Oct 12 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass’s head i44263

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass's head i44263

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass's head i44263

Item: i44263 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Trajan Decius – Roman Emperor : 249-251 A. Silver Antoninianus 23mm (3.97 grams) Rome mint: 249-250 A. Reference: RIC 12b, C 16 IMPCMQTRAIANVSDECIVSAVG – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. DACIA – Dacia standing left, holding staff with ass’s head on it. In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Getae as they were known by the Greeksa branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range. Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the Istros , or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons (the Balkan Mountains). Moesia (Dobrogea), a region south of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea) and the river Danastris (Dniester), in Greek sources the Tyras. But several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis (Bug River), and the Tisia (Tisza) to the west. At times Dacia included areas between the Tisza and the Middle Danube. The Carpathian Mountains were located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present day countries of Romania and Moldova , as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria , Serbia , Hungary , and Ukraine. Dacians (or Getae) were North Thracian tribes. Dacian tribes had both peaceful and military encounters with other neighboring tribes, such as Celts , Ancient Germanics , Sarmatians , and Scythians , but were most influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The latter eventually conquered, and linguistically and culturally assimilated the Dacians. A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa , located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia. The Dacians, situated north of the lower Danube in the area of the Carpathians and Transylvania , are the earliest named people on the present territory of Romania. They are first mentioned in the writings of the Ancient Greeks , in Herodotus (Histories Book IV XCIII: “[Getae] the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes”) and Thucydides (Peloponnesian Wars , Book II: ” [Getae] border on the Scythians and are armed in the same manner, being all mounted archers “). Later, the Dacians were mentioned in Roman documents: Caesar’s De Bello Gallico , Book VI 25,1: The Hercynian Forest… Stretches along the Danube to the areas of the Daci and Anarti , and also under the name Geta (plural Getae). Strabo in his Geography , Book VII 3,12, tells about the Daci-Getae division “Getae, those who incline towards the Pontus and the east, and Daci, those who incline in the opposite direction towards Germany and the sources of the Ister”. In Strabo’s opinion, the original name of the Dacians was “daoi”, which Mircea Eliade in his De Zalmoxis à Genghis Khan explained with a possible Phrygian cognate “Daos”, the name of the wolf god. This assumption is supported by the fact that the Dacian standard, the Dacian Draco , had a wolf head. The late Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana indicates them as Dagae and Gaete. Much later, in the Late Middle Ages , the Roman Catholic Church on a few occasions used the term Dacia to denote Denmark , and referred to several notables from Denmark as “of Dacia”. The term did not catch on, and fell into disuse soon after its (re)introduction, so normally there is no confusion with the original usage. The extent and location of the geographical entity Dacia varied in its three distinct historical periods (see History , below). The Dacia of King Burebista (8244 BC), stretched from the Black Sea to the river Tisza and from the Balkan Mountains to Bohemia. During that period, the Geto-Dacians conquered a wider territory and Dacia extended from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea littoral (between Apollonia and Olbia) and from present-day Slovakia’s mountains to the Balkan mountains. In 53 BC, Julius Caesar stated that the lands of the Dacians started on the eastern edge of the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest). After Burebista’s death, his kingdom split in four states, later five. Around 20 AD, Strabo wrote Geographica. Which delineates the regions inhabited by Dacians at that time. On its basis, Lengyel and Radan (1980), Hoddinott (1981) and Mountain (1998) consider that the Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians. The hold of the Dacians between the Danube and Tisza was tenuous. However, the archaeologist Parducz argued a Dacian presence west of the Tisza dating from the time of Burebista. According to Tacitus (AD 56 AD 117) Dacians bordered Germania in the south-east, while Sarmatians bordered it in the east. In the 1st century AD, the Iazyges settled West of Dacia, on the plain between the Danube and the Tisza rivers, according to the scholars’ interpretation of Pliny’s text: The higher parts between the Danube and the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest) as far as the winter quarters of Pannonia at Carnutum and the plains and level country of the German frontiers there are occupied by the Sarmatian Iazyges, while the Dacians whom they have driven out hold the mountains and forests as far as the river Theiss. Strabo, in his Geography written between 20 BC 23 AD, says. As for the southern part of Germany beyond the Albis, the portion which is just contiguous to that river is occupied by the Suevi; then immediately adjoining this is the land of the Getae, which, though narrow at first, stretching as it does along the Ister on its southern side and on the opposite side along the mountain-side of the Hercynian Forest (for the land of the Getae also embraces a part of the mountains), afterwards broadens out towards the north as far as the Tyregetae; but I cannot tell the precise boundaries. Towards the west Dacia may originally have extended as far as the Danube, where it runs from north to south at Vác. In the 1st century BC, at the time of the Dacian Kingdom of Burebista , Julius Caesar in his De Bello Gallico (book 6) speaks of the Hercynian forest extending along the Danube to the territory of the Dacians. Written a few decades after the Roman conquest of Dacia 105106 AD. Ptolemy’s Geographia included the boundaries of Dacia. According to the scholars’ interpretation of Ptolemy (Hrushevskyi 1997, Bunbury 1879, Mocsy 1974, Barbulescu and Nagler 2005) Dacia was the region between the rivers Tisza , Danube, upper Dniester, and Siret. Mainstream historians accept this interpretation: Avery (1972) Berenger (1994) Fol (1996) Mountain (1998), Waldman Mason (2006). Ptolemy also provided a couple of Dacian toponyms in south Poland in the Upper Vistula (Polish: Wisla) river basin: Susudava and Setidava with a manuscript variant Getidava This could have been an echo of Burebistas expansion. It seems that this northern expansion of the Dacian language, as far as the Vistula river, lasted until AD 170-180 when the migration of the Vandal Hasdingi pushed out this northern Dacian group. This Dacian group, possibly the Costoboci / Lipia culture , is associated by Gudmund Schütte with towns having the specific Dacian language ending ” dava ” i. The Roman province Dacia Traiana , established by the victors of the Dacian Wars during 101106 AD, initially comprised only the regions known today as Banat , Oltenia , Transylvania , and was subsequently gradually extended to parts of Moldavia , while Dobruja and Budjak belonged the Roman province of Moesia. In the 2nd century AD, after the Roman conquest, Ptolemy puts the eastern boundary of Dacia Traiana (the Roman province) as far east as the Hierasus (Siret) river, in modern Romania. Roman rule extended to include the south-western area of the Dacian Kingdom, but not to what later became known as Maramure , to parts of the later Principality of Moldavia east of the Siret and north of the Upper Trajan Wall , and to areas in modern Muntenia and Ukraine, except the Black Sea shore. After the Marcomannic Wars (166-180 AD), Dacian groups from outside Roman Dacia had been set in motion. So were the 12,000 Dacians’from the neighbourhood of Roman Dacia sent away from their own country’. Their native country could have been the Upper Tisza region but some other places cannot be excluded. The later Roman province Dacia Aureliana , was organized inside former Moesia Superior after the retreat of the Roman army from Dacia, during the reign of emperor Aurelian during 271275. It was reorganised as Dacia Ripensis (as a military province) and Dacia Mediterranea (as a civil province). Ptolemy gives a list of 43 names of towns in Dacia, out of which arguably 33 were of Dacian origin. Most of the latter included the added suffix dava (meaning settlement, village) But, other Dacian names from his list lack the suffix e. Zarmisegethusa regia = Zermizirga In addition, nine other names of Dacian origin seem to have been Latinised. The cities of the Dacians were known as -dava , -deva , – “-dawa” or “-dava”, Anc. Or – “-dava”, Byz. There is a list of Dacian davas 1 and, more actual, at SOLTDM. In Dacia: Acidava , Argedava , Buridava , Dokidava , Carsidava , Clepidava , Cumidava , Marcodava , Netindava , Patridava , Pelendava , Perburidava , Petrodaua , Piroboridaua , Rhamidaua , Rusidava , Sacidava , Sangidava , Setidava , Singidava , Tamasidava , Utidava , Zargidava , Ziridava , Sucidava 26 names altogether. In Lower Moesia (the present Northern Bulgaria) and Scythia minor (Dobrudja): Aedeba , Buteridava , Giridava , Dausadava , Kapidaua , Murideba , Sacidava , Scaidava (Skedeba), Sagadava , Sukidaua (Sucidava)10 names in total. In Upper Moesia (the districts of Nish, Sofia, and partly Kjustendil): Aiadaba , Bregedaba , Danedebai , Desudaba , Itadeba , Kuimedaba , Zisnudeba seven names in total. Gil-doba , a village in Thracia , of unknown location. Thermi-daua , a town in Dalmatia. Probably a Grecized form of Germidava. Pulpu-deva , (Phillipopolis) today Plovdiv in Bulgaria. The migrations of the forebears of Ancient Greece c. 750 BC or earlier are thought to have originated from periodically swelled populations in the fertile plains of the region. Such migrations would have occurred in prehistoric times, and therefore no documentation exists about them. There may have been trade with communities along the Danube via the Black sea , even in Minoan times (2700 to 1450 BC). Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians under the king Burebista. It seems likely that the Dacian state arose as an unstable tribal confederacy, which was united only fitfully by charismatic leadership in both military-political and ideological-religious domains. At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, under the rule of Rubobostes , a Dacian king in present-day Transylvania , the Dacians’ power in the Carpathian basin increased after they defeated the Celts , who previously held power in the region. A kingdom of Dacia also existed as early as the first half of the 2nd century BC under King Oroles. Conflicts with the Bastarnae and the Romans (112 109 BC, 74 BC), against whom they had assisted the Scordisci and Dardani , greatly weakened the resources of the Dacians. Burebista (Boerebista), a contemporary of Julius Caesar , ruled Geto-Dacian tribes between 82 BC and 44 BC. He thoroughly reorganised the army and attempted to raise the moral standard and obedience of the people by persuading them to cut their vines and give up drinking wine. During his reign, the limits of the Dacian Kingdom were extended to their maximum. The Bastarnae and Boii were conquered, and even the Greek towns of Olbia and Apollonia on the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) recognized Burebista’s authority. In 53 BC, Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest. Burebista suppressed the indigenous minting of coinages by four major tribal groups, adopting imported or copied Roman denarii as a monetary standard. During his reign, Burebista transferred Geto-Dacians capital from Argedava to Sarmizegetusa Regia. For at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegetusa was the Dacians’ capital and reached its peak under King Decebalus. The Dacians appeared so formidable that Caesar contemplated an expedition against them, which his death in 44 BC prevented. In the same year Burebista was murdered, and the kingdom was divided into four (later five) parts under separate rulers. One of these entities was Cotiso’s state, to whom Augustus betrothed his own five-year-old daughter Julia. He is well known from the line in Horace Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen , Odes, III. The Dacians are often mentioned under Augustus, according to whom they were compelled to recognize Roman supremacy. However they were by no means subdued, and in later times to maintain their independence they seized every opportunity of crossing the frozen Danube during the winter and ravaging the Roman cities in the province of Moesia. Strabo testified: “although the Getae and Daci once attained to very great power, so that they actually could send forth an expedition of two hundred thousand men, they now find themselves reduced to as few as forty thousand, and they have come close to the point of yielding obedience to the Romans, though as yet they are not absolutely submissive, because of the hopes which they base on the Germans, who are enemies to the Romans” [17]. In fact, this occurred because Burebista’s empire split after his death into four and later five smaller states, as Strabo explains, only recently, when Augustus Caesar sent an expedition against them, the number of parts into which the empire had been divided was five, though at the time of the insurrection it had been four. Such divisions, to be sure, are only temporary and vary with the times. Decebalus ruled the Dacians between 87 AD and 106 AD. The frontiers of Decebal’s Dacia were marked by the Tisza River to the west, by the Carpathians to the north and by the Dniester River to the east. Fiery battle scene between the Roman and Dacian armies, Trajan’s Column , Rome. Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedonia and Greece and east of the Danube that had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Julius Caesar. When a Roman army had been beaten at the Battle of Histria. In 85 AD, the Dacians had swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia. And initially defeated an army the Emperor Domitian sent against them. But the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae in 88 AD and a truce was drawn up. From 85 to 89 AD, the Dacians under Decebalus were engaged in two wars with the Romans. In 87 AD, the Roman troops under Cornelius Fuscus were defeated, and Cornelius Fuscus was killed by the Dacians by authority of their ruler, Diurpaneus. After this victory, Diurpaneus took the name of Decebalus. The next year, 88 AD, new Roman troops under Tettius Iullianus , gained a significant advantage, but were obliged to make peace following the defeat of Domitian by the Marcomanni , leaving the Dacians effectively independent. Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles. Defeated the Dacian general Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. With Trajan’s troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa , Decebalus once more sought terms. Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105 AD. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia. Attacking the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegethusa , and razing it to the ground. With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east. His conquests brought the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Rome’s borders in the east were governed indirectly in this period, through a system of client states , which led to less direct campaigning than in the west. To increase the glory of his reign, restore the finances of Rome, and end a treaty perceived as humiliating, Trajan resolved on the conquest of Dacia, the capture of the famous Treasure of Decebalus, and control over the Dacian gold mines of Transylvania. The result of his first campaign (101102) was the siege of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa and the occupation of part of the country. The second campaign (105106) ended with the suicide of Decebalus, and the conquest of the territory that was to form the Roman province Dacia Traiana. The history of the war is given by Cassius Dio , but the best commentary upon it is the famous Column of Trajan in Rome. Although the Romans conquered and destroyed the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, a large remainder of the land remained outside of Roman Imperial authority. Additionally, the conquest changed the balance of power in the region and was the catalyst for a renewed alliance of Germanic and Celtic tribes and kingdoms against the Roman Empire. However, the material advantages of the Roman Imperial system was attractive to the surviving aristocracy. Thus, most of the Romanian historians and linguists believe that many of the Dacians became Romanised (see also Origin of Romanians). In 183 AD, war broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne of emperor Commodus , Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger , both distinguished themselves in the campaign. The Roman emperor Decius (249-251 AD) had to restore Roman Dacia from the Carpo-Dacians of Zosimus “having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia and Moesia”. Even so, the Germanic and Celtic kingdoms, particularly the Gothic tribes , slowly moved toward the Dacian borders, and within a generation were making assaults on the province. Ultimately, the Goths succeeded in dislodging the Romans and restoring the “independence” of Dacia following Emperor Aurelian’s withdrawal, in 275. In 268-269 AD, at Naissus , Claudius II (Gothicus Maximus) obtained a decisive victory over the Goths. Since at that time Romans were still occupying Roman Dacia it is assumed that the Goths didn’t cross the Danube from the Roman province. The Goths who survived their defeat didn’t even attempt to escape through Dacia, but through Thrace. At the boundaries of Roman Dacia , Carpi (Free Dacians) were still strong enough to sustain five battles in eight years against the Romans from 301308 AD. That makes it probable that Roman Dacia was left in 275 AD by the Romans, to the Carpi again, and not to the Goths. There were still Dacians in 336 AD, against whom Constantine the Great fought. The province was abandoned by Roman troops, and, according to the Breviarium historiae Romanae by Eutropius , Roman citizens “from the towns and lands of Dacia” were resettled to the interior of Moesia. However, some historians maintain that the bulk of the civilian population remained and a surviving aristocratic Dacian line revived the kingdom under Regalianus. The Historia Augusta says he was a Dacian, a kinsman of [Decebalus]. Nonetheless, the Gothic aristocracy remained ascendant and through intermarriage soon dominated the kingdom, which was absorbed into their large empire. 296 AD, in order to defend the Roman border, fortifications were erected by the Romans on both banks of the Danube. By 336 AD, Constantine the Great had reconquered the lost province. He took the title Dacicus Maximus (“The great Victor over the Dacians”) when he restored Dacia back to the Roman Empire in 336 AD. However following his death, the Romans abandoned Dacia permanently. Gaius Messius Quintus Decius ca. 201- June 251 was the Emperor of Rome from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until both of them were killed in the Battle of Abrittus. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass’s head i44263″ is in sale since Monday, November 10, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius

Aug 10 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

NGC AU Ancient Double Denarius. This is a great investment with graded ancient. Coins gaining in value every day. This is a great looking coin with amazing detail. Trajan Decius Story from Wikipedia. Gaius Messius Quintus Decius Augustus. 201 June 251, was. From 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son. Until they were both killed in the. Around 245, Emperor Philip entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of. And his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim him Emperor. Philip had to advance against him and was killed near. Then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute. As a reference to the good emperor. According to the Byzantine historian. Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. You may be interested in our other listings. We Guarantee 100% Satisfaction. If you have any questions feel free to ask. New items every day. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin” is in sale since Wednesday, December 07, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “morgandollartrader” and is located in Waukesha, Wisconsin. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia.
  • Certification: NGC
  • Certification Number: 4277509-007
  • Grade: AU
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Date: 249-251
  • Composition: Silver
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown
  • Denomination: Double Denarius
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: Uncleaned
  • Provenance: Ownership History Not Available

Jul 24 2017

TRAJAN victory vs DACIA 103AD Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC i62051

TRAJAN victory vs DACIA 103AD Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC i62051

TRAJAN victory vs DACIA 103AD Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC i62051

TRAJAN victory vs DACIA 103AD Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC i62051

TRAJAN victory vs DACIA 103AD Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC i62051

Item: i62051 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Denarius 19mm (3.20 grams) Rome mint: 103-111 A. Reference: RIC 219 Certification: NGC Ancients. XF 4529162-012 IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate head right. S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Dacia seated right in mournful attitude on shield; below, curved sword. Trajan celebrates his victory over Dacia on this coin. Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana and Dacia Felix) was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274-275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania, the Banat, and Oltenia (regions of modern Romania). It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province and remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians’ estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000. The conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan (98-117) after two major campaignsagainst Decebalus’s Dacian kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia, together with Maramure and Criana, was ruled by Free Dacians even after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Superior (Upper Dacia) and Dacia Inferior (Lower Dacia) (later named Dacia Malvensis). In 124 (or around 158), Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars the military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor, with another two senators (the legati legionis) as his subordinates; the province was called tres Daciæ (Three Dacias) or simply Dacia. The Roman authorities undertook in Dacia a massive and organized colonization. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but also to the rest of the Balkan area. It became a highly urban province, with 11 or 12 cities known, 8 of which held the highest rank of colonia , though the number of cities was fewer than in the region’s other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa , the seat of the imperial procurator (finance officer) for all the three subdivisions was the financial, religious, and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia’s existence. Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, who, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla (180-217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, becoming the first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes (Goths, Taifali, Bastarns) together with the Carpi in 248-250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus (253-268), but they also report that it was Aurelian (270-275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia. The fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future, gradually turned into Romanian; in parallel, a new people-the Romanians-were formed from the Daco-Romans (the Romanized population of Dacia Traiana). The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus , commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 – 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non-patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province (modern day Spain), Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Market and Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia against king Decebalus, defeating the Dacian army near Tapae in 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom, establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia, advancing as far as the city of Susa in 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke on August 9, in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus-commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning “may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan”. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (in what is now Andalusia in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica, where the Italian families were paramount. Of Italian stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana and his niece was Salonina Matidia. The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 76-77, Trajan’s father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. Trajan was nominated as Consul and brought Apollodorus of Damascus with him to Rome around 91. Along the Rhine River, he took part in the Emperor Domitian’s wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva, who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History , it was the future Emperor Hadrian who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific of optimus , meaning “the best”. Dio Cassius, sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus, induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia – the reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Dacia-an area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian’s ministers In the first war c. March-May 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia with four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River on a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass called Tapae (see Second Battle of Tapae). Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87 without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus committed suicide, and his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter, one of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom, although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria and Egypt. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra and Bostra, as is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia and his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)-consisting of a forum, Trajan’s Column, and Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads (Via Traiana and Via Traiana Nova). One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients (Paul Veyne has assumed that, in the city of Veleia, only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary) – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. Finley, that the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia’s decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur in order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis and Batnae and organizing a province of Mesopotamia in the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river South, capturing Babylon; while Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates, then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia and finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax, whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great and reach the distant India itself. A province of Assyria was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek, Munich. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus, who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa from the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian , who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 9. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian as his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Hadrian, upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene – to the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. The Alcántara Bridge, widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column, Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Bridge, Alcántara Bridge, and possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Dio Cassius admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. The Christianisation of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval times that Pope Gregory I, through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas, discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy, Dante, following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter with other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs to paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid – considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania – among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. The item “TRAJAN victory vs DACIA 103AD Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin Rome NGC i62051″ is in sale since Wednesday, June 21, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Composition: Silver
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: XF
  • Certification: NGC
  • Certification Number: 4529162-012

May 26 2017

TRAJAN 114AD Rome Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin FORTUNA NGC VF i61938

TRAJAN 114AD Rome Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin FORTUNA NGC VF i61938

TRAJAN 114AD Rome Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin FORTUNA NGC VF i61938

TRAJAN 114AD Rome Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin FORTUNA NGC VF i61938

TRAJAN 114AD Rome Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin FORTUNA NGC VF i61938

Item: i61938 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Bronze Sestertius 32mm (25.65 grams) Rome mint, struck 114-117 A. Reference: RIC 652 Certification: NGC Ancients. Ch VF Strike: 5/5 Surface: 3/5 Fine Style 4163865-001 IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate and draped bust right. SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae; FORT RED S-C in two lines in exergue. In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck; hopefully she brought good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind, as modern depictions of Justice are seen, and came to represent the capriciousness of life. Atrox Fortuna claimed the lives of Augustus’ two hopeful grandsons, educated to take up princely roles, for she was also a goddess of fate. Her father was Jupiter, and though she had no lovers or children of her own, Fortuna was propitiated by mothers. Fortuna had a retinue that included Copia , “bounty”, among her blessings. Under the name Annonaria she protected grain supplies. In the Roman calendar, June 11 was sacred to Fortuna, with a greater festival to Fors Fortuna on the 24th. Roman writers disagreed whether her cult was introduced to Rome by Servius Tullius. Fortuna had a temple in the Forum Boarium and a public sanctuary on the Quirinalis, as the tutelary genius of Roma herself, Fortuna Populi Romani, the “Fortune of the Roman people”, for Fortuna, the embodiment of the chaotic chance event as modern historians would see it, was closely tied by the Romans to virtus , strength of character; flaws in the main public actors brought on the calamities of ill fortune, as Roman historians like Sallust saw her role: “Truly, when in the place of work, idleness, in place of the spirit of measure and equity, caprice and pride invade, fortune is changed just as with morality”. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus , commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 – 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non-patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province (modern day Spain), Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Market and Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia against king Decebalus, defeating the Dacian army near Tapae in 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom, establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia, advancing as far as the city of Susa in 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke on August 9, in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus-commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning “may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan”. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (in what is now Andalusia in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica, where the Italian families were paramount. Of Italian stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana and his niece was Salonina Matidia. The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 76-77, Trajan’s father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. Trajan was nominated as Consul and brought Apollodorus of Damascus with him to Rome around 91. Along the Rhine River, he took part in the Emperor Domitian’s wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva, who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History , it was the future Emperor Hadrian who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific of optimus , meaning “the best”. Dio Cassius, sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus, induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia – the reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Dacia-an area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian’s ministers In the first war c. March-May 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia with four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River on a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass called Tapae (see Second Battle of Tapae). Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87 without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus committed suicide, and his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter, one of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom, although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria and Egypt. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra and Bostra, as is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia and his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)-consisting of a forum, Trajan’s Column, and Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads (Via Traiana and Via Traiana Nova). One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients (Paul Veyne has assumed that, in the city of Veleia, only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary) – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. Finley, that the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia’s decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur in order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis and Batnae and organizing a province of Mesopotamia in the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river South, capturing Babylon; while Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates, then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia and finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax, whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great and reach the distant India itself. A province of Assyria was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek, Munich. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus, who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa from the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian , who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 9. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian as his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Hadrian, upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene – to the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. The Alcántara Bridge, widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column, Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Bridge, Alcántara Bridge, and possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Dio Cassius admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. The Christianisation of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval times that Pope Gregory I, through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas, discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy, Dante, following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter with other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs to paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid – considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania – among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. The item “TRAJAN 114AD Rome Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin FORTUNA NGC VF i61938″ is in sale since Thursday, May 25, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Certification: NGC
  • Grade: Ch VF
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Certification Number: 4163865-001
  • Denomination: Sestertius

May 18 2017

TRAJAN 98AD Rome Sesterius Authentic Ancient NGC Certified Roman Coin PAX i60400

TRAJAN 98AD Rome Sesterius Authentic Ancient NGC Certified Roman Coin PAX i60400

TRAJAN 98AD Rome Sesterius Authentic Ancient NGC Certified Roman Coin PAX i60400

TRAJAN 98AD Rome Sesterius Authentic Ancient NGC Certified Roman Coin PAX i60400

TRAJAN 98AD Rome Sesterius Authentic Ancient NGC Certified Roman Coin PAX i60400

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Bronze Sestertius 32mm (24.11 grams) Rome mint. Struck circa 98-99 A. Reference: RIC 383, C 590 Certification: NGC Ancients. Ch F 4375823-332 IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, Laureate head right. TR POT COS II PP Exe: SC, Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter. Was recognized as a goddess. During the rule of Augustus. On the Campus Martius. She had a temple called the Ara Pacis. And another temple on the Forum Pacis. She was depicted in art with olive. There was a festival in her honor on January 3. Pax was often associated with spring. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus. Commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor. Who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician. Family in the Hispania Baetica. Province modern day Spain. , Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army. Along the German frontier. And successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. An old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard. Compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome. And left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum. And Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition. Into the kingdom of Dacia. Defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. In 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom. Establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia. Advancing as far as the city of Susa. In 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke. In the city of Selinus. By the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning may he be luckier than Augustus. And better than Trajan. Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. While the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon. Popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors. Of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. In what is now Andalusia. In modern Spain, a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica. Stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia. And Marcus Ulpius Traianus. And general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana. And his niece was Salonina Matidia. Of the Ulpii was Italica. In Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army. Serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 7677, Trajan’s father was Governor. Pro praetore Syriae , where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus. Trajan was nominated as Consul. And brought Apollodorus of Damascus. With him to Rome. Along the Rhine River. He took part in the Emperor Domitian. S wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva. Who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History. It was the future Emperor Hadrian. Who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate. Eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific. Of optimus , meaning “the best”. Sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus. Induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East. But initially for the two wars against Dacia. The reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Daciaan area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian. S ministers In the first war c. MarchMay 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia. With four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River. On a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass. See Second Battle of Tapae. Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus. Launched a counter-attack across the Danube. Further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87. Without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus. His massive bridge over the Danube. He conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus. And his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter. One of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom. Although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra. As is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea. And north west Saudi Arabia. The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger. On the subject of how to deal with the Christians. Telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia. And his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia. (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)consisting of a forum. And Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches. Many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads Via Traiana. And Via Traiana Nova. One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial. Festival in the great Colosseum. In Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients Paul Veyne. Has assumed that, in the city of Veleia. Only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. That the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia. S decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia. A kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony. Since the time of Nero. Some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur. In order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis. And organizing a province of Mesopotamia. In the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris. Sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae. A second followed the river South, capturing Babylon. While Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates. Then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia. And finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf. Receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. Whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. And reach the distant India. A province of Assyria. Was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I. And put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra. In his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege. And it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews. Inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus. Who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa. From the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian. Who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra. Showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia. Which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian. As his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina. Who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene. To the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. Widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column. And possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. Of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval. Times that Pope Gregory I. Through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas. Discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy. Following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter. With other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan. Was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain. Comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs. To paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid. Considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania. Among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN 98AD Rome Sesterius Authentic Ancient NGC Certified Roman Coin PAX i60400″ is in sale since Wednesday, April 05, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Certification: NGC
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Grade: Ch F
  • Certification Number: 4375823-332
  • Culture: Roman

May 15 2017

TRAJAN 114AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin Virtus with parazonium i53338

TRAJAN 114AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin Virtus with parazonium i53338

TRAJAN 114AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin Virtus with parazonium i53338

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Denarius 19mm (3.71 grams) Rome mint: 114-117 A. Reference: RIC 354v; RSC 274c IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM DAC, laureate draped bust right P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Virtus standing right, foot on helmet, holding spear & parazonium. A parazonium is a long triangular dagger. Wide at the hilt end and coming to a point. In the Roman mythology. It is frequently carried by Virtus. Particularly on early representations. It is also sometimes carried by Mars. Giving them the aura of courage. In Roman statuary, the weapon is cradled in the bearer’s left arm or on Trajan’s column, for example, it is stuck into the left side of the officer’s chest band. Existing examples on statuary show that the Parazonium’s scabbard shape is a direct copy of the few existing Greek Parazoniums on display at various Greek museums. The weapon’s hilt, grip, pommel are not copies of the Greek style. The pommel cap is either an eagle’s head or a bi-lobed pommel. The details of the hand grip on the statues are no longer clear after 2,000 years. The guard, contrary to some reports are authentic and are a rather theatrical “S” shape with inset detail. The Roman Parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15″-19″ long. The use of the Roman parazonium tended to be somewhat theatrical in the sense that it was a mark of rank and it was used to rally the troops. The Roman personification of Valour was represented helmeted with spear and sword and standing with right foot on helmet. There was a golden statue of her at Rome which was melted by Alaric, king of the Goths. Valour is frequently represented on coins- VIRTVS AVG. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus. Commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor. Who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician. Family in the Hispania Baetica. Province modern day Spain. , Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army. Along the German frontier. And successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. An old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard. Compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome. And left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum. And Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition. Into the kingdom of Dacia. Defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. In 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom. Establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia. Advancing as far as the city of Susa. In 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke. In the city of Selinus. By the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning may he be luckier than Augustus. And better than Trajan. Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. While the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon. Popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors. Of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. In what is now Andalusia. In modern Spain, a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica. Stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia. And Marcus Ulpius Traianus. And general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana. And his niece was Salonina Matidia. Of the Ulpii was Italica. In Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army. Serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 7677, Trajan’s father was Governor. Pro praetore Syriae , where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus. Trajan was nominated as Consul. And brought Apollodorus of Damascus. With him to Rome. Along the Rhine River. He took part in the Emperor Domitian. S wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva. Who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History. It was the future Emperor Hadrian. Who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate. Eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific. Of optimus , meaning “the best”. Sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus. Induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East. But initially for the two wars against Dacia. The reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Daciaan area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian. S ministers In the first war c. MarchMay 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia. With four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River. On a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass. See Second Battle of Tapae. Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus. Launched a counter-attack across the Danube. Further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87. Without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus. His massive bridge over the Danube. He conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus. And his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter. One of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom. Although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra. As is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea. And north west Saudi Arabia. The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger. On the subject of how to deal with the Christians. Telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia. And his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia. (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)consisting of a forum. And Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches. Many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads Via Traiana. And Via Traiana Nova. One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial. Festival in the great Colosseum. In Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients Paul Veyne. Has assumed that, in the city of Veleia. Only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. That the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia. S decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia. A kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony. Since the time of Nero. Some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur. In order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis. And organizing a province of Mesopotamia. In the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris. Sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae. A second followed the river South, capturing Babylon. While Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates. Then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia. And finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf. Receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. Whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. And reach the distant India. A province of Assyria. Was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I. And put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra. In his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege. And it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews. Inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus. Who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa. From the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian. Who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra. Showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia. Which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian. As his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina. Who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene. To the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. Widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column. And possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. Of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval. Times that Pope Gregory I. Through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas. Discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy. Following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter. With other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan. Was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Anton Raphael Mengs. To paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid. Considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania. Among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “TRAJAN 114AD Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin Virtus with parazonium i53338″ is in sale since Monday, December 07, 2015. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Composition: Silver

May 8 2017

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Denarius 17mm (2.87 grams) Rome mint 103-111 A. Reference: RIC 187, BMC 218 IMPTRAIANOAVGGERDACPMTRPCOSVPP – Laureate bust right, aegis on left shoulder. SPQROPTIMOPRINCIPI – Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter, kneeling captive to left. Or aigis , as stated in the Iliad. Is carried by Athena. But its nature is uncertain. It had been interpreted as an animal skin or a shield. Sometimes bearing the head of a Gorgon. There may be a connection with a deity named Aex. Or Aix , a daughter of Helios. And a nurse of Zeus or alternatively a mistress of Zeus Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. The aegis of Athena is referred to in several places in the Iliad. It produced a sound as from a myriad roaring dragons (Iliad, 4.17) and was borne by Athena in battle… And among them went bright-eyed Athene, holding the precious aegis which is ageless and immortal: a hundred tassels of pure gold hang fluttering from it, tight-woven each of them, and each the worth of a hundred oxen. Medusa, the gorgon, was beheaded by the hero Perseus. Who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena. To place on her shield. The image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device. Known as the Gorgoneion. Gorgons were a popular image in Greek mythology, appearing in the earliest of written records of Ancient Greek religious beliefs. Such as those of Homer. Which may date to as early as 11941184 BC. Because of their legendary and powerful gaze that could turn one to stone, images of the Gorgons were put upon objects and buildings for protection. The modern concept of doing something “under someone’s aegis ” means doing something under the protection of a powerful, knowledgeable, or benevolent source. The word aegis is identified with protection by a strong force with its roots in Greek mythology. And adopted by the Romans; there are parallels in Norse mythology. And in Egyptian mythology. As well, where the Greek word aegis is applied by extension. Was originally a horror-creating apotropaic. It was assimilated by the Olympian deities. Both are said to have worn it as a protective pendant. It was assumed, among other godlike attributes, as a royal aegis. By rulers of the Hellenistic age, as shown, for instance, on the Alexander Mosaic. And the Gonzaga Cameo. Refers to the Gorgon on four occasions, each time alluding to the head alone, as if the creature had no body. Notes that Medusa is a head and nothing more… With a body later appended. Up to the 5th century BC, the head was depicted as particularly ugly, with a protruding tongue, boar. Puffy cheeks, her eyeballs staring fixedly on the viewer and the snakes twisting all around her. The direct frontal stare, “seemingly looking out from its own iconographical context and directly challenging the viewer”, was highly unusual in ancient Greek art. In some instances a beard (probably standing for streaks of blood) was appended to her chin, making her appear as an orgiastic deity. Gorgoneia that decorate the shields of warriors on mid-5th century Greek vases are considerably less grotesque and menacing. By that time, the Gorgon had lost her tusks and the snakes were rather stylized. Marble known as the Medusa Rondanini. Illustrates the Gorgon’s eventual transformation into a beautiful woman. Was recognized as a goddess. During the rule of Augustus. On the Campus Martius. She had a temple called the Ara Pacis. And another temple on the Forum Pacis. She was depicted in art with olive. There was a festival in her honor on January 3. Pax was often associated with spring. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus. Commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor. Who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician. Family in the Hispania Baetica. Province modern day Spain. , Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army. Along the German frontier. And successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. An old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard. Compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome. And left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum. And Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition. Into the kingdom of Dacia. Defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. In 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom. Establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia. Advancing as far as the city of Susa. In 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke. In the city of Selinus. By the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning may he be luckier than Augustus. And better than Trajan. Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. While the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon. Popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors. Of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. In what is now Andalusia. In modern Spain, a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica. Stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia. And Marcus Ulpius Traianus. And general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana. And his niece was Salonina Matidia. Of the Ulpii was Italica. In Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army. Serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 7677, Trajan’s father was Governor. Pro praetore Syriae , where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus. Trajan was nominated as Consul. And brought Apollodorus of Damascus. With him to Rome. Along the Rhine River. He took part in the Emperor Domitian. S wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva. Who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History. It was the future Emperor Hadrian. Who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate. Eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific. Of optimus , meaning “the best”. Sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus. Induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East. But initially for the two wars against Dacia. The reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Daciaan area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian. S ministers In the first war c. MarchMay 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia. With four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River. On a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass. See Second Battle of Tapae. Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus. Launched a counter-attack across the Danube. Further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87. Without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus. His massive bridge over the Danube. He conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus. And his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter. One of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom. Although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra. As is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea. And north west Saudi Arabia. The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger. On the subject of how to deal with the Christians. Telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia. And his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia. (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)consisting of a forum. And Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches. Many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads Via Traiana. And Via Traiana Nova. One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial. Festival in the great Colosseum. In Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients Paul Veyne. Has assumed that, in the city of Veleia. Only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. That the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia. S decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia. A kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony. Since the time of Nero. Some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur. In order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis. And organizing a province of Mesopotamia. In the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris. Sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae. A second followed the river South, capturing Babylon. While Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates. Then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia. And finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf. Receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. Whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. And reach the distant India. A province of Assyria. Was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I. And put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra. In his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege. And it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews. Inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus. Who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa. From the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian. Who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra. Showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia. Which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian. As his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina. Who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene. To the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. Widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column. And possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. Of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval. Times that Pope Gregory I. Through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas. Discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy. Following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter. With other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan. Was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain. Comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs. To paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid. Considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania. Among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549″ is in sale since Thursday, January 19, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Composition: Silver

May 6 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 20mm (3.54 grams) Rome mint: 249-250 A. Reference: RIC 12b; RSC 16 Certification: NGC Ancients. MS Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5 1883004-072 IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Decius right. DACIA, Dacia standing left, holding draco standard. Numismatic Note: Unusually detailed reverse, showing the standard held by Dacia is a dragon-headed draco, not an “ass’s head” as described by RIC. Of the Roman Empire. Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana and Dacia Felix) was a province. From 106 to 274275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania. Regions of modern Romania. It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province. And remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians’ estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000. The conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan. (98-117) after two major campaigns. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia. Was ruled by Free Dacians. Even after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Superior (Upper Dacia) and Dacia Inferior (Lower Dacia) (later named Dacia Malvensis). In 124 (or around 158), Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars. The military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor. With another two senators the legati legionis. As his subordinates; the province was called tres Daciæ (Three Dacias) or simply Dacia. The Roman authorities undertook in Dacia a massive and organized colonization. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but also to the rest of the Balkan area. It became a highly urban province, with 11 or 12 cities known, 8 of which held the highest rank of colonia. Though the number of cities was fewer than in the region’s other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. The seat of the imperial procurator. (finance officer) for all the three subdivisions was the financial, religious, and legislative center of the province. Where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia’s existence. Who bordered the province were the first adversary, who, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians. Hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus. (180-217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi. A Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths. Who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, becoming the first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic. Together with the Carpi in 248-250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, the Goths and Heruli. In 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus. (253-268), but they also report that it was Aurelian. (270-275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana. With its capital at Serdica. The fate of the Romanized. Population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future, gradually turned into Romanian. In parallel, a new peoplethe Romanians. Were formed from the Daco-Romans. (the Romanized population of Dacia Traiana). The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus. 201 June 251 was Roman Emperor. From 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus. Until they were both killed in the Battle of Abritus. Early life and rise to power. Decius, who was born at Budalia. , was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab. Who did not have extensive administrative experience before assuming the throne, Decius was a distinguished senator. Who had served as consul. In 232, had been governor of Moesia. Soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Between 235238, and was urban prefect. Of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Iulius Phillippus). Around 245, Philip I. Entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus. And his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim him Emperor. Philip had to advance against him and was killed at Verona. Then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus as a reference to the good emperor Trajan. According to the Byzantine historian Zosimus. Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. Political and monumental initiatives. Decius’ political program was focused on the restoration of the strength of the State, both militarily opposing the external threats, and restoring the public piety. With a program of renovation of the State religion. Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor. The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian. But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attached to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility. The invasion of the Goths. And Decius’ death put an end to the abortive attempt. The Baths of Decius. During his reign, he proceeded with several building projects in Rome, including the Thermae Decianae or Baths of Decius. On the Aventine, which was completed in 252 and survived through to the 16th century; Decius also repaired the Colosseum, which had been damaged by lightning strikes. Main article: Decian persecution. See also Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire#Under Decius. In January 250, Decius is said to have issued one of the most remarkable Roman imperial edicts. From the numerous surviving texts from Egypt, recording the act of sacrifice, it appears that the edict itself was fairly clear. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community’for the safety of the empire’ by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the order may have been that the sacrifice had to be completed within a specified period after a community received the edict). When they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate (libellus) recording the fact that they had complied with the order. That is, the certificate would testify the sacrificant’s loyalty to the ancestral gods and to the consumption of sacrificial food and drink as well as the names of the officials who were overseeing the sacrifice. Potter, Decius did not try to impose the superiority of the Roman pantheon over any other gods. It is very probable that the edict was an attempt to legitimize his position and to respond to a general unease provoked by the passing of the Roman millennium. While Decius himself may have intended the edict as a way to reaffirm his conservative vision of the Pax Romana and to reassure Rome’s citizens that the empire was still secure, it nevertheless sparked a terrible crisis of authority as various Christian bishops and their flocks reacted to it in different ways. Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops. And officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor. The sacrifice was “on behalf of” (Latin pro) the Emperor, not to the Emperor, since a living Emperor was not considered divine. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the commissioners during the persecution of Christians under Decius. Forty-six such certificates have been published, all dating from 250, four of them from Oxyrhynchus. Anyone, including Christian followers, who refused to offer a sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire’s well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution. A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process, including Pope Fabian. Himself in 250, and anti-Christian feeling[s] led to pogroms at Carthage and Alexandria. ” In reality, however, towards the end of the second year of Decius’ reign, “the ferocity of the [anti-Christian] persecution had eased off, and the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself. ” The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that “fierce tyrant. At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague. Which at its height from 251 to 266, took the lives of 5,000 daily in Rome. This outbreak is referred to as the Plague of Cyprian. The bishop of Carthage. Where both the plague and the persecution of Christians. Cyprian’s biographer Pontius. Gave a vivid picture of the demoralizing effects of the plague and Cyprian moralized the event in his essay De mortalitate. In Carthage, the “Decian persecution”, unleashed at the onset of the plague, sought out Christian scapegoats. Decius’ edicts were renewed under Valerian in 253 and repealed under his son, Gallienus. Fighting the Goths and death. The Goths enter the Balkans. Incursions into the Empire were becoming more and more daring and frequent whereas the Empire was facing a serious economic crisis in Decius’ time. During his brief reign, Decius engaged in important operations against the Goths. Who crossed the Danube to raid districts of Moesia and Thrace. This is the first considerable occasion the Goths who would later come to play such an important role appear in the historical record. The Goths under King Cniva. Were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis. On the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans. But then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë modern Stara Zagora. , sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops. The Goths then moved to attack Philippopolis. , which fell into their hands. The governor of Thrace, Titus Julius Priscus. Declared himself Emperor under Gothic protection in opposition to Decius but Priscus’s challenge was rendered moot when he was killed soon afterwards. Then the invaders began returning to their homeland, laden with booty and captives, among them many of senatorial rank. Main article: Battle of Abritus. Intending to defeat the invaders and recover the booty. The final engagement, the battle of Abrittus. In which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie. (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abrittus or Forum Terebronii modern Razgrad. Records that Decius’ son Herennius Etruscus. Was killed by an arrow early in the battle, and to cheer his men Decius exclaimed, Let no one mourn; the death of one soldier is not a great loss to the republic. Nevertheless, Decius’ army was entangled in the swamp and annihilated in this battle, while he himself was killed on the field of battle. As the historian Aurelius Victor. Decius and his son, while pursuing the barbarians across the Danube, died through treachery at Abrittus after reigning two years. Very many report that the son had fallen in battle while pressing an attack too boldly; that the father however, has strenuously asserted that the loss of one soldier seemed to him too little to matter. And so he resumed the war and died in a similar manner while fighting vigorously. One literary tradition claims that Decius was betrayed by his successor Trebonianus Gallus, who was involved in a secret alliance with the Goths but this cannot be substantiated and was most likely a later invention since Gallus felt compelled to adopt Decius’ younger son, Gaius Valens Hostilianus, as joint emperor even though the latter was too young to rule in his own right. It is also unlikely that the shattered Roman legions would proclaim as emperor a traitor who was responsible for the loss of so many soldiers from their ranks. Decius was the first Roman Emperor to die in battle against a foreign enemy. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205″ is in sale since Monday, December 19, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Grade: MS
  • Certification: NGC
  • Certification Number: 1883004-072
  • Composition: Silver

Apr 27 2017

TRAJAN 115AD Very Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin Equality Goddess Cult i31131

TRAJAN 115AD Very Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin Equality Goddess Cult i31131

TRAJAN 115AD Very Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin Equality Goddess Cult i31131

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Trajan – Roman Emperor: 98-117 A. Silver Denarius 18mm (3.07 grams) Struck 115 A. Reference: RIC 119; sear5 #3123; RSC 86. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right, draped far shoulder COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas seated left holding cornucopiae & scales. The cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae) or horn of plenty is a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers, nuts, other edibles, or wealth in some form. Originating in classical antiquity. It has continued as a symbol in Western art. And it is particularly associated with the Thanksgiving. Holiday in North America. Depiction of the Roman goddess Abundantia. With a cornucopia, by Rubens. Offers multiple explanations of the origin. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus. Who had to be hidden from his devouring father Cronus. In a cave on Mount Ida. On the island of Crete. Baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amalthea. (“Nourishing Goddess”), who fed him with her milk. The suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, and in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns. Which then had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god. In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles. Wrestled with the river god Achelous. And wrenched off one of his horns; river gods were sometimes depicted as horned. This version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules. By the American Regionalist. Artist Thomas Hart Benton. The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek. Particularly those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth Gaia. God of riches and son of the grain goddess Demeter. The goddess of luck, who had the power to grant prosperity. In Roman Imperial cult. Abstract Roman deities who fostered peace pax Romana. And prosperity were also depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia. “Abundance” personified, and Annona. Goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome. The classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions. Was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia to distinguish him from the gloomier Hades. Who holds a drinking horn. In modern depictions, the cornucopia is typically a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit. In North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving. Cornucopia is also the name of the annual November Wine and Food celebration in Whistler. Two cornucopias are seen in the flag. Depicts Liberty standing and Plenty holding a cornucopia. The coat of arms of Colombia. And the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia. Also feature the cornucopia, symbolising prosperity. The horn of plenty is used on body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility, fortune and abundance. Base of a statue of Louis XV of France. Aequitas is the nominative form of the Latin æquitatem , meaning justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness, and is the source of the modern word “equity”. Aequitas , also known as Aecetia , was the minor goddess of fair trade. She is depicted with a cornucopia. Representing wealth from commerce. She is also shown holding a balance. Representing equity and fairness. During the Roman Empire. Aequitas was sometimes worshipped as a quality or aspect of the emperor. Under the name Aequitas Augusti. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus , commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 â 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor. Who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician. Family in the Hispania Baetica. Province modern day Spain. , Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army. Along the German frontier. And successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. An old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard. Compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome. And left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum. And Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition. Into the kingdom of Dacia. Defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. In 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom. Establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia. Advancing as far as the city of Susa. In 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke. In the city of Selinus. By the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Âcommonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning may he be luckier than Augustus. And better than Trajan. Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. While the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon. Popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors. Of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. In what is now Andalusia. In modern Spain, a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica. Stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia. And Marcus Ulpius Traianus. And general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana. And his niece was Salonina Matidia. Of the Ulpii was Italica. In Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army. Serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 76â77, Trajan’s father was Governor. Pro praetore Syriae , where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus. Trajan was nominated as Consul. And brought Apollodorus of Damascus. With him to Rome. Along the Rhine River. He took part in the Emperor Domitian. S wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva. Who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History. It was the future Emperor Hadrian. Who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate. Eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific. Of optimus , meaning “the best”. Sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus. Induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East. But initially for the two wars against Dacia.  the reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Daciaâan area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian. S ministers In the first war c. MarchâMay 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia. With four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River. On a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass. See Second Battle of Tapae. Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus. Launched a counter-attack across the Danube. Further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87. Without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus. His massive bridge over the Danube. He conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus. And his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter. One of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom. Although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra. As is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea. And north west Saudi Arabia. The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger. On the subject of how to deal with the Christians. Telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia. And his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia. (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)âconsisting of a forum. And Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches. Many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads Via Traiana. And Via Traiana Nova. One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial. Festival in the great Colosseum. In Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients Paul Veyne. Has assumed that, in the city of Veleia. Only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. That the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia. S decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia. A kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony. Since the time of Nero. Some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur. In order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis. And organizing a province of Mesopotamia. In the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris. Sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae. A second followed the river South, capturing Babylon. While Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates. Then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia. And finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf. Receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. Whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. And reach the distant India. A province of Assyria. Was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I. And put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra. In his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege. And it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews. Inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus. Who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa. From the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian. Who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra. Showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia. Which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian. As his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina. Who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene. To the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. Widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. Of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval. Times that Pope Gregory I. Through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas. Discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy. Following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter. With other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan. Was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain. Comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs. To paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid. Considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania. Among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian BÄsescu. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “TRAJAN 115AD Very Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin Equality Goddess Cult i31131″ is in sale since Friday, January 10, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Composition: Silver

Apr 22 2017

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Pax Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin NGC i59806

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Pax Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin NGC i59806

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Pax Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin NGC i59806

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Pax Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin NGC i59806

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Pax Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin NGC i59806

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Denarius 18mm (3.52 grams) Rome mint: 103-112 A. Reference: RSC 82; R. 125 Certification: NGC Ancients. Ch VF 4375823-174 IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, Laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder. COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Pax standing left, setting fire to pile of arms and holding cornucopia; PAX in exergue. Eirene , or Irene Greek for “peace”; the Roman. One of the Horae. Was the personification of peace, and was depicted in art as a beautiful young woman carrying a cornucopia. And a torch or rhyton. She is said sometimes to be the daughter of Zeus. She was particularly well regarded by the citizens of Athens. After a naval victory over Sparta. In 375 BC, the Athenians established a cult for Eirene, erecting altars. They held an annual state sacrifice to her after 371 BC to commemorate the Common Peace. Of that year and set up a votive statue in her honour in the Agora of Athens. The statue was executed in bronze by Cephisodotus the Elder. Likely the father or uncle of the famous sculptor Praxiteles. It was acclaimed by the Athenians, who depicted it on vases and coins. Although the statue is now lost, it was copied in marble by the Romans; one of the best surviving copies (right) is in the Munich. It depicts the goddess carrying a child with her left arm Ploutos. The god of plenty and son of Demeter. The goddess of agriculture. Eirene’s missing right hand once held a sceptre. She is shown gazing maternally at Ploutos, who is looking back at her trustingly. The statue is an allegory for Plenty (Ploutos) prospering under the protection of Peace (Eirene); it constituted a public appeal to good sense. The copy in the Glyptothek was originally in the collection of the Villa Albani. In Rome but was looted and taken to France by Napoleon I. Following Napoleon’s fall, the statue was bought by Ludwig I of Bavaria. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus. Commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor. Who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician. Family in the Hispania Baetica. Province modern day Spain. , Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army. Along the German frontier. And successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. An old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard. Compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome. And left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum. And Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition. Into the kingdom of Dacia. Defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. In 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom. Establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia. Advancing as far as the city of Susa. In 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke. In the city of Selinus. By the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning may he be luckier than Augustus. And better than Trajan. Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. While the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon. Popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors. Of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. In what is now Andalusia. In modern Spain, a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica. Stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia. And Marcus Ulpius Traianus. And general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana. And his niece was Salonina Matidia. Of the Ulpii was Italica. In Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army. Serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 7677, Trajan’s father was Governor. Pro praetore Syriae , where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus. Trajan was nominated as Consul. And brought Apollodorus of Damascus. With him to Rome. Along the Rhine River. He took part in the Emperor Domitian. S wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva. Who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History. It was the future Emperor Hadrian. Who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate. Eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific. Of optimus , meaning “the best”. Sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus. Induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East. But initially for the two wars against Dacia. The reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Daciaan area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian. S ministers In the first war c. MarchMay 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia. With four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River. On a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass. See Second Battle of Tapae. Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus. Launched a counter-attack across the Danube. Further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87. Without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus. His massive bridge over the Danube. He conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus. And his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter. One of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom. Although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra. As is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea. And north west Saudi Arabia. The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger. On the subject of how to deal with the Christians. Telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia. And his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia. (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)consisting of a forum. And Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches. Many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads Via Traiana. And Via Traiana Nova. One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial. Festival in the great Colosseum. In Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients Paul Veyne. Has assumed that, in the city of Veleia. Only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. That the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia. S decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia. A kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony. Since the time of Nero. Some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur. In order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis. And organizing a province of Mesopotamia. In the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris. Sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae. A second followed the river South, capturing Babylon. While Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates. Then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia. And finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf. Receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. Whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. And reach the distant India. A province of Assyria. Was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I. And put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra. In his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege. And it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews. Inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus. Who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa. From the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian. Who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra. Showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia. Which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian. As his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina. Who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene. To the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. Widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column. And possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. Of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval. Times that Pope Gregory I. Through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas. Discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy. Following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter. With other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan. Was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain. Comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs. To paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid. Considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania. Among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN 103AD Rome Pax Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Denarius Coin NGC i59806″ is in sale since Friday, March 03, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Certification: NGC
  • Composition: Silver
  • Material: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Grade: Ch VF
  • Certification Number: 4375823-174
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Type: Denarius