profile as the chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and in bas-relief. The quadriga was adopted in ancient Roman chariot racing. Quadrigas were emblems of triumph; Victory and Fame often are depicted as the triumphant woman driving it. In classical mythology , the quadriga is the chariot of the gods; Apollo was depicted driving his quadriga across the heavens, delivering daylight and dispersing the night. The word quadriga may refer to the chariot alone, the four horses without it, or the combination. Roman Imperial repoussé silver disc of Sol Invictus (3rd century), found at Pessinus (British Museum). Sol Invictus (“Unconquered Sun”) was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a refoundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol. A revival of the cult of Elagabalus or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 AD and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. It is commonly claimed that the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti , or “Birthday of the Unconquered Sun”, but this view is challenged. Invictus (“Unconquered, Invincible”) was an epithet for several deities of classical Roman religion , including the supreme deity Jupiter , the war god Mars , Hercules , Apollo and Silvanus. Invictus was in use from the 3rd century BC, and was well-established as a cult title when applied to Mithras from the 2nd century onwards. It has a clear association. With solar deities and solar monism; as such, it became the preferred epithet of Rome’s traditional Sol and the novel, short-lived Roman state cult to Elagabalus , an Emesan solar deity who headed Rome’s official pantheon under his namesake emperor. The earliest dated use of Sol invictus is in a dedication from Rome, AD 158. Another, stylistically dated to the 2nd century AD, is inscribed on a Roman phalera : “inventori lucis soli invicto augusto” (to the contriver of light, sol invictus augustus). Here “augustus” is most likely a further epithet of Sol as “august” (an elevated being, divine or close to divinity), though the association of Sol with the Imperial house would have been unmistakable and was already established in iconography and stoic monism. These are the earliest attested examples of Sol as invictus , but in AD 102 a certain Anicetus restored a shrine of Sol; Hijmans 2009, 486, n. 22 is tempted “to link Anicetus’ predilection for Sol with his name, the Latinized form of the Greek word , which means invictus “. The first sun god consistently termed invictus was the provincial Syrian god Elagabalus. According to the Historia Augusta , the teenaged Severan heir adopted the name of his deity and brought his cult image from Emesa to Rome. Once installed as emperor, he neglected Rome’s traditional State deities and promoted his own as Rome’s most powerful deity. This ended with his murder in 222. The Historia Augusta refers to the deity Elagabalus as “also called Jupiter and Sol” (fuit autem Heliogabali vel Iovis vel Solis). This has been seen as an abortive attempt to impose the Syrian sun god on Rome. But because it is now clear that the Roman cult of Sol remained firmly established in Rome throughout the Roman period, this Syrian Sol Elagabalus has become no more relevant to our understanding of the Roman Sol than, for example, the Syrian Jupiter Dolichenus is for our understanding of the Roman Jupiter. The Roman gens Aurelian was associated with the cult of Sol. After his victories in the East, the Emperor Aurelian thoroughly reformed the Roman cult of Sol, elevating the sun-god to one of the premier divinities of the Empire. Where previously priests of Sol had been simply sacerdotes and tended to belong to lower ranks of Roman society, they were now pontifices and members of the new college of pontifices instituted by Aurelian. Every pontifex of Sol was a member of the senatorial elite, indicating that the priesthood of Sol was now highly prestigious. Almost all these senators held other priesthoods as well, however, and some of these other priesthoods take precedence in the inscriptions in which they are listed, suggesting that they were considered more prestigious than the priesthood of Sol. Aurelian also built a new temple for Sol, bringing the total number of temples for the god in Rome to (at least) four. He also instituted games in honor of the sun god, held every four years from AD 274 onwards. The identity of Aurelian’s Sol Invictus has long been a subject of scholarly debate. Based on the Historia Augusta , some scholars have argued that it was based on Sol Elagablus (or Elagabla) of Emesa. Others, basing their argument on Zosimus , suggest that it was based on the Helios , the solar god of Palmyra on the grounds that Aurelian placed and consecrated a cult statue of Helios looted from Palmyra in the temple of Sol Invictus. Professor Gary Forsythe discusses these arguments and add a third more recent one based on the work of Steven Hijmans. Hijmans argues that Aurelian’s solar deity was simply the traditional Greco-Roman Sol Invictus. Emperors portrayed Sol Invictus on their official coinage, with a wide range of legends, only a few of which incorporated the epithet invictus , such as the legend. Claiming the Unconquered Sun as a companion to the Emperor, used with particular frequency by Constantine. Statuettes of Sol Invictus, carried by the standard-bearers, appear in three places in reliefs on the Arch of Constantine. Constantine’s official coinage continues to bear images of Sol until 325/6. A solidus of Constantine as well as a gold medallion from his reign depict the Emperor’s bust in profile twinned (“jugate”) with Sol Invictus, with the legend. Constantine decreed (March 7, 321) dies Solis day of the sun, ” Sunday “as the Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]. On the venerable day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits because it often happens that another day is not suitable for grain-sowing or vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost. Constantine’s triumphal arch was carefully positioned to align with the colossal statue of Sol by the Colosseum , so that Sol formed the dominant backdrop when seen from the direction of the main approach towards the arch. Sol and the other Roman Emperors. Deals with coin-evidence of Imperial connection to the Solar cult. Sol is depicted sporadically on imperial coins in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, then more frequently from Septimius Severus onwards until AD 325/6. Sol invictus appears on coin legends from AD 261, well before the reign of Aurelian. Connections between the imperial radiate crown and the cult of Sol are postulated. Augustus was posthumously depicted with radiate crown, as were living emperors from Nero (after AD 65) to Constantine. Some modern scholarship interprets the imperial radiate crown as a divine, solar association rather than an overt symbol of Sol; Bergmann calls it a pseudo-object designed to disguise the divine and solar connotations that would otherwise be politically controversial. But there is broad agreement that coin-images showing the imperial radiate crown are stylistically distinct from those of the solar crown of rays; the imperial radiate crown is depicted as a real object rather than as symbolic light. Hijmans argues that the Imperial radiate crown represents the honorary wreath awarded to Augustus , perhaps posthumously, to commemorate his victory at the battle of Actium ; he points out that henceforth, living emperors were depicted with radiate crowns, but state divi were not. To Hijmans this implies the radiate crown of living emperors as a link to Augustus. His successors automatically inherited (or sometimes acquired) the same offices and honours due to Octavian as “saviour of the Republic” through his victory at Actium, piously attributed to Apollo-Helios. Wreaths awarded to victors at the Actian Games were radiate. Sol Invictus and Christianity and Judaism. Mosaic of Christ as Sol or Apollo-Helios in Mausoleum M in the pre-4th-century necropolis beneath. Peter’s in the Vatican , which many interpret as representing Christ. The Philocalian calendar of AD 354 gives a festival of “Natalis Invicti” on 25 December. There is limited evidence that this festival was celebrated before the mid-4th century. The idea that Christians chose to celebrate the birth of Jesus on 25 December because this was the date of an already existing festival of the Sol Invictus was expressed in an annotation to a manuscript of a work by 12th-century Syrian bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi. The scribe who added it wrote: It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day. This idea became popular especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. And is still widely accepted. In the judgement of the Church of England Liturgical Commission, this view has been seriously challenged. By a view based on an old tradition, according to which the date of Christmas was fixed at nine months after 25 March, the date of the vernal equinox, on which the Annunciation was celebrated. The Jewish calendar date of 14 Nisan was believed to be that of the beginning of creation, as well as of the Exodus and so of Passover, and Christians held that the new creation, both the death of Jesus and the beginning of his human life, occurred on the same date, which some put at 25 March in the Julian calendar. It was a traditional Jewish belief that great men lived a whole number of years, without fractions, so that Jesus was considered to have been conceived on 25 March, as he died on 25 March, which was calculated to have coincided with 14 Nisan. Sextus Julius Africanus c. 240 gave 25 March as the day of creation and of the conception of Jesus. The tractate De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis Domini nostri Iesu Christi et Iohannis Baptistae falsely attributed to John Chrysostom also argued that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same day of the year and calculated this as 25 March. A passage of the Commentary on the prophet Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome , written in about 204, has also been appealed to. Among those who have put forward this view are Louis Duchesne, Thomas J. Neil Alexander, and Hugh Wybrew. Not all scholars who view the celebration of the birth of Jesus on 25 December as motivated by the choice of the winter solstice rather than calculated on the basis of the belief that he was conceived and died on 25 March agree that it constituted a deliberate Christianization of a festival of the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun. Michael Alan Anderson writes. Both the sun and Christ were said to be born anew on December 25. But while the solar associations with the birth of Christ created powerful metaphors, the surviving evidence does not support such a direct association with the Roman solar festivals. The earliest documentary evidence for the feast of Christmas makes no mention of the coincidence with the winter solstice. Thomas Talley has shown that, although the Emperor Aurelian’s dedication of a temple to the sun god in the Campus Martius C. 274 probably took place on the’Birthday of the Invincible Sun’ on December 25, the cult of the sun in pagan Rome ironically did not celebrate the winter solstice nor any of the other quarter-tense days, as one might expect. The origins of Christmas, then, may not be expressly rooted in the Roman festival. The same point is made by Hijmans: It is cosmic symbolism… Which inspired the Church leadership in Rome to elect the southern solstice, December 25, as the birthday of Christ… While they were aware that pagans called this day the’birthday’ of Sol Invictus, this did not concern them and it did not play any role in their choice of date for Christmas. ” He also states that, “while the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas. The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought also remarks on the uncertainty about the order of precedence between the celebrations of the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun and the birthday of Jesus: This’calculations’ hypothesis potentially establishes 25 December as a Christian festival before Aurelian’s decree, which, when promulgated, might have provided for the Christian feast both opportunity and challenge. Roll also calls “most extreme” the unproven hypothesis that “would call Christmas point-blank a’christianization’ of Natalis Solis Invicti, a direct conscious appropriation of the pre-Christian feast, arbitrarily placed on the same calendar date, assimilating and adapting some of its cosmic symbolism and abruptly usurping any lingering habitual loyalty that newly-converted Christians might feel to the feasts of the state gods”. The comparison of Christ with the astronomical Sun is common in ancient Christian writings. In the 5th century, Pope Leo I (the Great) spoke in several sermons on the Feast of the Nativity of how the celebration of Christ’s birth coincided with increase of the sun’s position in the sky. An example is: But this Nativity which is to be adored in heaven and on earth is suggested to us by no day more than this when, with the early light still shedding its rays on nature, there is borne in upon our senses the brightness of this wondrous mystery. Mosaic in the Beth Alpha synagogue, with the sun in the centre, surrounded by the twelve zodiac constellations and with the four seasons associated inaccurately with the constellations. A study of Augustine of Hippo remarks that his exhortation in a Christmas sermon, “Let us celebrate this day as a feast not for the sake of this sun, which is beheld by believers as much as by ourselves, but for the sake of him who created the sun”, shows that he was aware of the coincidence of the celebration of Christmas and the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun, although this pagan festival was celebrated at only a few places and was originally a peculiarity of the Roman city calendar. It adds: He also believes, however, that there is a reliable tradition which gives 25 December as the actual date of the birth of our Lord. By “the sun of righteousness” in Malachi 4:2 “the fathers , from Justin downward, and nearly all the earlier commentators understand Christ , who is supposed to be described as the rising sun”. The New Testament itself contains a hymn fragment: Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. Clement of Alexandria wrote of “the Sun of the Resurrection, he who was born before the dawn, whose beams give light”. Christians adopted the image of the Sun (Helios or Sol Invictus) to represent Christ. In this portrayal he is a beardless figure with a flowing cloak in a chariot drawn by four white horses, as in the mosaic in Mausoleum M discovered under Saint Peter’s Basilica and in an early-4th-century catacomb fresco. Clement of Alexandria had spoken of Christ driving his chariot in this way across the sky. The nimbus of the figure under Saint Peter’s Basilica is described by some as rayed. As in traditional pre-Christian representations, but another has said: “Only the cross-shaped nimbus makes the Christian significance apparent” (emphasis added). Yet another has interpreted the figure as a representation of the sun with no explicit religious reference whatever, pagan or Christian. The traditional image of the sun is used also in Jewish art. A mosaic floor in Hamat Tiberias presents David as Helios surrounded by a ring with the signs of the zodiac. As well as in Hamat Tiberias, figures of Helios or Sol Invictus also appear in several of the very few surviving schemes of decoration surviving from Late Antique synagogues , including Beth Alpha , Husefah (Husefa) and Naaran , all now in Israel. He is shown in floor mosaics, with the usual radiate halo, and sometimes in a quadriga , in the central roundel of a circular representation of the zodiac or the seasons. These combinations may have represented to an agricultural Jewish community the perpetuation of the annual cycle of the universe or… The central part of a calendar. Marcus Aurelius Probus c. August 19, 232September/October, 282 was a Roman Emperor (276282). A native of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica , Serbia), in Pannonia , at an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the Emperors Valerian , Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers (276). Florianus , who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops after an indecisive campaign. Probus moved to the West, defeated the Goths acquiring the title of Gothicus (280), and saw his position ratified by the Senate. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers. The most important of these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders (Franks , Longiones , Alamanni and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus , in Raetia , Illyricum and Lycia , where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt ; Probus ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus , Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, moving first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus , commander of the Praetorian Guard , had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’s soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282). What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS 280AD Ancient Silvered Roman Coin Rare SOL Sun God Horse i21927″ is in sale since Sunday, May 20, 2012. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Probus

May 23 2018

PROBUS 276AD’VIRTVS’ Rare Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God i55524

PROBUS 276AD'VIRTVS' Rare Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God i55524

PROBUS 276AD'VIRTVS' Rare Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God i55524

Item: i55524 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Probus – Roman Emperor : 276-282 A. Bronze Antoninianus 24mm (3.26 grams) Ticinum mint 276-282 A. Reference: RIC V-2 Ticinum 509. VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder, and shield on left arm MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding branch, spear and shield. I in left field. Was the Roman god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter , and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Martius Latin), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming. Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares , whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus , the latter of whom as a guardian of the Roman people had no Greek equivalent. Mars’ altar in the Campus Martius , the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa , the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome. Although the center of Mars’ worship was originally located outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium) , Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace , and was a father (pater) of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome , Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome’s founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas , celebrated as the Trojan refugee who “founded” Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity, particularly in the Western provinces. The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, and the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus (whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan) caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not originally part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium , a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating. Wall painting (mid-1st century AD) from which the House of Venus and Mars at Pompeii takes its name. Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art often ignore the adulterous implications of their union, and take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves (amores). Some scenes may imply marriage, and the relationship was romanticized in funerary or domestic art in which husbands and wives had themselves portrayed as the passionate divine couple. The uniting of deities representing Love and War lent itself to allegory , especially since the lovers were the parents of Harmonia. The Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino notes that “only Venus dominates Mars, and he never dominates her”. In ancient Roman and Renaissance art, Mars is often shown disarmed and relaxed, or even sleeping, but the extramarital nature of their affair can also suggest that this peace is impermanent. She-wolf and twins from an altar to Venus and Mars. The earliest center in Rome for cultivating Mars as a deity was the Altar of Mars (Ara Martis) in the Campus Martius (“Field of Mars”) outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium). The Romans thought that this altar had been established by the semi-legendary Numa Pompilius , the peace-loving successor of Romulus. According to Roman tradition, the Campus Martius had been consecrated to Mars by their ancestors to serve as horse pasturage and an equestrian training ground for youths. During the Roman Republic (50927 BC), the Campus was a largely open expanse. No temple was built at the altar, but from 193 BC a covered walkway connected it to the Porta Fontinalis , near the office and archives of the Roman censors. Newly elected censors placed their curule chairs by the altar, and when they had finished conducting the census, the citizens were collectively purified with a suovetaurilia there. A frieze from the so-called “Altar” of Domitius Ahenobarbus is thought to depict the census, and may show Mars himself standing by the altar as the procession of victims advances. The main Temple of Mars (Aedes Martis) in the Republican period also lay outside the sacred boundary and was devoted to the god’s warrior aspect. It was built to fulfill a vow (votum) made by a Titus Quinctius in 388 BC during the Gallic siege of Rome. The founding day (dies natalis) was commemorated on June 1, and the temple is attested by several inscriptions and literary sources. The sculpture group of Mars and the wolves was displayed there. Soldiers sometimes assembled at the temple before heading off to war, and it was the point of departure for a major parade of Roman cavalry held annually on July 15. A temple to Mars in the Circus Flaminius was built around 133 BC, funded by Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus from war booty. It housed a colossal statue of Mars and a nude Venus. The Campus Martius continued to provide venues for equestrian events such as chariot racing during the Imperial period , but under the first emperor Augustus it underwent a major program of urban renewal, marked by monumental architecture. The Altar of Augustan Peace (Ara Pacis Augustae) was located there, as was the Obelisk of Montecitorio , imported from Egypt to form the pointer (gnomon) of the Solarium Augusti , a giant sundial. With its public gardens, the Campus became one of the most attractive places in the city to visit. Augustus chose the Campus Martius as the site of his new Temple to Mars Ultor, a manifestation of Mars he cultivated as the avenger (ultor) of the murder of Julius Caesar and of the military disaster suffered at the Battle of Carrhae. When the legionary standards lost to the Parthians were recovered, they were housed in the new temple. The date of the temple’s dedication on May 12 was aligned with the heliacal setting of the constellation Scorpio , the house of war. The date continued to be marked with circus games as late as the mid-4th century AD. A large statue of Mars was part of the short-lived Arch of Nero , which was built in 62 AD but dismantled after Nero’s suicide and disgrace (damnatio memoriae). Mars celebrated as peace-bringer on a Roman coin issued by Aemilianus. Marcus Aurelius Probus c. August 19, 232September/October, 282 was a Roman Emperor (276282). A native of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica , Serbia), in Pannonia , at an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the Emperors Valerian , Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers (276). Florianus , who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops after an indecisive campaign. Probus moved to the West, defeated the Goths acquiring the title of Gothicus (280), and saw his position ratified by the Senate. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers. The most important of these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders (Franks , Longiones , Alamanni and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus , in Raetia , Illyricum and Lycia , where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt ; Probus ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus , Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, moving first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus , commander of the Praetorian Guard , had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’s soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282). What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS 276AD’VIRTVS’ Rare Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God i55524″ is in sale since Tuesday, May 17, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Probus

Oct 10 2017

PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621

PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621

PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621

Item: i55621 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Probus – Roman Emperor : 276-282 A. Bronze Antoninianus 21mm (3.49 grams) Siscia mint, 1st officina. 5th emission, 278 A. Reference: RIC V 612; Alföldi, Siscia V 44.5; Pink VI/1 p. 51 (variant for all, no star) IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right. P M TR P COS II P P Exe: XXIP, Lion standing left; head of ox to lower left; star above. Numismatic Note: The lion and the ox depicted on this coin are likely symbols of specific Roman legions, and therefore this coin could have either honored those legions, or possibly even legionary coinage. Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus. 19 August 232 September/October 282, was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. During his reign, the Rhine and Danube frontier was strengthened after successful wars against several Germanic tribes such as the Goths , Alamanni , Longiones , Franks , Burgundians , and Vandals. The Agri Decumates and much of the Limes Germanicus in Germania Superior were officially abandoned during his reign, with the Romans withdrawing to the Rhine and Danube rivers. Born in 232 in Sirmium (modern day Sremska Mitrovica), Pannonia Inferior , the son of Dalmatius, Probus entered the army around 250 upon reaching adulthood. Appointed as a military tribune by the emperor Valerian , he later distinguished himself under the emperors Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus’ soldiers to proclaim him emperor. Florianus , the half-brother of Tacitus, was also proclaimed successor by his soldiers, but he was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, defeating the Goths along the lower Danube in 277, and acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified by the Senate around this time. In 278, Probus campaigned successfully in Gaul against the Alamanni and Longiones ; both tribes had advanced through the Neckar valley and across the Rhine into Roman territory. Meanwhile, his generals defeated the Franks and these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of Germanic invaders (Franks and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. Of a greater and more lasting significance, Probus began the strategy of settling the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the empire. Antoninianus of Probus minted in 280. Depicts the solar divinity Sol Invictus riding a quadriga. Probus issued many different coins during his six years of rule. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus , in Raetia , Illyricum and Lycia , where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt. Probus then ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus , Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards Sirmium, his birth city. About Probus’ death different accounts exist. According to John Zonaras , the commander of the Praetorian Guard Marcus Aurelius Carus had been proclaimed, more or less unwillingly, emperor by his troops. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’ remaining soldiers assassinated him at Sirmium (September/October 282). According to other sources, however, Probus was killed by disgruntled soldiers, who rebelled against his orders to be employed for civic purposes, like draining marshes. Carus was proclaimed emperor after Probus’ death and avenged the murder of his predecessor. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621″ is in sale since Wednesday, May 18, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Aug 19 2017

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin

This coin is a great find. It is a must have for every collection. High Grade Silvered Coin. Radiate (21mm, 4.35g, 12h). In imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. R/ Sol driving facing quadriga, head l. Holding whip and extending hand; CM//XXIE. Probus (/probs/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus; 19 August 232 September/October 282), was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. Probus entered the army around 250 upon reaching adulthood. Appointed as a military tribune by the emperor Valerian, he later distinguished himself under the emperors Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus’ soldiers to proclaim him emperor. Florianus, the half-brother of Tacitus, was also proclaimed successor by his soldiers, but he was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, defeating the Goths along the lower Danube in 277, and acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified by the Senate around this time. In 280281, Probus put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems (an inscription with the name of Probus erased has been found as far as Spain). In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards Sirmium, his birth city. Different accounts of Probus’s death exist. According to Joannes Zonaras, the commander of the Praetorian Guard Marcus Aurelius Carus had been proclaimed, more or less unwillingly, emperor by his troops. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’ remaining soldiers assassinated him at Sirmium (September/October 282). According to other sources, however, Probus was killed by disgruntled soldiers, who rebelled against his orders to be employed for civic purposes, like draining marshes. Carus was proclaimed emperor after Probus’ death and avenged the murder of his predecessor. The item “Probus. Silvered Radiate. A. D. 276-282. Ancient Roman Coin” is in sale since Wednesday, August 16, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Probus
  • Denomination: Radiate
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Composition: Silvered Bronze
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Date: A.D. 281

Jul 25 2017

PROBUS on horse 280AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i57504

PROBUS on horse 280AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i57504

PROBUS on horse 280AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i57504

Item: i57504 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Probus – Roman Emperor : 276-282 A. Bronze Antoninianus 21mm (4.36 grams) Struck at the mint of Rome 280 A. Reference: RIC 155f, C 40 IMPPROBVSPFAVG – Radiate, cuirassed bust right. ADVENTVSAVG Exe: R(thunderbolt)Z – Probus riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; seated captive to left. Marcus Aurelius Probus c. August 19, 232September/October, 282 was a Roman Emperor (276282). A native of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica , Serbia), in Pannonia , at an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the Emperors Valerian , Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers (276). Florianus , who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops after an indecisive campaign. Probus moved to the West, defeated the Goths acquiring the title of Gothicus (280), and saw his position ratified by the Senate. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers. The most important of these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders (Franks , Longiones , Alamanni and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus , in Raetia , Illyricum and Lycia , where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt ; Probus ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus , Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, moving first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus , commander of the Praetorian Guard , had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’s soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282). What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS on horse 280AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i57504″ is in sale since Sunday, August 28, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Probus

May 6 2017

PROBUS 277AD Very Rare SISCIA & RIVER GODS Cult Ancient Roman Coin i22893

PROBUS 277AD Very Rare SISCIA & RIVER GODS Cult Ancient Roman Coin i22893

PROBUS 277AD Very Rare SISCIA & RIVER GODS Cult Ancient Roman Coin i22893

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Probus – Roman Emperor: 276-282 A. Bronze Antoninianus 22mm (3.2 grams) Siscia mint: 277 A. 635; RIC 765 IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate draped bust right. SISCIA PROBI AVG /XXIT, Siscia seated left, holding out the ends of her drapery, flanked by two river gods (Savus & Colapis), seated facing each other & holding urns, with waves between them & below them, XXIT in exergue. Siscia, which lay at the confluence of the two rivers depicted, is here called Probus special city, probably because it had played an important role in his campaigns in Pannonia. August 19, 232September/October, 282 was a Roman Emperor. A native of Sirmium. At an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the Emperors Valerian. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers (276). Who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops after an indecisive campaign. Probus moved to the West, defeated the Goths acquiring the title of Gothicus (280), and saw his position ratified by the Senate. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers. The most important of these operations were directed to clearing Gaul. Of German invaders Franks. , allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus. Where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes. Probus ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, moving first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus. Commander of the Praetorian Guard. Had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’s soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282). What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS 277AD Very Rare SISCIA & RIVER GODS Cult Ancient Roman Coin i22893″ is in sale since Wednesday, October 24, 2012. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Probus

Mar 23 2017

PROBUS 277AD Rome Rare R2 Virtus Valor Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i55473

PROBUS 277AD Rome Rare R2 Virtus Valor Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i55473

PROBUS 277AD Rome Rare R2 Virtus Valor Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i55473

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Bronze Antoninianus 22mm (3.94 grams) Rome mint, 277 A. Guillemain 122 7 ex. RARE R2 IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped sceptre. VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, holding spear and shield; RB in exergue. The Roman personification of Valour was represented helmeted with spear and sword and standing with right foot on helmet. There was a golden statue of her at Rome which was melted by Alaric, king of the Goths. Valour is frequently represented on coins- VIRTVS AVG. Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus. 19 August 232 September/October 282, was Roman Emperor. From 276 to 282. During his reign, the Rhine. Frontier was strengthened after successful wars against several Germanic tribes. Such as the Goths. And much of the Limes Germanicus. Were officially abandoned during his reign, with the Romans withdrawing to the Rhine. Born in 232 in Sirmium. Modern day Sremska Mitrovica. The son of Dalmatius, Probus entered the army around 250 upon reaching adulthood. Appointed as a military tribune. By the emperor Valerian. He later distinguished himself under the emperors Aurelian. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus’ soldiers to proclaim him emperor. The half-brother of Tacitus, was also proclaimed successor by his soldiers, but he was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, defeating the Goths along the lower Danube in 277, and acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified by the Senate. In 278, Probus campaigned successfully in Gaul. Both tribes had advanced through the Neckar. Valley and across the Rhine into Roman territory. Meanwhile, his generals defeated the Franks. And these operations were directed to clearing Gaul. Of Germanic invaders Franks. , allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. Of a greater and more lasting significance, Probus began the strategy of settling the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the empire. Of Probus minted in 280. Depicts the solar divinity Sol Invictus. Probus issued many different coins during his six years of rule. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus. Where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes. Probus then ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards Sirmium, his birth city. About Probus’ death different accounts exist. According to John Zonaras. The commander of the Praetorian Guard. Had been proclaimed, more or less unwillingly, emperor by his troops. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’ remaining soldiers assassinated him at Sirmium (September/October 282). According to other sources, however, Probus was killed by disgruntled soldiers, who rebelled against his orders to be employed for civic purposes, like draining marshes. Carus was proclaimed emperor after Probus’ death and avenged the murder of his predecessor. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS 277AD Rome Rare R2 Virtus Valor Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i55473″ is in sale since Tuesday, May 10, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Feb 17 2017

PROBUS 280AD Authentic Rare Ancient Roman Coin Temple of Roma or Venus i59170

PROBUS 280AD Authentic Rare Ancient Roman Coin Temple of Roma or Venus i59170

PROBUS 280AD Authentic Rare Ancient Roman Coin Temple of Roma or Venus i59170

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silvered Bronze Antoninianus 22mm (3.42 grams) Rome mint 280 A. Reference: RIC 185h, C 531 IMPPROBVSAVG – Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop. ROMAEAETER Exe: R (crescent) – Temple with six columns; Roma seated within. The Temple of Venus and Roma in Latin. Templum Veneris et Romae is thought to have been the largest temple. Located on the Velian Hill. Between the eastern edge of the Forum Romanum. It was dedicated to the goddesses Venus Felix. (“Venus the Bringer of Good Fortune”) and Roma Aeterna. The architect was the emperor. And construction began in 121. It was officially inaugurated by Hadrian in 135, and finished in 141 under Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307. It was restored with alterations by the emperor Maxentius. In order to build the temple, erected on the remnants of the porticoed vestibule to Emperor Nero. The Colossus of Nero. Was moved and placed near the amphitheatre. Which shortly afterwards became known as the Colosseum. Unimpressed by his emperor’s architectural skills, Hadrian. S most brilliant architect, Apollodorus. Made a scornful remark on the size of the seated statues within the cellae, saying that they would surely hurt their heads if they tried to stand up from their thrones. Apollodorus was banished and executed not long after this. According to the ancient historian Ammianus Marcellinus the temple was among the great buildings of Rome which astonished the Emperor Constantius II on his visit to the city in 357. Further restoration was performed under Eugenius. (392394) against Theodosius I. Whose policy was the restoration of Pagan cults and temples. However as with many of Rome’s majestic ancient buildings the temple was later targeted for its rich materials. In 630 Pope Honorius I with the consent of the Emperor Heraclius, removed the gilt-bronze tiles from the roof of the temple for the adornment of St. Temple of Venus and Roma seen from the Colosseum. A severe earthquake at the beginning of the 9th century is believed to have destroyed the temple. Around 850 Pope Leo IV. Ordered the building of a new church, Santa Maria Nova. On the ruins of the temple. After a major rebuilding in 1612, this church was renamed Santa Francesca Romana, incorporating Roma’s cella as the belltower. The vast quantity of marble that once adorned the temple has all but disappeared due to its use as a raw material for building projects from the Middle Ages onwards. The Italian archaeologist Rodolfo Amedeo Lanciani makes reference to his discovery of a lime kiln in close proximity to the temple in his work The Destruction of Ancient Rome. Presently only a few columns surrounding remain standing in their original positions, while others that have gone missing have been replaced by buxus. 308 – 310 AD. This coin is commemorating the reconstruction of the temple of Roma following the fire in 307 AD. On the ground is depicted on the reverse. Set on a platform. Measuring 145 metres (476 ft) in length and 100 metres (328 ft) in width, and stood 29.5 metres (97 ft) tall, being 31 metres (102 ft) counting the statues, the peristyle. (also peripteral) building measured 110 metres (361 ft) in length and 53 metres (174 ft) in width. The temple itself consisted of two main chambers cellae. , each housing a cult statue of a god Venus. The goddess of love, and Roma. The goddess of Rome. Both figures seated on a throne. The cellae were arranged symmetrically back-to-back. Roma’s cella faced west, looking out over the Forum Romanum, and Venus’ cella faced east, looking out over the Colosseum. A row of four columns. Lined the entrance to each cella, and the temple was bordered by colonnaded. Entrances ending in staircases that led down to the Colosseum. The west and east sides of the temple (the short sides) had ten white columns decastyle. , and the south and north (the long sides) featured eighteen white columns. All of these columns measured 1.8 metres (6 ft) in width, making the temple very imposing. A reconstruction of the temple interior by German Architect Josef Bühlmann from 1913 depicts two longitudinal colonnades of Corinthian. Columns forming a central nave. Flanked by two aisles. Resting on the columns a double impost forms a double entablature. Extending back into the exedra. With a cofferred half- dome. Ceiling above the seated statue. The walls behind the aisles are inset with smaller columns standing some distance above the floor on a plinth. Small statues set in niches. Between these columns punctuate the walls, the niches surmounted by alternating arched. More small statues are positioned on the entablature. Above each small column. As an additional clever subtlety by Hadrian, Venus also represented love (Amor in Latin), and “AMOR” is “ROMA” spelled backwards. Thus, placing the two divinities of Venus and Rome back-to-back in a single temple created a further symmetry with the back-to-back symmetry of their names as well. Within Venus’ cella was another altar where newly wed couples could make sacrifices. Directly adjacent to this altar stood gigantic silver statues of Marcus Aurelius. And Faustina the Younger. Canopy erected at the Temple of Venus and Rome during Good Friday ceremonies. Since the papacy of John Paul II, the heights of the temple and its position opposite the main entrance to the Colosseum have been used to good effect as a public address platform. This may be seen in the photograph below where a red canopy has been erected to shelter the Pope as well as an illuminated cross, on the occasion of the Good Friday. The Pope, either personally or through a representative, leads the faithful through meditations on the stations of the cross while a cross is carried from there to the Colosseum. The Temple has now been reopened. To the public after an extensive restoration programme that lasted 26 years. Access to the temple is included in tickets for the Colosseum, the Forum and the Palatine Hill. Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus. 19 August 232 September/October 282, was Roman Emperor. From 276 to 282. During his reign, the Rhine. Frontier was strengthened after successful wars against several Germanic tribes. Such as the Goths. And much of the Limes Germanicus. Were officially abandoned during his reign, with the Romans withdrawing to the Rhine. Born in 232 in Sirmium. Modern day Sremska Mitrovica. The son of Dalmatius. Probus entered the army around 250 upon reaching adulthood. Appointed as a military tribune. By the emperor Valerian. He later distinguished himself under the emperors Aurelian. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus’ soldiers to proclaim him emperor. The half-brother of Tacitus, was also proclaimed successor by his soldiers, but he was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, defeating the Goths along the lower Danube in 277, and acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified by the Senate. Sculpted head of Probus from Brescia. In 278, Probus campaigned successfully in Gaul. Both tribes had advanced through the Neckar. Valley and across the Rhine into Roman territory. Meanwhile, his generals defeated the Franks. And these operations were directed to clearing Gaul. Of Germanic invaders Franks. , allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. Of a greater and more lasting significance, Probus began the strategy of settling the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the empire. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus. Where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes. Probus then ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems (an inscription with the name of Probus erased has been found as far as Spain). In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards Sirmium, his birth city. Different accounts of Probus’s death exist. According to Joannes Zonaras. The commander of the Praetorian Guard. Had been proclaimed, more or less unwillingly, emperor by his troops. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’ remaining soldiers assassinated him at Sirmium (September/October 282). According to other sources, however, Probus was killed by disgruntled soldiers, who rebelled against his orders to be employed for civic purposes, like draining marshes. Carus was proclaimed emperor after Probus’ death and avenged the murder of his predecessor. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “PROBUS 280AD Authentic Rare Ancient Roman Coin Temple of Roma or Venus i59170″ is in sale since Thursday, February 16, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Probus