Jul 15 2018

Philip I’the Arab’ Sestertius Viminacium Bull Ancient Roman Coin i37358

Philip I'the Arab' Sestertius Viminacium Bull Ancient Roman Coin i37358

Philip I'the Arab' Sestertius Viminacium Bull Ancient Roman Coin i37358

Philip I'the Arab' Sestertius Viminacium Bull Ancient Roman Coin i37358

Item: i37358 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Philip I’the Arab’ – Roman Emperor: 244-249 A. Bronze’Sestertius’ 27mm (15.26 grams) from Year 7 of the founding of Viminacium = ANVII = 245/6 A. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. P M S COL VIM, Moesia standing left between bull and lion, AN VII in ex. Numismatic Note: The bull and the lion represent the seventh Claudian legion stationed at the city. Legio septima Claudia Pia Fidelis (Seventh Claudian Legion) was a Roman legion. Its emblem, as well as of all Caesar’s legions, was the bull, together with the lion. The 7th, along with the 6th , 8th & 9th were all founded by Pompey in Spain in 65 BC. Were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar , and marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars. Legio VII was one of the two legions used in Caesar’s invasions of Britain , and played a crucial role in The Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, and it existed at least until the end of the 4th century, guarding middle Danube. Tiberius Claudius Maximus the Roman soldier who brought the head of Decebalus to emperor Trajan was serving in Legio VII Claudia. Map of the Roman empire in AD 125, under emperor Hadrian Legio VII Claudia , stationed on the river Danube at Viminacium (Kostolac, Serbia), in Moesia Superior province, from AD 58 until the 4th century. Was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia (today’s Serbia), and the capital of Moesia Superior. The site is located 12 km from the modern town of Kostolac in Eastern Serbia. The city dates back to the 1st century AD, and at its peak it is believed to have had 40.000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities of that time. It lies on the Roman road Via Militaris. Viminacium was devastated by Huns in the 5th century, but was later rebuilt by Justinian. It was completely destroyed with the arrival of Slavs in the 6th century. Today, the archeological site occupies a total of 450 hectares, and contains remains of temples, streets, squares, amphitheatres, palaces, hippodromes and Roman baths. A XXV the scene of the Trajan’s Column , which may have been accounted for “headquarters” of the Roman Emperor: Viminacium. The remains of Viminacium, the capital of the Roman province of Moesia Superior , are located on territories of the villages of Stari Kostolac and Drmno, about 12 km from the town of Kostolac and about 90 miles southeast of Belgrade. Viminacium was one of the most important Roman cities and military camps in the period from 1st to 4th centuries. No less appealing to the Romans was the hinterland of the Mlava river valley, which is rich in ore and grains. In Roman times, the town on the northern side of relying directly on the branch of the Danube , while the western side, touching the walls Mlava rivers. Only in the later period, Viminacium spread to the left bank of Mlava. Thanks to the location, land and waterways, Viminacium represented one of those areas where the encounter of cultures between East and West was inevitable. Although these roads were the primary military and strategic function, they are taking place throughout antiquity very lively traffic and certainly contributed to the very Viminacium become prosperous and an important trading and business headquarters. In Viminacium, Roman legion VII Claudia was stationed, and a nearby civilian settlement emerged from the military camp. In 117 during the reign of Hadrian it received city status. In the camp, 6.000 soldiers were stationed, and 30-40.000 lived nearby. Here, in 211, Septimius Severus was proclaimed emperor by his son Caracalla. In the mausoleum and the excavated tombs, the Roman emperor Hostilian , who died in 251, was buried. A legion may have been stationed here as early as Augustus (27 BC-14 AD). In 33/34 AD a road was built, linking Viminacium and Ratiaria. Claudius (41-54) garrisoned Viminacium, Oescus and Novae as camps for the Moesian legions. The first legion attested at Viminacium was the VII Claudia that came from Dalmatia in 52 AD. Emperor Trajan (98-117) was headquartered here during the Dacian Wars. It became a colonia with minting privilege in 239 AD during the rule of Gordian III (238-244) and housed the Legion VII and Legion IV. Emperor Hostilian was the son of the emperor Decius , who was killed in the ambush near the ancient city of Abrutus located in present day Bulgaria. According to the old manuscript, emperor Hostilian and his mother came to Viminacium to supervise the organization of defense of northern borders, but both of them died of the plague. Because of the distance and the fear of spreading the plague, he was buried with all honors in Viminacium. Viminacium was the provincial capital of Moesia Superior. In the late spring of 293-294, Diocletian journeyed through his realm and he re-organized Viminacium as the capital of the new province of Moesia Superior Margensis. He registered that the people wrote in Latin, as opposed to Greek in the southern provinces. Viminacium was the base camp of Claudia Legio VII , and hosted for some time the Flavia Felix IIII. It had a Roman amphitheatre with room for 12,000 people. In 382 the city was the meeting place between Theodosius and Gratian amidst the Gothic Wars. Viminacium was destroyed in 441 by the Attila the Hun , but rebuilt by Justinian I. During Maurice’s Balkan campaigns , Viminacium saw destruction by the Avars in 582 and a crushing defeat of Avar forces on the northern Danube bank in 599, destroying Avar reputation for invincibility. 1st emission, 1st phase, AD 253. Viminacium is located in Stari Kostolac (Old Kostolac) a Serbian town on the Danube river, east of Belgrade. Viminacium is the location of the first archaeological excavation in Serbia, which started in 1882, by Mihailo Valtrovi , an architect by profession and the first professor of archeology at the college in Belgrade. The only help he received was from 12 prisoners, because the state did not have enough resources to provide him with a better work force. His research was continued by Miloje Vasi , in the 1970s. It has intensified in the last ten years in the area of the Roman city of the Roman legionary camps and cemeteries. Many studies suggest that the military camp at Viminacium had a rectangular plan, measuring 442 x 385 meters, and that is not far from its western wall of civilian settlement in an area of approximately 72 acres. Legionary camp in Viminacium is now in a layer of arable land, so that wealth Viminacium easily accessible to researchers, but, unfortunately, and the robbers. The National Museum in Belgrade and Poarevac kept some 40,000 items found in Viminacium, of which over 700 made of gold and silver. Among them are many objects that represent the European and world rarities invaluable. It has been discovered and more than 13,500 graves. Tombstones and sarcophagi are often decorated with relief representations of scenes from mythology or daily life. We have found numerous grave masonry construction. Especially interesting are the frescoes of the 4th-century tombs. Fresco with the notion of young women in artistic value of the extreme range of late antique art. During the excavation, an amphitheater, which with its 12,000 seats was one of the largest in the Balkans. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs c. 204249, known in English as Philip the Arab or formerly (prior to World War II) in English as Philip the Arabian , was a Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. The item “Philip I’the Arab’ Sestertius Viminacium Bull Ancient Roman Coin i37358″ is in sale since Saturday, February 1, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Philip I

Jun 27 2018

PHILIP I’the Arab’ 247AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin Good luck Commerce i55469

PHILIP I'the Arab' 247AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin Good luck Commerce i55469

PHILIP I'the Arab' 247AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin Good luck Commerce i55469

Item: i55469 Authentic Ancient Coin of. The Arab’ – Roman Emperor : 244-249 A. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (3.55 grams) Struck 247 A. Reference:RIC 5; Sear 8948; RSC 137. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus & cornucopia. The caduceus from Greek “herald’s staff” is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology. The same staff was also borne by heralds in general, for example by Iris , the messenger of Hera. It is a short staff entwined by two serpents , sometimes surmounted by wings. In Roman iconography it was often depicted being carried in the left hand of Mercury , the messenger of the gods, guide of the dead and protector of merchants, shepherds, gamblers, liars, and thieves. As a symbolic object it represents Hermes (or the Roman Mercury), and by extension trades, occupations or undertakings associated with the god. In later Antiquity the caduceus provided the basis for the astrological symbol representing the planet Mercury. Thus, through its use in astrology and alchemy , it has come to denote the elemental metal of the same name. This association is ancient, and consistent from the Classical period to modern times. The caduceus is also used as a symbol representing printing, again by extension of the attributes of Mercury (in this case associated with writing and eloquence). The caduceus is sometimes mistakenly used as a symbol of medicine and/or medical practice , especially in North America , because of widespread confusion with the traditional medical symbol, the rod of Asclepius , which has only a single snake and no wings. The term kerukeion denoted any herald’s staff, not necessarily associated with Hermes in particular. Lewis Richard Farnell (1909) in his study of the cult of Hermes assumed that the two snakes had simply developed out of ornaments of the shepherd’s crook used by heralds as their staff. This view has been rejected by later authors pointing to parallel iconography in the Ancient Near East. It has been argued that the staff or wand entwined by two snakes was itself representing a god in the pre-anthropomorphic era. Like the herm or priapus , it would thus be a predecessor of the anthropomorphic Hermes of the classical era. William Hayes Ward (1910) discovered that symbols similar to the classical caduceus sometimes appeared on Mesopotamian cylinder seals. He suggested the symbol originated some time between 3000 and 4000 BCE, and that it might have been the source of the Greek caduceus. Ward’s research into his own work, published in 1916, in which he suggested that the prototype of Hermes was an “Oriental deity of Babylonian extraction” represented in his earliest form as a snake god. From this perspective, the caduceus was originally representative of Hermes himself, in his early form as the Underworld god Ningishzida , “messenger” of the “Earth Mother”. The caduceus is mentioned in passing by Walter Burkert. As “really the image of copulating snakes taken over from Ancient Near Eastern tradition”. In Egyptian iconography, the Djed pillar is depicted as containing a snake in a frieze of the Dendera Temple complex. The rod of Moses and the brazen serpent are frequently compared to the caduceus, especially as Moses is acting as a messenger of God to the Pharaoh at the point in the narrative where he changes his staff into a serpent. The Homeric hymn to Hermes relates how Hermes offered his lyre fashioned from a tortoise shell as compensation for the cattle he stole from his half brother Apollo. Apollo in return gave Hermes the caduceus as a gesture of friendship. The association with the serpent thus connects Hermes to Apollo , as later the serpent was associated with Asclepius , the “son of Apollo”. The association of Apollo with the serpent is a continuation of the older Indo-European dragon -slayer motif. Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (1913) pointed out that the serpent as an attribute of both Hermes and Asclepius is a variant of the “pre-historic semi-chthonic serpent hero known at Delphi as Python “, who in classical mythology is slain by Apollo. One Greek myth of origin of the caduceus is part of the story of Tiresias , who found two snakes copulating and killed the female with his staff. Tiresias was immediately turned into a woman, and so remained until he was able to repeat the act with the male snake seven years later. This staff later came into the possession of the god Hermes, along with its transformative powers. Another myth suggests that Hermes (or Mercury) saw two serpents entwined in mortal combat. Separating them with his wand he brought about peace between them, and as a result the wand with two serpents came to be seen as a sign of peace. In Rome, Livy refers to the caduceator who negotiated peace arrangements under the diplomatic protection of the caduceus he carried. In some vase paintings ancient depictions of the Greek kerukeion are somewhat different from the commonly seen modern representation. These representations feature the two snakes atop the staff (or rod), crossed to create a circle with the heads of the snakes resembling horns. This old graphic form, with an additional crossbar to the staff, seems to have provided the basis for the graphical sign of Mercury used in Greek astrology from Late Antiquity. Use in alchemy and occultism. As the symbol of both the planet and the metal named for Mercury, the caduceus became an important symbol in alchemy. The crucified serpent was also revived as an alchemical symbol for fixatio , and John Donne (Sermons 10:190) uses “crucified Serpent” as a title of Jesus Christ. A simplified variant of the caduceus is to be found in dictionaries, indicating a commercial term entirely in keeping with the association of Hermes with commerce. In this form the staff is often depicted with two winglets attached and the snakes are omitted (or reduced to a small ring in the middle). Misuse as symbol of medicine. It is relatively common, especially in the United States, to find the caduceus, with its two snakes and wings, used as a symbol of medicine instead of the correct rod of Asclepius, with only a single snake. This usage is erroneous, popularised largely as a result of the adoption of the caduceus as its insignia by the US Army medical corps in 1902 at the insistence of a single officer though there are conflicting claims as to whether this was Capt. The rod of Asclepius is the dominant symbol for professional healthcare associations in the United States. One survey found that 62% of professional healthcare associations used the rod of Asclepius as their symbol. The same survey found that 76% of commercial healthcare organizations used the Caduceus symbol. The initial errors leading to its adoption and the continuing confusion it generates are well known to medical historians. The long-standing and abundantly attested historical associations of the caduceus with commerce, theft, deception, and death are considered by many to be inappropriate in a symbol used by those engaged in the healing arts. This has occasioned significant criticism of the use of the caduceus in a medical context. In Roman mythology , Felicitas (meaning “good luck” or “fortune”) was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. The word felicitas , “luck”, is also the source of the word and name felicity. She played an important role in Rome’s state religion during the empire , and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire. Felicitas was unknown before the mid-2nd century BC, when a temple was dedicated to her in the Velabrum in the Campus Martius by Lucius Licinius Lucullus , using booty from his 151150 BC campaign in Spain. The temple was destroyed by a fire during the reign of Claudius and was never rebuilt. Another temple in Rome was planned by Julius Caesar and was erected after his death by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on the site of the Curia Hostilia , which had been restored by Lucius Cornelius Sulla but demolished by Caesar in 44 BC. This temple no longer existed by the time of Hadrian , and its site probably lies under the church of Santi Martina e Luca. In ancient Roman culture , felicitas (from the Latin adjective felix , “fruitful, blessed, happy, lucky”) is a condition of divinely inspired productivity, blessedness, or happiness. Felicitas could encompass both a woman’s fertility, and a general’s luck or good fortune. The divine personification of Felicitas was cultivated as a goddess. Although felicitas may be translated as “good luck, ” and the goddess Felicitas shares some characteristics and attributes with Fortuna , the two were distinguished in Roman religion. Fortuna was unpredictable and her effects could be negative, as the existence of an altar to Mala Fortuna (“Bad Luck”) acknowledges. Felicitas, however, always had a positive significance. She appears with several epithets that focus on aspects of her divine power. Felicitas had a temple in Rome as early as the mid-2nd century BC, and during the Republican era was honored at two official festivals of Roman state religion , on July 1 in conjunction with Juno and October 9 as Fausta Felicitas. Felicitas continued to play an important role in Imperial cult , and was frequently portrayed on coins as a symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire. Her primary attributes are the caduceus and cornucopia. The English word “felicity” derives from felicitas. As virtue or quality. Phallic relief with the inscription “Felicitas dwells here”. In its religious sense, felix means blessed, under the protection or favour of the gods; happy. That which is felix has achieved the pax divom , a state of harmony or peace with the divine world. The word derives from Indo-European dhe(i)l, meaning happy, fruitful, productive, full of nourishment. ” Related Latin words include femina , “woman” (a person who provides nourishment or suckles); felo , “to suckle” in regard to an infant; filius , “son” (a person suckled); and probably fello, fellare , “to perform fellatio “, with an originally non-sexual meaning of “to suck. The continued magical association of sexual potency, increase, and general good fortune in productivity is indicated by the inscription Hic habitat Felicitas (“Felicitas dwells here”). On an apotropaic relief of a phallus at a bakery in Pompeii. In archaic Roman culture, felicitas was a quality expressing the close bonds between religion and agriculture. Felicitas was at issue when the suovetaurilia sacrifice conducted by Cato the Elder as censor in 184 BC was challenged as having been unproductive, perhaps for vitium , ritual error. In the following three years Rome had been plagued by a number of ill omens and prodigies (prodigia) , such as severe storms, pestilence, and “showers of blood, ” which had required a series of expiations (supplicationes). The speech Cato gave to justify himself is known as the Oratio de lustri sui felicitate , “Speech on the Felicitas of his Lustrum “, and survives only as a possible quotation by a later source. Cato says that a lustrum should be found to have produced felicitas “if the crops had filled up the storehouses, if the vintage had been abundant, if the olive oil had flowed deliberately from the groves”, regardless of whatever else might have occurred. The efficacy of a ritual might be thus expressed as its felicitas. The ability to promote felicitas became proof of one’s excellence and divine favor. Felicitas was simultaneously a divine gift, a quality that resided within an individual, and a contagious capacity for generating productive conditions outside oneself: it was a form of ” charismatic authority”. Cicero lists felicitas as one of the four virtues of the exemplary general, along with knowledge of military science (scientia rei militaris) , virtus (both “valor” and “virtue”), and auctoritas , authority. Virtus was a regular complement to felicitas , which was not thought to attach to those who were unworthy. Cicero attributed felicitas particularly to Pompeius Magnus (“Pompey the Great”) , and distinguished this felicitas even from the divine good luck enjoyed by successful generals such as Fabius Maximus , Marcellus , Scipio the Younger and Marius. The sayings (sententiae) of Publilius Syrus are often attached to divine qualities, including Felicitas: “The people’s Felicitas is powerful when she is merciful” (potens misericors publica est Felicitas). Epithets of Felicitas include. Augusta , the goddess in her association with the emperor and Imperial cult. Fausta (“Favored, Fortunate”), a state divinity cultivated on October 9 in conjunction with Venus Victrix and the Genius Populi Romani (” Genius ” of the Roman People, also known as the Genius Publicus). Publica , the “public” Felicitas; that is, the aspect of the divine force that was concerned with the res publica or commonwealth, or with the Roman People (Populus Romanus). Temporum , the Felicitas “of the times”, a title which emphasize the felicitas being experienced in current circumstances. The cult of Felicitas is first recorded in the mid-2nd century BC, when a temple was dedicated to her by Lucius Licinius Lucullus , grandfather of the famous Lucullus , using booty from his military campaigns in Spain in 151150 BC. Predecessor to a noted connoisseur of art, Lucullus obtained and dedicated several statues looted by Mummius from Greece , including works by Praxiteles : the Thespiades, a statue group of the Muses brought from Thespiae , and a Venus. This Temple of Felicitas was among several that had a secondary function as art museums, and was recommended by Cicero along with the Fortuna Huiusce Diei Temple of for those who enjoyed viewing art but lacked the means to amass private collections. The temple was located in the Velabrum in the Vicus Tuscus of the Campus Martius , along a route associated with triumphs : the axle of Julius Caesar’s triumphal chariot in 46 BC is supposed to have broken in front of it. The temple was destroyed by a fire during the reign of Claudius , though the Muses were rescued. It was not rebuilt at this site. Sulla identified himself so closely with the quality of felicitcas that he adopted the agnomen (nickname) Felix. His domination as dictator resulted from civil war and unprecedented military violence within the city of Rome itself, but he legitimated his authority by claiming that the mere fact of his victory was proof he was felix and enjoyed the divine favor of the gods. Republican precedent was to regard a victory as belonging to the Roman people as a whole, as represented by the triumphal procession at which the honored general submitted public offerings at the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus at the Capitol , and Sulla thus established an important theological element for the later authority of the emperor. Although he established no new temple for Felicitas, he celebrated games (ludi circenses) in her honor. On July 1 and October 9, Felicitas received a sacrifice in Capitolio, on the Capitoline Hill , on the latter date as Fausta Felicitas in conjunction with the Genius Publicus (“Public Genius “) and Venus Victrix. These observances probably took place at an altar or small shrine (aedicula) , not a separate temple precinct. The Acts of the Arval Brothers (1st century AD) prescribe a cow as the sacrifice for Felicitas. Pompey established a shrine for Felicitas at his new theater and temple complex , which used the steps to the Temple of Venus Victrix as seating. Felicitas was cultivated with Honor and Virtue, and she may have shared her shrine there with Victory , as she did in the Imperial era as Felicitas Caesaris (Caesar’s Felicitas) at Ameria. Pompey’s collocation of deities may have been intended to parallel the Capitoline grouping. A fourth cult site for Felicitas in Rome had been planned by Caesar, and possibly begun before his death. Work on the temple was finished by Lepidus on the site of the Curia Hostilia , which had been restored by Sulla, destroyed by fire in 52 BC, and demolished by Caesar in 44 BC. This temple seems not to have existed by the time of Hadrian. Its site probably lies under the church of Santi Luca e Martina. V It has been suggested that an Ionic capital and a tufa wall uncovered at the site are the only known remains of the temple. Felicitas was a watchword used by Julius Caesar’s troops at the Battle of Thapsus , the names of deities and divine personifications being often recorded for this purpose in the late Republic. Felicitas Iulia (“Julian Felicitas”) was the name of a colony in Roman Spain that was refounded under Caesar and known also as Olisipo , present-day Lisbon , Portugal. During the Republic, only divine personifications known to have had a temple or public altar were featured on coins, among them Felicitas. On the only extant Republican coin type, Felicitas appears as a bust and wearing a diadem. Felicitas Temporum represented by a pair of cornucopiae on a denarius (193-194 AD) issued under Pescennius Niger. A calendar from Cumae records that a supplicatio was celebrated on April 16 for the Felicitas of the Empire, in honor of the day Augustus was first acclaimed imperator. In extant Roman coinage, Felicitas appears with a caduceus only during the Imperial period. The earliest known example is Felicitas Publica on a dupondius issued under Galba. Felicitas Temporum (“Prosperity of the Times”), reflecting a Golden Age ideology, was among the innovative virtues that began to appear during the reigns of Trajan and Antoninus Pius. Septimius Severus , whose reign followed the exceedingly brief tenure of Pertinax and unsatisfactory conditions under Commodus , used coinage to express his efforts toward restoring the Pax Romana , with themes such as Felicitas Temporum and Felicitas Saeculi, “Prosperity of the Age” (saeculum) , prevalent in the years 200 to 202. Some Imperial coins use these phrases with images of women and children in the emperor’s family. When the Empire came under Christian rule, the personified virtues that had been cultivated as deities could be treated as abstract concepts. Felicitas Perpetua Saeculi (“Perpetual Blessedness of the Age”) appears on a coin issued under Constantine , the first emperor to convert to Christianity. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs c. 204249, known in English as Philip the Arab or formerly (prior to World War II) in English as Philip the Arabian , was a Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. The item “PHILIP I’the Arab’ 247AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin Good luck Commerce i55469″ is in sale since Wednesday, May 11, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Composition: Silver

Jun 5 2018

PHILIP I 246AD Arab Ancient Silver Roman Coin Annona Produce Wealth i9986

PHILIP I 246AD Arab Ancient Silver Roman Coin Annona Produce Wealth i9986

PHILIP I 246AD Arab Ancient Silver Roman Coin Annona Produce Wealth i9986

Item: i9986 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Philip I’the Arab’ – Roman Emperor: 244-249 A. Silver Antoninianus 21mm (3.8 grams) Rome mint: 246 A. Reference: RIC 28c, C 25 IMPMIVLPHILIPPVSAVG – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. ANNONAAVGG – Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius and cornucopia. Annona (from Latin annus , year), in Roman mythology, is the personification of the produce of the year. She frequently occurs on coins of the empire, standing between a modius (corn-measure) and the prow of a galley, with ears of corn in one hand and a cornucopia in the other; sometimes she holds a rudder or an anchor. In ancient Roman religion , Ceres Latin. Was a goddess of agriculture , grain crops , fertility and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome’s so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad , then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as “the Greek rites of Ceres”. Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia included the popular Ludi Ceriales (Ceres’ games). She was also honoured in the May lustration of fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, and during Roman marriages and funeral rites. Ceres is the only one of Rome’s many agricultural deities to be listed among the Di Consentes , Rome’s equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter , whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature. Ceres’ name may derive from the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European root ker , meaning “to grow”, which is also a possible root for many English words, such as “create”, “cereal”, “grow”, “kernel”, “corn”, and “increase”. Roman etymologists thought “ceres” derived from the Latin verb gerere , “to bear, bring forth, produce”, because the goddess was linked to pastoral , agricultural and human fertility. Archaic cults to Ceres are well-evidenced among Rome’s neighbours in the Regal period , including the ancient Latins , Oscans and Sabellians , less certainly among the Etruscans and Umbrians. An archaic Faliscan inscription of c. 600 BC asks her to provide far (spelt wheat), which was a dietary staple of the Mediterranean world. Throughout the Roman era, Ceres’ name was synonymous with grain and, by extension, with bread. Cults and cult themes. Ceres was credited with the discovery of spelt wheat (Latin far), the yoking of oxen and ploughing, the sowing, protection and nourishing of the young seed, and the gift of agriculture to humankind; before this, it was said, man had subsisted on acorns, and wandered without settlement or laws. She had the power to fertilise, multiply and fructify plant and animal seed, and her laws and rites protected all activities of the agricultural cycle. In January, Ceres was offered spelt wheat and a pregnant sow, along with the earth-goddess Tellus at the movable Feriae Sementivae. This was almost certainly held before the annual sowing of grain. The divine portion of sacrifice was the entrails (exta) presented in an earthenware pot (olla). In a rural context, Cato the Elder describes the offer to Ceres of a porca praecidanea (a pig, offered before the sowing). Before the harvest, she was offered a propitiary grain sample (praemetium). Ovid tells that Ceres “is content with little, provided that her offerings are casta ” (pure). Ceres’ main festival, Cerealia , was held from mid to late April. It was organised by her plebeian aediles and included circus games (ludi circenses). It opened with a horse-race in the Circus Maximus , whose starting point lay below and opposite to her Aventine Temple. The turning post at the far end of the Circus was sacred to Consus , a god of grain-storage. After the race, foxes were released into the Circus, their tails ablaze with lighted torches, perhaps to cleanse the growing crops and protect them from disease and vermin, or to add warmth and vitality to their growth. 175 BC, Cerealia included ludi scaenici (theatrical religious events), held through April 12 to 18. In the ancient sacrum cereale a priest, probably the Flamen Cerialis , invoked Ceres (and probably Tellus) along with twelve specialised, minor assistant-gods to secure divine protection and assistance at each stage of the grain cycle, beginning shortly before the Feriae Sementivae. Roscher lists these deities among the indigitamenta , names used to invoke specific divine functions. Vervactor , “He who ploughs”. Reparator , “He who prepares the earth”. Imporcitor , “He who ploughs with a wide furrow”. Insitor , “He who plants seeds”. Obarator , “He who traces the first plowing”. Occator , “He who harrows”. Serritor , “He who digs”. Subruncinator , “He who weeds”. Messor , “He who reaps”. Conuector (Convector), “He who carries the grain”. Conditor , “He who stores the grain”. Promitor , “He who distributes the grain”. Marriage, human fertility and nourishment. Several of Ceres’ ancient Italic precursors are connected to human fertility and motherhood; the Pelignan goddess Angitia Cerealis has been identified with the Roman goddess Angerona (associated with childbirth). Ceres’ torch was a mark of Roman weddings. Adult males were excluded from bridal processions; these took place at night and were headed by a young boy, who carried a torch in honour of Ceres. Pliny the Elder “notes that the most auspicious wood for wedding torches came from the spina alba , the may tree, which bore many fruits and hence symbolised fertility”. Once led thus to her husband’s home, the bride was a matron. Sacrifice was offered to Tellus on the bride’s behalf; a sow is the most likely victim. Varro describes the sacrifice of a pig as “a worthy mark of weddings” because “our women, and especially nurses” call the female genitalia porcus (pig). Spaeth (1996) believes Ceres may have been included in the sacrificial dedication, because she is closely identified with Tellus and “bears the laws” of marriage. In the most solemn form of marriage, confarreatio , the bride and groom shared a cake made of far, the ancient wheat-type particularly associated with Ceres. Funerary statue of an unknown woman, depicted as Ceres holding wheat. Mid 3rd century AD. From at least the mid-republican era, an official, joint cult to Ceres and Proserpina reinforced Ceres’ connection with Roman ideals of female virtue. The promotion of this cult coincides with the rise of a plebeian nobility, an increased birthrate among plebeian commoners, and a fall in the birthrate among patrician families. The late Republican Ceres Mater (Mother Ceres) is described as genetrix (progenitress) and alma (nourishing); in the early Imperial era she becomes an Imperial deity, and receives joint cult with Ops Augusta , Ceres’ own mother in Imperial guise and a bountiful genetrix in her own right. Ceres was patron and protector of plebeian laws , rights and Tribunes. Her Aventine Temple served the plebeians as cult centre, legal archive, treasury and possibly law-court; its foundation was contemporaneous with the passage of the Lex Sacrata , which established the office and person of plebeian aediles and tribunes as inviolate representatives of the Roman people. Tribunes were legally immune to arrest or threat, and the lives and property of those who violated this law were forfeit to Ceres. The Lex Hortensia of 287 BC extended plebeian laws to the city and all its citizens. The official decrees of the Senate (senatus consulta) were placed in Ceres’ Temple, under the guardianship of the goddess and her aediles. Livy puts the reason bluntly: the consuls could no longer seek advantage by arbitrarily tampering with the laws of Rome. The Temple might also have offered asylum for those threatened with arbitrary arrest by patrician magistrates. Successful prosecutions of those who offended the laws of Ceres raised fines and property distraints that funded her temple, games and cult. Ceres was thus the patron goddess of Rome’s written laws; the poet Vergil later calls her legifera Ceres (Law-bearing Ceres), a translation of Demeter’s Greek epithet, thesmophoros. Ceres’ role as protector of laws continued throughout the Republican era. The killing of the tribune Tiberius Gracchus in 133 BC was justified by some as rightful punishment for attempted tyranny, an offense against Ceres’ Lex sacrata. Others deplored his killing as murder, because the same “Lex sacrata” had made his person sacrosanct. In 70 BC, Cicero refers to this killing in connection with Ceres’ laws and cults, during his prosecution of Verres , Roman governor of Sicily, for extortion. The case included circumstantial details of Verres’ irreligious exploitation and abuse of Sicilian grain farmers, naturally under Ceres’ special protection at the very place of her “earthly home” and thefts from her temple, including an ancient image of the goddess herself. Faced by the mounting evidence against him, Verres abandoned his own defense and withdrew to a prosperous exile. Soon after, Cicero won election as aedile. As Ceres’ first plough-furrow opened the earth (Tellus’ realm) to the world of men and created the first field and its boundary, her laws determined the course of settled, lawful, civilised life. Crimes against fields and harvest were crimes against the people and their protective deity. Landowners who allowed their flocks to graze on public land were fined by the plebeian aediles, on behalf of Ceres and the people of Rome. Ancient laws of the Twelve Tables forbade the magical charming of field crops from a neighbour’s field into one’s own, and invoked the death penalty for the illicit removal of field boundaries. An adult who damaged or stole field-crops should be hanged “for Ceres”. Any youth guilty of the same offense was to be whipped or fined double the value of damage. Ceres protected transitions of women from girlhood to womanhood, from unmarried to married life and motherhood. She also maintained the boundaries between the realms of the living and the dead, regardless of their sex. Given the appropriate rites, she helped the deceased into afterlife as an underworld shade (Di Manes), else their spirit might remain to haunt the living, as a wandering, vengeful ghost (Lemur). For this service, well-off families offered Ceres sacrifice of a pig. The poor could offer wheat, flowers, and a libation. The expected afterlife for the exclusively female initiates in the sacra Cereris may have been somewhat different; they were offered “a method of living” and of “dying with better hope”. The mundus of Ceres. The mundus cerialis (literally “the world” of Ceres) was a hemispherical pit or underground vault in Rome; Cato describes its shape as a reflection or inversion of the dome of the upper heavens. On most days of the year, it was sealed by a stone lid known as the lapis manalis. On August 24, October 5 and November 8, it was opened with the official announcement ” mundus patet ” (“the mundus is open”), and offerings were made there to agricultural or underworld deities, including Ceres as goddess of the fruitful earth and guardian of its underworld portals. While the mundus was open, the spirits of the dead could lawfully emerge from the underworld and roam among the living, in what Warde Fowler describes as holidays, so to speak, for the ghosts. The origins and location of the mundus pit are disputed. The days when the mundus was open are identified in the oldest Roman calendar as C(omitiales) (days when the Comitia met) but by later authors as dies religiosus , when it would be irreligious to perform any official work: this apparent contradiction has led to the suggestion that the whole mundus ritual was not contemporary with Rome’s early calendar or early Cerean cult, but was a later Greek import. Nevertheless, the days when the mundus was open were connected to the official festivals of the agricultural cycle; the mundus rite of August 24 follows Consualia (an agricultural festival) and precedes Opiconsivia (another such). Other than the festivals of Parentalia and Lemuralia , these rites at the mundus cerialis on particular dies religiosi are the only known, regular official contacts with the spirits of the dead, or Di Manes. This may represent a secondary or late function of the mundus , attested no earlier than the Late Republican Era, by Varro. Warde Fowler speculates that it was originally Rome’s storehouse (penus) for the best of the harvest, to provide seed-grain for the next planting, then became the symbolic penus of the expanded Roman state. In Plutarch, the digging of such a pit to receive first-fruits and small quantities of native soil was an Etruscan colonial city-foundation rite. The rites of the mundus suggest Ceres as guardian deity of seed-corn, an essential deity in the establishment and agricultural prosperity of cities, and a door-warden of the underworld’s afterlife, in which her daughter Proserpina rules as queen-companion to Pluto or Dis. In Roman theology, prodigies were abnormal phenomena that manifested divine anger at human impiety. In Roman histories, prodigies are clustered around perceived or actual threats to the equilibrium of the Roman state, in particular, famine, war and social disorder, and are expiated as matters of urgency. The establishment of Ceres’ Aventine cult has itself been interpreted as an extraordinary expiation after the failure of crops and consequent famine. In Livy’s history, Ceres is among the deities placated after a remarkable series of prodigies that accompanied the disasters of the Second Punic War : during the same conflict, a lighting strike at her temple was expiated. A fast in her honour is recorded for 191 BC, to be repeated at 5-year intervals. After 206, she was offered at least 11 further official expiations. Many of these were connected to famine and manifestations of plebeian unrest, rather than war. From the Middle Republic onwards, expiation was increasingly addressed to her as mother to Proserpina. The last known followed Rome’s Great Fire of 64 AD. The cause or causes of the fire remained uncertain, but its disastrous extent was taken as a sign of offense against Juno , Vulcan , and Ceres-with-Proserpina, who were all were given expiatory cult. Champlin (2003) perceives the expiations to Vulcan and Ceres in particular as attempted populist appeals by the ruling emperor, Nero. The complex and multi-layered origins of the Aventine Triad and Ceres herself allowed multiple interpretations of their relationships; Cicero asserts Ceres as mother to both Liber and Libera, consistent with her role as a mothering deity. Varro’s more complex theology groups her functionally with Tellus, Terra, Venus (and thus Victoria) and with Libera as a female aspect of Liber. No native Roman myths of Ceres are known. According to interpretatio romana , which sought the equivalence of Roman to Greek deities, she was an equivalent to Demeter, one of the Twelve Olympians of Greek religion and mythology; this made Ceres one of Rome’s twelve Di Consentes , daughter of Saturn and Ops , sister of Jupiter , mother of Proserpina by Jupiter and sister of Juno , Vesta , Neptune and Pluto. Ceres’ known mythology is indistinguishable from Demeter’s. When Ceres sought through all the earth with lit torches for Proserpina, who had been seized by Dis Pater, she called her with shouts where three or four roads meet; from this it has endured in her rites that on certain days a lamentation is raised at the crossroads everywhere by the matronae. Ceres had strong mythological and cult connections with Sicily , especially at Henna (Enna), on whose “miraculous plain” flowers bloomed throughout the year. This was the place of Proserpina’s rape and abduction to the underworld and the site of Ceres’ most ancient Sanctuary. According to legend, she begged Jupiter that Sicily be placed in the heavens. The result, because the island is triangular in shape, was the constellation Triangulum , an early name of which was Sicilia. 80 15 BC describes the “Temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus” (her Aventine Temple) as typically Araeostyle , having widely spaced supporting columns, with architraves of wood, rather than stone. This species of temple is “clumsy, heavy roofed, low and wide, [its] pediments ornamented with statues of clay or brass, gilt in the Tuscan fashion “. He recommends that temples to Ceres be sited in rural areas: in a solitary spot out of the city, to which the public are not necessarily led but for the purpose of sacrificing to her. This spot is to be reverenced with religious awe and solemnity of demeanour, by those whose affairs lead them to visit it. ” During the early Imperial era, soothsayers advised Pliny the Younger to restore an ancient, “old and narrow temple to Ceres, at his rural property near Como. It contained an ancient wooden cult statue of the goddess, which he replaced. Though this was unofficial, private cult (sacra privata) its annual feast on the Ides of September, the same day as the Epulum Jovis , was attended by pilgrims from all over the region. Pliny considered this rebuilding a fulfillment of his civic and religious duty. Denarius picturing Quirinus on the obverse , and Ceres enthroned on the reverse, a commemoration by a moneyer in 56 BC of a Cerialia, perhaps her first ludi , presented by an earlier Gaius Memmius as aedile. No images of Ceres survive from her pre-Aventine cults; the earliest date to the middle Republic, and show the Hellenising influence of Demeter’s iconography. Some late Republican images recall Ceres’ search for Proserpina. Ceres bears a torch, sometimes two, and rides in a chariot drawn by snakes; or she sits on the sacred kiste (chest) that conceals the objects of her mystery rites. Augustan reliefs show her emergence, plant-like from the earth, her arms entwined by snakes, her outstretched hands bearing poppies and wheat, or her head crowned with fruits and vines. In free-standing statuary, she commonly wears a wheat-crown, or holds a wheat spray. Moneyers of the Republican era use Ceres’ image, wheat ears and garlands to advertise their connections with prosperity, the annona and the popular interest. Some Imperial coin images depict important female members of the Imperial family as Ceres, or with some of her attributes. Ceres was served by several public priesthoods. Some were male; her senior priest, the flamen cerialis , also served Tellus and was usually plebeian by ancestry or adoption. Her public cult at the Ambarvalia , or “perambulation of fields” identified her with Dea Dia , and was led by the Arval Brethren (“The Brothers of the Fields”); rural versions of these rites were led as private cult by the heads of households. An inscription at Capua names a male sacerdos Cerialis mundalis , a priest dedicated to Ceres’ rites of the mundus. The plebeian aediles had minor or occasional priestly functions at Ceres’ Aventine Temple and were responsible for its management and financial affairs including collection of fines, the organisation of ludi Cerealia and probably the Cerealia itself. Their cure (care and jurisdiction) included, or came to include, the grain supply (annona) and later the plebeian grain doles (frumentationes), the organisation and management of public games in general, and the maintenance of Rome’s streets and public buildings. Otherwise, in Rome and throughout Italy, as at her ancient sanctuaries of Henna and Catena, Ceres’ ritus graecus and her joint cult with Proserpina were invariably led by female sacerdotes , drawn from women of local and Roman elites: Cicero notes that once the new cult had been founded, its earliest priestesses “generally were either from Naples or Velia”, cities allied or federated to Rome. Elsewhere, he describes Ceres’ Sicilian priestesses as “older women respected for their noble birth and character”. Celibacy may have been a condition of their office; sexual abstinence was, according to Ovid, required of those attending Ceres’ major, nine-day festival. Her public priesthood was reserved to respectable matrons, be they married, divorced or widowed. The process of their selection and their relationship to Ceres’ older, entirely male priesthood is unknown; but they far outnumbered her few male priests, and would have been highly respected and influential figures in their own communities. Archaic and Regal eras. Roman tradition credited Ceres’ eponymous festival, Cerealia , to Rome’s second king, the semi-legendary Numa. Ceres’ senior, male priesthood was a minor flaminate whose priesthood and rites were supposedly also innovations of Numa. Her affinity and joint cult with Tellus, also known as Terra Mater (Mother Earth) may have developed at this time. Much later, during the early Imperial era , Ovid describes these goddesses as “partners in labour”; Ceres provides the “cause” for the growth of crops, while Tellus provides them a place to grow. Ceres and the Aventine Triad. In 496 BC, against a background of economic recession and famine in Rome, imminent war against the Latins and a threatened secession by Rome’s plebs (citizen commoners), the dictator A. Postumius vowed a temple to Ceres, Liber and Libera on or near the Aventine Hill. The famine ended and Rome’s plebeian citizen-soldiery co-operated in the conquest of the Latins. Postumius’ vow was fulfilled in 493 BC: Ceres became the central deity of the new Triad , housed in a new-built Aventine temple. She was also or became the patron goddess of the plebs , whose enterprise as tenant farmers, estate managers, agricultural factors and importers was a mainstay of Roman agriculture. Much of Rome’s grain was imported from territories of Magna Graecia , particularly from Sicily , which later Roman mythographers describe as Ceres’ “earthly home”. Writers of the late Roman Republic and early Empire describe Ceres’ Aventine temple and rites as conspicuously Greek. In modern scholarship, this is taken as further evidence of long-standing connections between the plebeians, Ceres and Magna Graecia. It also raises unanswered questions on the nature, history and character of these associations: the Triad itself may have been a self-consciously Roman cult formulation based on Greco-Italic precedents. To complicate matters further, when a new form of Cerean cult was officially imported from Magna Graecia, it was known as the ritus graecus (Greek rite) of Ceres, and was distinct from her older Roman rites. The older forms of Aventine rites to Ceres remain uncertain. Most Roman cults were led by men, and the officiant’s head was covered by a fold of his toga. In the Roman ritus graecus , a male celebrant wore Greek-style vestments, and remained bareheaded before the deity, or else wore a wreath. While Ceres’ original Aventine cult was led by male priests, her “Greek rites” (ritus graecus Cereris) were exclusively female. Towards the end of the Second Punic War , around 205 BC, an officially recognised joint cult to Ceres and her daughter Proserpina was brought to Rome from southern Italy (part of Magna Graecia) along with Greek priestesses to serve it. In Rome, this was known as the ritus graecus Cereris ; its priestesses were granted Roman citizenship so that they could pray to the gods “with a foreign and external knowledge, but with a domestic and civil intention”. The cult was based on ancient, ethnically Greek cults to Demeter, most notably the Thesmophoria to Demeter and Persephone , whose cults and myths also provided a basis for the Eleusinian mysteries. From the end of the 3rd century BC, Demeter’s temple at Enna , in Sicily , was acknowledged as Ceres’ oldest, most authoritative cult centre, and Libera was recognised as Proserpina, Roman equivalent to Demeter’s daughter Persephone. Their joint cult recalls Demeter’s search for Persephone, after the latter’s rape and abduction into the underworld by Hades. The new cult to “mother and maiden” took its place alongside the old, but made no reference to Liber. Thereafter, Ceres was offered two separate and distinctive forms of official cult at the Aventine. Both might have been supervised by the male flamen Cerialis but otherwise, their relationship is unclear. The older form of cult included both men and women, and probably remained a focus for plebeian political identity and discontent. The new identified its exclusively females initiates and priestesses as upholders of Rome’s traditional, patrician -dominated social hierarchy and mores. Ceres and Magna Mater. A year after the import of the ritus cereris , patrician senators imported cult to the Greek goddess Cybele and established her as Magna Mater (The Great Mother) within Rome’s sacred boundary , facing the Aventine Hill. Like Ceres, Cybele was a form of Graeco-Roman earth goddess. Unlike her, she had mythological ties to Troy , and thus to the Trojan prince Aeneas , mythological ancestor of Rome’s founding father and first patrician Romulus. The establishment of official Roman cult to Magna Mater coincided with the start of a new saeculum (cycle of years). It was followed by Hannibal’s defeat, the end of the Punic War and an exceptionally good harvest. Roman victory and recovery could therefore be credited to Magna Mater and patrician piety: so the patricians dined her and each other at her festival banquets. In similar fashion, the plebeian nobility underlined their claims to Ceres. Up to a point, the two cults reflected a social and political divide, but when certain prodigies were interpreted as evidence of Ceres’ displeasure, the senate appeased her with a new festival, the ieiunium Cereris (” fast of Ceres”). In 133 BC, the plebeian noble Tiberius Gracchus bypassed the Senate and appealed directly to the popular assembly to pass his proposed land-reforms. Civil unrest spilled into violence; Gracchus and many of his supporters were murdered by their conservative opponents. At the behest of the Sibylline oracle , the senate sent the quindecimviri to Ceres’ ancient cult centre at Henna in Sicily , the goddess’ supposed place of origin and earthly home. Some kind of religious consultation or propitiation was given, either to expiate Gracchus’ murder as later Roman sources would claim or to justify it as the lawful killing of a would-be king or demagogue , a homo sacer who had offended Ceres’ laws against tyranny. The Eleusinian mysteries became increasingly popular during the late Republic. Early Roman initiates at Eleusis in Greece included Sulla and Cicero ; thereafter many Emperors were initiated, including Hadrian , who founded an Eleusinian cult centre in Rome itself. In Late Republican politics, aristocratic traditionalists and popularists used coinage to propagated their competing claims to Ceres’ favour. A coin of Sulla shows Ceres on one side, on the other a ploughman with yoked oxen: the images, accompanied by the legend “conditor” , claim his rule (a military dictatorship) as regenerative and divinely justified. Popularists used her name and attributes to appeal their guardianship of plebeian interests, particularly the annona and frumentarium ; and plebeian nobles and aediles used them to point out their ancestral connections with plebeian commoners. In the decades of Civil War that ushered in the Empire, such images and dedications proliferate on Rome’s coinage: Julius Caesar , his opponents, his assassins and his heirs alike claimed the favour and support of Ceres and her plebeian proteges, with coin issues that celebrate Ceres, Libertas (liberty) and Victoria (victory). Emperors celebrated imperial and divine partnerships in grain import and provision. On this Sestercius of 66 AD, Nero’s garlanded head is left. Opposite, a standing Annona holds cornucopiae (horns of Plenty) and enthroned Ceres holds grain-ears and torch. Imperial theology conscripted Rome’s traditional cults as the divine upholders of Imperial Pax (peace) and prosperity, for the benefit of all. The emperor Augustus began the restoration of Ceres’ Aventine Temple; his successor Tiberius completed it. Of the several figures on the Augustan Ara Pacis , one doubles as a portrait of the Empress Livia , who wears Ceres’ corona spicea. Another has been variously identified in modern scholarship as Tellus, Venus, Pax or Ceres, or in Spaeth’s analysis, a deliberately broad composite of them all. The emperor Claudius’ reformed the grain supply and created its embodiment as an Imperial goddess, Annona , a junior partner to Ceres and the Imperial family. The traditional, Cerean virtues of provision and nourishment were symbolically extended to Imperial family members with coinage that showed Claudius’ mother Antonia as Augusta with corona spicea. The relationship between the reigning emperor, empress and Ceres was formalised in titles such as Augusta mater agrorum (The august mother of the fields) and Ceres Augusta. On coinage, various emperors and empresses wear her corona spicea , showing that the goddess, the emperor and his spouse are conjointly responsible for agricultural prosperity and the all-important provision of grain. A coin of Nerva (reigned AD 9698) acknowledges Rome’s dependence on the princeps’ gift of frumentio (corn dole) to the masses. Under Nerva’s later dynastic successor Antoninus Pius , Imperial theology represents the death and apotheosis of the Empress Faustina the Elder as Ceres’ return to Olympus by Jupiter’s command. Even then, “her care for mankind continues and the world can rejoice in the warmth of her daughter Proserpina: in Imperial flesh, Proserpina is Faustina the Younger “, empress-wife of Pius’ successor Marcus Aurelius. In Britain, a soldier’s inscription of the 2nd century AD attests to Ceres’ role in the popular syncretism of the times. She is “the bearer of ears of corn”, the “Syrian Goddess”, identical with the universal heavenly Mother, the Magna Mater and Virgo , virgin mother of the gods. She is peace and virtue, and inventor of justice: she weighs “Life and Right” in her scale. During the Late Imperial era, Ceres gradually “slips into obscurity”; the last known official association of the Imperial family with her symbols is a coin issue of Septimius Severus (AD 193211), showing his empress, Julia Domna , in the corona spicea. After the reign of Claudius Gothicus , no coinage shows Ceres’ image. Even so, an initiate of her mysteries is attested in the 5th century AD, after the official abolition of all non-Christian cults. The word cereals derives from Ceres, commemorating her association with edible grains. Statues of Ceres top the domes of the Missouri State Capitol and the Vermont State House serving as a reminder of the importance of agriculture in the states’ economies and histories. There is also a statue of her on top of the Chicago Board of Trade Building , which conducts trading in agricultural commodities. The dwarf planet Ceres (discovered 1801), is named after this goddess. And in turn, the chemical element cerium (discovered 1803) was named after the dwarf planet. A poem about Ceres and humanity features in Dmitri’s confession to his brother Alexei in Dostoevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov , Part 1, Book 3, Chapter 3. Ceres appears as a character in William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest (1611). An aria in praise of Ceres is sung in Act 4 of the opera The Trojans by Hector Berlioz. The goddess Ceres is one of the three goddess offices held in the The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. The other goddesses are Pomona , and Flora. Ceres is depicted on the Seal of New Jersey as a symbol of prosperity. Ceres was depicted on several ten and twenty Confederate States of America dollar notes. A manga by Yuu Watase is known as Ceres Celestial Legend. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs c. 204249, known in English as Philip the Arab or formerly (prior to World War II) in English as Philip the Arabian , was a Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. The item “PHILIP I 246AD Arab Ancient Silver Roman Coin Annona Produce Wealth i9986″ is in sale since Wednesday, November 27, 2013. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Composition: Silver

Apr 18 2018

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS

THE ROMAN EMPIRE Philip I, 244 – 249 A. AR 3.71 g. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Holding wreath and palm branch. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. 245-247: During the rule of emperor Philip the Arab (244-249), the Carpi crossed the Danube and laid waste Moesia Inferior. After the theatre governors failed to repel the invasion, the emperor took personal command and launched a major counter-attack. After a prolonged struggle, the Carpi were driven back across the Danube. Pursued by the Romans into their homeland, the main body of Carpi took refuge in a major stronghold (presumably a hill-fort), where they were surrounded and besieged by Philip’s forces. The remaining Carpi forces, which had scattered, rallied and launched an attempt to relieve the siege. The besieged staged a mass sortie to distract the Romans’ attention from the approach of the relief-force. But the latter were intercepted and routed by Philip’s equites Maurorum Berberlight cavalry from N. The breakout itself was contained, forcing the Carpi to sue for peace. This was granted to them on apparently lenient terms by Philip, who was eager to conclude the campaign in time for the forthcoming celebrations of the 1,000th anniversary of the City of Rome’s foundation (April 248). Philip was acclaimed Carpicus Maximus. The item “PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD VICTORIA CARPICA Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS” is in sale since Wednesday, May 25, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Material: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman

Mar 8 2018

Philip I’the Arab’ 245AD Rome mint Silver Ancient Roman Coin Security i52140

Philip I'the Arab' 245AD Rome mint Silver Ancient Roman Coin Security i52140

Philip I'the Arab' 245AD Rome mint Silver Ancient Roman Coin Security i52140

Item: i52140 Authentic Ancient Coin of. The Arab’ – Roman Emperor : 244-249 A. Silver Antoninianus 21mm (4.73 grams) Rome mint: 245 A. Reference: RIC 48b, C 215 IMPMIVLPHILIPPVSAVG – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. SECVRITORBIS – Securitas seated left, holding scepter and resting head on hand. Securitas – Security, as a goddess worshipped by the Romans, is delineated in a great variety of ways on their imperial coins. She appears for the most part under the form of a woman in matronly costume; though in some few instances she is but half clothed, having a veil thrown over the lower extremities. Sometimes she is quietly seated, as if perfectly at her ease and having nothing to fear. That is to say, her right or her left elbow rests on her chair, and the hand supports her head, as in Nero. Or else one of her arms is placed above the head; an attitude which ancient artists regarded as characteristic of repose. She holds in one or other of her hands either a sceptre, or a scipio, or the hasta pura, or a cornucopia, or a patera, or a globe. On some medals there is near her a lighted altar; on others she stands leaning against, or with her arm upon, a column or cippus, having sometimes the legs crossed in a tranquil, easy posture, carrying one of the above-mentioned symbols, or otherwise holding before her a branch or a crown of olive, or a palm branch. The meaning of these various attitudes and attributes is on the whole too evident to require explanation. There are medals of nearly all the emperors (with flagrant inappropriateness to most of the reigns) from Otho and Vitellius to Constans and Constantius jun. Which have for the type of their reverses this figure of Security, and present for their legend the word SECVRITAS, with the addition of the words, AVGVSTI, or AVGVSTORVM (security of the emperor or of the emperors); ORBIS (security of the world) ; PVBLICA (public security) ; PERPETVA (perpetual security) ; POPVLI ROMANI (security of the Roman people) TEMPORVM (of the Times) ; IMPERII (of the empire) SAECVLI (of the age) ; REPVBLICAE (of the republic), etc. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs c. 204249, known in English as Philip the Arab or formerly (prior to World War II) in English as Philip the Arabian , was a Roman Emperor from 244 to 249. The item “Philip I’the Arab’ 245AD Rome mint Silver Ancient Roman Coin Security i52140″ is in sale since Tuesday, August 18, 2015. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Composition: Silver

Oct 19 2017

1000 Years Of Rome 248ad Silver Roman Coin Collection Emperor Philip I The Arab


Apr 25 2017

Ancient Roman Silver Tetradrachm Coin of Emperor Philip I the Arab 246 AD

Ancient Roman Silver Tetradrachm Coin of Emperor Philip I the Arab 246 AD

Ancient Roman Silver Tetradrachm Coin of Emperor Philip I the Arab 246 AD

Ancient Roman Silver Tetradrachm Coin of Emperor Philip I the Arab 246 AD

A well provenanced, toned ancient Roman silver tetradrachm minted under Emperor Philip I, (Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus) also known as Philip the Arab. Struck in 246 AD at the Antioch mint. The obverse with a striking, finely detailed portrait of the Emperor, wearing a cloak and laurel wreath. AVTOK K M IOVA FILIPPOU CEB. “Emperor Caesar Marcus Julius Philip Augustus”. The reverse with an eagle with wings spread wide, holding a wreath in his beak. Weight: 11.75 g. Diameter: 28.40 mm. With copies of original invoice, original black and white polaroids and hand written inventory cards. Our parent company, ArtAncient Ltd. Are members of the Antiquities Dealer’s Association, LAPADA, CINOA and the BNTA. All objects we sell are authentic as described. We send all collectibles Registered, Signed-for and Insured. Please note that in most countries, antiques and collectibles are eligible for minimal/zero charges on importation. The item “Ancient Roman Silver Tetradrachm Coin of Emperor Philip I the Arab 246 AD” is in sale since Monday, April 24, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “artancientltd” and is located in London. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Apr 2 2017

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS i60512

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS i60512

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS i60512

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS i60512

PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS i60512

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Philip I’the Arab. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (4.24 grams) Struck at the mint of Rome 247 A. Reference: RIC 44b, C 169 Certification: NGC Ancients. MS Surface: 4/5 Strike: 4/5 1884149-011 IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left, holding Victory and scepter. In traditional Roman religion. Was a female deity. Who personified the city of Rome. And more broadly, the Roman state. In ancient Roman religion. Or Victory was the personified. She is the Roman equivalent. Of the Greek goddess. And was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine. And had a temple. On the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota. Was also sometimes identified with Victoria. Unlike the Greek Nike. The goddess Victoria Latin. For “victory” was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus. There was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant. Generals returning from war. Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races. Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war. Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts. She is often seen with or in a chariot. As in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga. On the Brandenburg Gate. In Rome has two. Winged figures, very often in pairs, representing victory and referred to as “victories”, were common in Roman official iconography, typically hovering high in a composition, and often filling spaces in spandrels. Or other gaps in architecture. These represent the spirit of victory rather than the goddess herself. They continued to appear after Christianization of the Empire, and slowly mutated into Christian angels. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs c. 204249, known in English. As Philip the Arab. Or formerly (prior to World War II) in English as Philip the Arabian , was a Roman Emperor. From 244 to 249. Little is known about Philip’s early life and political career. He was born in Shahba. About 55 miles southeast of Damascus. In the Roman province. Philip has the nickname “the Arab” because he had family who had originated in the Arabian peninsula. Believed to be distant descendants of the prestigious Baleed family of Aleppo. Philip was the son of a Julius Marinus, a local Roman citizen, possibly of some importance. Many historians agree that he was of Arab descent who gained Roman citizenship. Through his father, a man of considerable influence. Many citizens from the provinces took Roman names upon acquiring citizenship. This makes tracing his Arabic blood line difficult. However, it is documented that Rome used the Ghassan. Tribe from the Azd. As vassals to keep the neighboring northern Arabs in check. The name of Philip’s mother is unknown, but sources refer to a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus. A member of the Praetorian guard. In 234, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa. Daughter of a Roman Governor. They had two children: a son named Marcus Julius Philippus Severus Philippus II. In 238 and according to numismatic evidence they had a daughter called Julia Severa or Severina, whom the ancient Roman sources don’t mention. Philip became a member of the Pretorian Guard. During the reign of the emperor Alexander Severus. Who was a Syrian. In ancient Rome the Pretorian Guard was closely associated with the emperor, serving among other things as the emperor’s bodyguard. In 243, during Gordian III. S campaign against Shapur I. Of Persia, the Praetorian prefect. Died under unclear circumstances. At the suggestion of his brother Priscus, Philip became the new Praetorian prefect, with the intention that the two brothers would control the young Emperor and rule the Roman world as unofficial regents. Following a military defeat, Gordian III died in 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts (including one coming from the Persian point of view) state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple following Gordian’s death. According to Edward Gibbon. His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader. But his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, and his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, and was aware that he had to return to Rome. In order to secure his position with the senate. He thus travelled west, after concluding a peace treaty with Shapur I, and left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces. In Rome he was confirmed Augustus. And nominated his young son Caesar. Philip’s rule started with yet another Germanic. Incursion on the provinces of Pannonia. They were finally defeated in the year 248, but the legions. Were not satisfied with the result, probably due to a low share of the plunder, if any. Rebellion soon arose and Tiberius Claudius Pacatianus. Was proclaimed emperor by the troops. The uprising was crushed and Philip nominated Gaius Messius Quintus Decius. As governor of the province. Future events would prove this to be a mistake. Pacatianus’ revolt was not the only threat to his rule: in the East, Marcus Jotapianus. Led another uprising in response to the oppressive rule of Priscus. And the excessive taxation of the Eastern provinces. Two other usurpers, Marcus Silbannacus. Are reported to have started rebellions without much success. 248 April 1000 A. , Philip had the honour of leading the celebrations of the one thousandth birthday of Rome, which according to tradition was founded. In 753 BC by Romulus. He combined the anniversary with the celebration of Rome’s alleged tenth saeculum. According to contemporary accounts, the festivities were magnificent and included spectacular games, ludi saeculares. And theatrical presentations throughout the city. In the coliseum, more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros. The events were also celebrated in literature, with several publications, including Asinius Quadratus. S History of a Thousand Years , specially prepared for the anniversary. Despite the festive atmosphere, discontent in the legions was growing. (249251) was proclaimed Emperor by the Danubian armies in the spring of 249 and immediately marched to Rome. Philip’s army met the usurper near modern Verona. Decius won the battle and Philip was killed sometime in September 249, either in the fighting or assassinated by his own soldiers who were eager to please the new ruler. Philip’s eleven-year-old son and heir may have been killed with his father and Priscus disappeared without a trace. Further information: Philip the Arab and Christianity. Some later traditions, first mentioned in the historian Eusebius. In his Ecclesiastical History. Held that Philip was the first Christian. This tradition seems to be based on reports in Eusebius that Philip allegedly had once entered a Christian service on Easter, after having been required by a bishop to confess his sins. Later versions located this event in Antioch. However, historians generally identify the later Emperor Constantine, baptised on his deathbed, as the first Christian emperor, and generally describe Philip’s adherence to Christianity as dubious, because non-Christian writers do not mention the fact, and because throughout his reign, Philip to all appearances coinage, etc. Continued to follow the state religion. Critics ascribe Eusebius’ claim as probably due to the tolerance Philip showed towards Christians. Saint Quirinus of Rome. Was, according to a legendary account, the son of Philip the Arab. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC MS i60512″ is in sale since Saturday, April 01, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Material: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Denomination: Antoninianus
  • Grade: MS
  • Certification Number: 1884149-011

Mar 10 2017

PHLIP I the ARAB 247AD Annona Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Certified MS i58168

PHLIP I the ARAB 247AD Annona Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Certified MS i58168

PHLIP I the ARAB 247AD Annona Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Certified MS i58168

PHLIP I the ARAB 247AD Annona Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Certified MS i58168

PHLIP I the ARAB 247AD Annona Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Certified MS i58168

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Philip I’the Arab. Silver Antoninianus 21mm (3.90 grams) Rome mint: 247-249 A. Reference: RIC 28c; RSC 25 Certification: NGC Ancients. MS Strike: 5/5 Surface: 4/5 1883004-063 IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left holding corn-ears over modius and cornucopiae. In ancient Roman religion. Latin corn, grain; means of subsistence, from annus. “Year” is the divine personification. Of the grain supply to the city of Rome. She is closely connected to the goddess Ceres. With whom she is often depicted in art. Annona, often as Annona Augusti. Was a creation of Imperial religious propaganda. She is presented as a theophany. S power to care for his people through the provision of grain. Annona thus lacked narrative mythology. Or a tradition of devotion. In the Roman Republic. But once established as part of Imperial cult. She was the recipient of dedications and votive offerings. From private individuals motivated by gratitude or the seeking of favor. In the propaganda of Claudius. The cult of Ceres Augusta made explicit the divine power that lay in the Imperial provision of the annona , the grain supply to the city. Annona Augusti appears on coins. Late in the reign of Nero. When the Cult of Virtues came into prominence in the wake of the Pisonian conspiracy. She embodied two of the material benefits of Imperial rule. Along with Securitas Augusti, “Augustan Security, ” and often appeared as part of a pair with Ceres. On Neronian coinage, Ceres, Annona, and Abundantia. (“Abundance”) were closely associated. Annona also appears on coins issued under Vespasian. Where along with other Virtues she represents the restoration of confidence in the principate. And on the coinage of Titus. She was a particular favorite in Trajan’s propaganda, which sought to portray his reign as a renewal and a prosperous new era for mankind; hence Annona often appears with a symbolic child. In the context of Trajanic politics, Annona represented Rome’s grain independence from its traditional supplier Egypt. Annona is typically depicted with a cornucopia. On coins, she frequently stands between a modius. (grain-measure) and the prow of a galley. With ears of grain in one hand and a cornucopia in the other; sometimes she holds a rudder. Marcus Julius Philippus or Philippus I Arabs c. 204249, known in English. As Philip the Arab. Or formerly (prior to World War II) in English as Philip the Arabian , was a Roman Emperor. From 244 to 249. Little is known about Philip’s early life and political career. He was born in Shahba. About 55 miles southeast of Damascus. In the Roman province. Philip has the nickname “the Arab” because he had family who had originated in the Arabian peninsula. Believed to be distant descendants of the prestigious Baleed family of Aleppo. Philip was the son of a Julius Marinus, a local Roman citizen, possibly of some importance. Many historians agree that he was of Arab descent who gained Roman citizenship. Through his father, a man of considerable influence. Many citizens from the provinces took Roman names upon acquiring citizenship. This makes tracing his Arabic blood line difficult. However, it is documented that Rome used the Ghassan. Tribe from the Azd. As vassals to keep the neighboring northern Arabs in check. The name of Philip’s mother is unknown, but sources refer to a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus. A member of the Praetorian guard. In 234, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa. Daughter of a Roman Governor. They had two children: a son named Marcus Julius Philippus Severus Philippus II. In 238 and according to numismatic evidence they had a daughter called Julia Severa or Severina, whom the ancient Roman sources don’t mention. Philip became a member of the Pretorian Guard. During the reign of the emperor Alexander Severus. Who was a Syrian. In ancient Rome the Pretorian Guard was closely associated with the emperor, serving among other things as the emperor’s bodyguard. In 243, during Gordian III. S campaign against Shapur I. Of Persia, the Praetorian prefect. Died under unclear circumstances. At the suggestion of his brother Priscus, Philip became the new Praetorian prefect, with the intention that the two brothers would control the young Emperor and rule the Roman world as unofficial regents. Following a military defeat, Gordian III died in 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts (including one coming from the Persian point of view) state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple following Gordian’s death. According to Edward Gibbon. His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader. But his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, and his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, and was aware that he had to return to Rome. In order to secure his position with the senate. He thus travelled west, after concluding a peace treaty with Shapur I, and left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces. In Rome he was confirmed Augustus. And nominated his young son Caesar. Philip’s rule started with yet another Germanic. Incursion on the provinces of Pannonia. They were finally defeated in the year 248, but the legions. Were not satisfied with the result, probably due to a low share of the plunder, if any. Rebellion soon arose and Tiberius Claudius Pacatianus. Was proclaimed emperor by the troops. The uprising was crushed and Philip nominated Gaius Messius Quintus Decius. As governor of the province. Future events would prove this to be a mistake. Pacatianus’ revolt was not the only threat to his rule: in the East, Marcus Jotapianus. Led another uprising in response to the oppressive rule of Priscus. And the excessive taxation of the Eastern provinces. Two other usurpers, Marcus Silbannacus. Are reported to have started rebellions without much success. 248 April 1000 A. , Philip had the honour of leading the celebrations of the one thousandth birthday of Rome, which according to tradition was founded. In 753 BC by Romulus. He combined the anniversary with the celebration of Rome’s alleged tenth saeculum. According to contemporary accounts, the festivities were magnificent and included spectacular games, ludi saeculares. And theatrical presentations throughout the city. In the coliseum, more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros. The events were also celebrated in literature, with several publications, including Asinius Quadratus. S History of a Thousand Years , specially prepared for the anniversary. Despite the festive atmosphere, discontent in the legions was growing. (249251) was proclaimed Emperor by the Danubian armies in the spring of 249 and immediately marched to Rome. Philip’s army met the usurper near modern Verona. Decius won the battle and Philip was killed sometime in September 249, either in the fighting or assassinated by his own soldiers who were eager to please the new ruler. Philip’s eleven-year-old son and heir may have been killed with his father and Priscus disappeared without a trace. Further information: Philip the Arab and Christianity. Some later traditions, first mentioned in the historian Eusebius. In his Ecclesiastical History. Held that Philip was the first Christian. This tradition seems to be based on reports in Eusebius that Philip allegedly had once entered a Christian service on Easter, after having been required by a bishop to confess his sins. Later versions located this event in Antioch. However, historians generally identify the later Emperor Constantine, baptised on his deathbed, as the first Christian emperor, and generally describe Philip’s adherence to Christianity as dubious, because non-Christian writers do not mention the fact, and because throughout his reign, Philip to all appearances coinage, etc. Continued to follow the state religion. Critics ascribe Eusebius’ claim as probably due to the tolerance Philip showed towards Christians. Saint Quirinus of Rome. Was, according to a legendary account, the son of Philip the Arab. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “PHLIP I the ARAB 247AD Annona Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Certified MS i58168″ is in sale since Wednesday, December 07, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Certification Number: 1883004-063
  • Grade: MS