Oct 10 2017

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace

You are purchasing an Authentic Ancient 1st Century AD, 1900+ years old! Roman Empire AE Coin of Caligula, set in a 28 mm 925 solid sterling silver bezel. 925 solid sterling silver 21 popcorn chain included. Bare head left C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT. The coin minted in Rome, circa 37 – 41 A. Please take a look at the photos for details. Thank you for looking. Properly Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 24 January AD 41) was Roman Emperor in AD 3741. Born Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus (not to be confused with Julius Caesar), Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula’s biological father was Germanicus, and he was the great-nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius. The young Gaius earned the nickname “Caligula” (meaning “little soldier’s boot”, the diminutive form of caliga, hob-nailed military boot) from his father’s soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. The conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Untouched by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the Emperor in AD 31 on the island of Capri, where Tiberius had withdrawn five years earlier. With the death of Tiberius in AD 37, Caligula succeeded his grand uncle and adoptive grandfather as emperor. There are few surviving sources about the reign of Emperor Caligula, although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first six months of his reign. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources is questionable, it is known that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor, as opposed to countervailing powers within the principate. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and luxurious dwellings for himself, and initiated the construction of two aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania as a province. In early AD 41, Caligula was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by officers of the Praetorian Guard, senators, and courtiers. The conspirators’ attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted: on the day of the assassination of Caligula, the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula’s uncle, Claudius, the next Roman emperor. The item “Roman Emperor Caligula Authentic Ancient Rome Coin 925 Sterling Silver Necklace” is in sale since Monday, March 06, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “sport_authority” and is located in Orlando, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Oct 9 2017

GORDIAN III 243AD Authentic Genuine Ancient Silver Roman Coin Fortuna i59501

GORDIAN III 243AD Authentic Genuine Ancient Silver Roman Coin Fortuna i59501

GORDIAN III 243AD Authentic Genuine Ancient Silver Roman Coin Fortuna i59501

Item: i59501 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Gordian III – Roman Emperor: 238-244 A. Silver Antoninianus 23mm (4.42 grams) Antioch mint 243 A. Reference: RIC 210, C 98 IMPGORDIANVSPIVSFELAVG – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. FORTVNAREDVX – Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche was the goddess of fortune and personification of luck in Roman religion. She might bring good luck or bad: she could be represented as veiled and blind, as in modern depictions of Justice , and came to represent life’s capriciousness. She was also a goddess of fate : as Atrox Fortuna , she claimed the young lives of the princeps Augustus’ grandsons Gaius and Lucius , prospective heirs to the Empire. Her father was said to be Jupiter and like him, she could also be bountiful. As Annonaria she protected grain supplies. June 11 was sacred to her: on June 24 she was given cult at the festival of Fors Fortuna. Fortuna’s Roman cult was variously attributed to Servius Tullius whose exceptional good fortune suggested their sexual intimacy and to Ancus Marcius. The two earliest temples mentioned in Roman Calendars were outside the city, on the right bank of the Tiber (in Italian Trastevere). The first temple dedicated to Fors was attributed to the Etruscan Servius Tullius, while the second is known to have been built in 293 BC as the fulfilment of a Roman promise made during later Etruscan wars The date of dedication of her temples was 24 June, or Midsummers Day, when celebrants from Rome annually floated to the temples downstream from the city. After undisclosed rituals they then rowed back, garlanded and inebriated. Also Fortuna had a temple at the Forum Boarium. Here Fortuna was twinned with the cult of Mater Matuta (the goddesses shared a festival on 11 June), and the paired temples have been revealed in the excavation beside the church of Sant’Omobono : the cults are indeed archaic in date. Fortuna Primigenia of Praeneste was adopted by Romans at the end of 3rd BC in an important cult of Fortuna Publica Populi Romani (the Official Good Luck of the Roman People) on the Quirinalis outside the Porta Collina. No temple at Rome, however, rivalled the magnificence of the Praenestine sanctuary. Fortuna lightly balances the orb of sovereignty between thumb and finger in a Dutch painting of ca 1530 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg). Fortuna’s identity as personification of chance events was closely tied to virtus (strength of character). Public officials who lacked virtues invited ill-fortune on themselves and Rome: Sallust uses the infamous Catiline as illustration “Truly, when in the place of work, idleness, in place of the spirit of measure and equity , caprice and pride invade, fortune is changed just as with morality”. An oracle at the Temple of Fortuna Primigena in Praeneste used a form of divination in which a small boy picked out one of various futures that were written on oak rods. Cults to Fortuna in her many forms are attested throughout the Roman world. Dedications have been found to Fortuna Dubia (doubtful fortune), Fortuna Brevis (fickle or wayward fortune) and Fortuna Mala (bad fortune). She is found in a variety of domestic and personal contexts. During the early Empire, an amulet from the House of Menander in Pompeii links her to the Egyptian goddess Isis , as Isis-Fortuna. She is functionally related to the God Bonus Eventus , who is often represented as her counterpart: both appear on amulets and intaglio engraved gems across the Roman world. Her name seems to derive from Vortumna (she who revolves the year). The cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae) or horn of plenty is a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers, nuts, other edibles, or wealth in some form. Originating in classical antiquity , it has continued as a symbol in Western art , and it is particularly associated with the Thanksgiving holiday in North America. Allegorical depiction of the Roman goddess Abundantia with a cornucopia, by Rubens ca. Mythology offers multiple explanations of the origin of the cornucopia. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus , who had to be hidden from his devouring father Cronus. In a cave on Mount Ida on the island of Crete , baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amalthea (“Nourishing Goddess”), who fed him with her milk. The suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, and in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns , which then had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god. In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles (Roman Hercules) wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns; river gods were sometimes depicted as horned. This version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules mural painting by the American Regionalist artist Thomas Hart Benton. The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek and Roman deities , particularly those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth (Gaia or Terra); the child Plutus , god of riches and son of the grain goddess Demeter ; the nymph Maia ; and Fortuna , the goddess of luck, who had the power to grant prosperity. In Roman Imperial cult , abstract Roman deities who fostered peace (pax Romana) and prosperity were also depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia , “Abundance” personified, and Annona , goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Pluto , the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions , was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia to distinguish him from the gloomier Hades , who holds a drinking horn instead. In modern depictions, the cornucopia is typically a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit and vegetables. In North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving and the harvest. Cornucopia is also the name of the annual November Wine and Food celebration in Whistler , British Columbia, Canada. Two cornucopias are seen in the flag and state seal of Idaho. The Great Seal of North Carolina depicts Liberty standing and Plenty holding a cornucopia. The coat of arms of Colombia , Panama , Peru and Venezuela , and the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia , also feature the cornucopia, symbolising prosperity. The horn of plenty is used on body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility, fortune and abundance. (under Balbinus and Pupienus) Augustus: 238-244 A. Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius. , known in English as Gordian III , was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and his father was an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before becoming Roman Emperor. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior , Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian’s grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus’ oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian’s fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions , namely the Parthica II who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Due to Gordian’s age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina , daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube , and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia , the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy’s territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor’s security, were at risk. Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab , stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian’s death is unknown. Gordian’s youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store” for on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “GORDIAN III 243AD Authentic Genuine Ancient Silver Roman Coin Fortuna i59501″ is in sale since Friday, March 10, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Gordian III
  • Composition: Silver

Oct 7 2017

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men’s Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men's Ring

Dear Customer, Thank you for taking a look around my shop. I appreciate your interest! I use Authentic Ancient Coins and Objects unless stated. I have worn both and you can tell the difference. The ancient coins seem to possess a power (if you will) as they have passed thru many hands and have been owned by many people over thousands of years! I feel the essence of all these people are infused in the objects! My pricing reflects the cost of obtaining authentic ancient items and I only use solid Gold, Platinum and Silver. These metals are an investment and hold their VALUE! My goal is to make something you will be proud to pass on to your family. Sterling Silver Setting size 10.75 Can easily be resized Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of Emperor Caligula Total Weight of the ring is 22.81 Grams. The item “Authentic Ancient Roman coin Emperor Caligula Men’s Ring” is in sale since Monday, August 07, 2017. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Men’s Jewelry\Rings”. The seller is “fabioandstella” and is located in McKeesport, Pennsylvania. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Brand: “Handmade”
  • Metal: Sterling Silver
  • Metal Purity: 925
  • Sizable: Yes
  • Ring Size: 10.75
  • Style: Historic
  • Color: Ancient
  • Main Stone: Authentic Ancient Roman Bronze
  • Material: Ancient Coin
  • Theme: Caligula “little boots”
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

Oct 3 2017

Authentic Pontius Pilate Ancient Coins NGC Certified

Authentic Pontius Pilate Ancient Coins NGC Certified

Authentic Pontius Pilate Ancient Coins NGC Certified

PONTIUS PILATE BIBLICAL COIN. Authentic Ancient Widow’s Pontius Pilate Coin. Certified by NGC Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Ancient Biblical Bronze Coin dating more than 2000 years old. Own a piece of real history! Licensed antiquity excavated from Jerusalem, Israel. Wonderful treasure as a keepsake or gift. Pontius Pilate Crucifixion Coins. Only a few left! Regardless of whether you are a Christian believer, or simply one who is fascinated with history or of numismatics, you will find in these coins minted by Pontius Pilate direct evidence of and witness to an episode in history which has reshaped to a great extent the world we know. Many of these coins are not really beautiful and were originally not of any real monetary value. Yet these modest coins are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity: 1 Same Year of Christs Crucifixion: Most modern experts agree in recognizing that the year now designated 30 A. Marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilates coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C. 2 Same City of Christs Crucifixion: The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place. 3 Same Governor who authorized Christs Crucifixion: Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus. Pilates coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea. THE COINS IMAGES AND TEXTS THE SIMPULUM ON THE 29AD COIN. The simpulum, a symbol that looks like a ladle, was a fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time. Actually, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animals entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. This wasnt the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilates coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire. THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY. The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippas coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins. THE LITUUS ON THE 30-31AD COINS. The lituus, a symbol that looked like a cane, was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolized their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Romes foundation in 753 B. The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I 134 to 104 B. After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilates coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date. The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Gematria. The system is simple: the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The L is an abbreviation meaning year. Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 A. So we have : LIS = Year 29 A. LIZ = Year 30 A. LIH = Year 31 A. The legends on Pontius Pilates coins are written in Greek. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilates coinage consisted of only three different words : TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29. MINT LOCATION AND CIRCULATION LOCATION OF MINTS. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time. These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometers from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometers, which is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins. Did someone have this coin in his/her pocket while Jesus was speaking? Or did Jesus himself even hold it? These coins must have witnessed some amazing things. The item “Authentic Pontius Pilate Ancient Coins NGC Certified” is in sale since Monday, July 31, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “superquickship” and is located in Montvale, New Jersey. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia.
  • Certification: NGC

Sep 30 2017

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF

AV Aureus (18.5mm, 7.17 g, 6h). Struck circa AD 119-125. IMP CESR TRIN HDRINVS VG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS III, Hercules, naked, seated facing, holding club in right hand and distaff in left; shields to left, round shield in middle, cuirass to right. RIC II 55; Strack 861; Calicó 1318 same rev. Die as illustration; BMCRE 97 var. Legend; Biaggi 636 same rev. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. The item “Hadrian 119AD Rome Authentic Ancient Roman Gold Coin Resting HERCULES NGC XF” is in sale since Monday, January 16, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Hadrian
  • Composition: Gold
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Certification Number: 4529601-007
  • Certification: NGC
  • Denomination: Aureus
  • Grade: XF , 5/5; 4/5.

Sep 25 2017

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF

Julius Caesar – Roman General, Politician, Hero & Dictator Silver Denarius 18mm (3.91 grams) Military mint in Italy, circa 49 B. Reference: RSC 49j B. 443/1 Certification: NGC Ancients Ch XF Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5 4371775-003 Elephant walking right, trampling on serpent, CAESAR in exergue. Sacrificial implements, simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest’s hat. The obverse type may symbolize victory over evil, whereas the reverse refers to Caesar’s office of Pontifex Maximus. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Symbolism of the Elephant. The representation of this animal frequently occurs on Roman coins. The head, and sometimes the proboscis only, on an Elephant is a symbol of Africa. An Elephant trampling on a serpent with it’s fore feet, is the well-known type on the denarius of Julius Caesar. But it has given rise from it’s name in that region; the animal being called in the Punic language Caesar, this name became appropriated to the family. “But” says Echhel vi. 5 and 6, in noticing these conflicting opinions prior to this grandfather of Julius, we find in Livy the cognomen of Caesar. Now, if that be true, which is stated by Constantinus Manasses, that’elephants are called Caesares by the Phoenicians,’ and which, as we have just observed, is confirmed by Servius and Spartian, the present elephant would be an allusion to the name; as, moreover, it is represented as trampling on a serpent, with which reptile, according to Pliny, the elephant is at perpetual feud; and as it is established by Artemidorus, that the elephant in Italy denotes a lord, a king, or a man in high authority; we shall then recognize a type flattering to the ambition of Caesar, and by which he was desirous to intimate his victory over the barbarians, and all who were envious of his glory. Whatever may be the decision on this point, the type may be considered as a presage of future dominion. For the elephant, independently of its uses in war and amphitheatre, was an undoubted symbol of honor or of arrogance. According to Suetonius In Nerone, chap. Domitius, the ancestor of Nero, after his victory, during his consulate, over the Allobroges, was carried through the province on an elephant, preceded by a large body of troops, as in the solemnity of a triumph. Julius Caesar himself, when his military toils were over, ascended the Capitol, lighted by forty elephants, bearing torches, on either side of him. Lastly, there was no special use for elephants, except to draw the imperial thensae at funerals, or the chariots of the Caesars, either in a triumph, or in their consular processions. Elephants are represented on coins as an emblem of Eternity, it has been among the vulgar errors of the ancients to believe that those stupendous creatures lived two or even three hundred years. It was, however, on the known longevity of the elephant (exceeding, as Pliny, quoting Aristotle, says, that of all other animals), that they were employed in the funeral processions of emperors and empresses, on the occasion of their apotheosis. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics. During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, he formed political alliances that led to the so-called First Triumvirate, an extra-legal arrangement with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their factional attempts to amass power for themselves were opposed within the Roman Senate by the optimates, among them Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, with the sometime support of Marcus Tullius Cicero. Caesar’s conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey’s, while the death of Crassus contributed to increasing political tensions between the two triumviral survivors. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. With the order that sent his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed “dictator in perpetuity” (dictator perpetuo). A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar’s adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Much of Caesar’s life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus. Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo. The item “JULIUS CAESAR 49BC Elephant Serpent Authentic Ancient SILVER Roman Coin NGC chXF” is in sale since Tuesday, August 08, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Culture: Roman
  • Material: Silver
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification Number: 4371775-003
  • Grade: Ch XF
  • Certification: NGC

Sep 22 2017

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF

[6474] Julius Caesar Silver Denarius (3.98 grams) L. Aemilius Buca Moneyer, Rome mint, Struck 44 B. Julia 17 and Aemilia 17 Certification: NGC Ancients Ch XF Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5 4529185-002 CAESAR·DICT – PERPETVO Wreathed head of Caesar right Fasces and caduceus in saltire; on left, axe and on right, globe; above, clasped hands and below, L·BVCA. An attractive portrait of the dictator. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. As a politician, Caesar made use of popularist tactics. During the late 60s and into the 50s BC, he formed political alliances that led to the so-called First Triumvirate, an extra-legal arrangement with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their factional attempts to amass power for themselves were opposed within the Roman Senate by the optimates, among them Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, with the sometime support of Marcus Tullius Cicero. Caesar’s conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and in 55 BC he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse Pompey’s, while the death of Crassus contributed to increasing political tensions between the two triumviral survivors. Political realignments in Rome finally led to a stand-off between Caesar and Pompey, the latter having taken up the cause of the Senate. With the order that sent his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of the Roman world. After assuming control of government, he began extensive reforms of Roman society and government. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed “dictator in perpetuity” (dictator perpetuo). A group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus, assassinated the dictator on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, hoping to restore the normal running of the Republic. However, the result was another Roman civil war, which ultimately led to the establishment of a permanent autocracy by Caesar’s adopted heir, Gaius Octavianus. In 42 BC, two years after his assassination, the Senate officially sanctified Caesar as one of the Roman deities. Much of Caesar’s life is known from his own Commentaries (Commentarii) on his military campaigns, and other contemporary sources such as the letters and speeches of his political rival Cicero, the historical writings of Sallust, and the poetry of Catullus. Many more details of his life are recorded by later historians, such as Appian, Suetonius, Plutarch, Cassius Dio and Strabo. The item “JULIUS CAESAR 44BC Rome Denarius Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC Ch XF” is in sale since Wednesday, March 15, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Culture: Roman
  • Material: Silver
  • Certification Number: 4529185-002
  • Certification: NGC
  • Grade: Ch XF

Sep 20 2017

HADRIAN visits Gaza in Judaea 132AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Hercules i52679

HADRIAN visits Gaza in Judaea 132AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Hercules i52679

HADRIAN visits Gaza in Judaea 132AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Hercules i52679

Item: i52679 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Hadrian – Roman Emperor : 117-138 A. Bronze 17mm (4.97 grams) of Gaza mint Dated Year 4 of the visit and 193 = 132/133 A. Reference: Hendin 864 var. (instead of) (3rd Edition); BMC 49; Ros. Sofaer 73 AKATP A PIANOC, Laureate head right. ZA EI, Nude Hercules standing facing, head left, right hand on club, holding lion skin in left; symbol in field to left. Gaza , also referred to as Gaza City , is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip , with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine. Inhabited since at least the 15th century BC, Gaza has been dominated by several different peoples and empires throughout its history. The Philistines made it a part of their pentapolis after the Ancient Egyptians had ruled it for nearly 350 years. Under the Romans and later the Byzantines , Gaza experienced relative peace and its port flourished. In 635 AD, it became the first city in Palestine to be conquered by the Rashidun army and quickly developed into a center of Islamic law. However, by the time the Crusaders invaded the city in the late 11th century, it was in ruins. In later centuries, Gaza experienced several hardshipsfrom Mongol raids to floods and locusts, reducing it to a village by the 16th century, when it was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. During the first half of Ottoman rule, the Ridwan dynasty controlled Gaza and under them the city went through an age of great commerce and peace. The municipality of Gaza was established in 1893. Gaza fell to British forces during World War I , becoming a part of Mandatory Palestine. As a result of the 1948 ArabIsraeli War , Egypt administered the newly formed Gaza Strip territory and several improvements were undertaken in the city. Gaza was captured by Israel in the Six-Day War in 1967, but in 1993, the city was transferred to the Palestinian National Authority. In the months following the 2006 election, an armed conflict broke out between the Palestinian political factions of Fatah and Hamas , resulting in the latter taking power in Gaza. Egypt and Israel consequently imposed a blockade on the Gaza Strip. Israel eased the blockade allowing consumer goods in June 2010, and Egypt reopened the Rafah border crossing in 2011 to pedestrians. The primary economic activities of Gaza are small-scale industries and agriculture. However, the blockade and recurring conflicts has put the economy under severe pressure. The majority of Gaza’s inhabitants are Muslim , although there is also a significant Christian minority. Gaza has a very young population with roughly 75% under the age of 25. The city is currently administered by a 14-member municipal council. Gaza later served as Egypts administrative capital in Canaan. During the reign of Tuthmosis III , the city became a stop on the Syrian-Egyptian caravan route and was mentioned in the Amarna letters as “Azzati”. Gaza remained under Egyptian control for 350 years until it was conquered by the Philistines in the 12th century BC, becoming a part of their “pentapolis”. According to the Book of Judges , Gaza was the place where Samson was imprisoned by the Philistines and met his death. After being ruled by the Israelites , Assyrians , and then the Egyptians, Gaza achieved relative independence and prosperity under the Persian Empire. Alexander the Great besieged Gaza , the last city to resist his conquest on his path to Egypt, for five months before finally capturing it 332 BCE; the inhabitants were either killed or taken captive. Alexander brought in local Bedouins to populate Gaza and organized the city into a polis (or ” city-state “). Greek culture consequently took root and Gaza earned a reputation as a flourishing center of Hellenic learning and philosophy. During the Third War of the Diadochi , Ptolemy I Soter defeated Demetrius I of Macedon in a battle near Gaza in 312 BCE. Gaza experienced another siege in 96 BCE by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus who “utterly overthrew” the city, killing 500 senators who had fled into the temple of Apollo for safety. Josephus notes that Gaza was resettled under the rule of Herod Antipas , who cultivated friendly relations with Gazans, Ascalonites and neighboring Arabs after being appointed governor of Idumea by Jannaeus. Rebuilt after it was incorporated into the Roman Empire in 63 BCE under the command of Pompey Magnus , Gaza then became a part of the Roman province of Judaea. It was targeted by Jewish forces during their rebellion against Roman rule in 66 and was partially destroyed. It nevertheless remained an important city, even more so after the destruction of Jerusalem. Throughout the Roman period, Gaza was a prosperous city and received grants and attention from several emperors. A 500-member senate governed Gaza, and a diverse variety of Philistines, Greeks, Romans, Canaanites, Phoenicians , Jews, Egyptians, Persians, and Bedouin populated the city. Gaza’s mint issued coins adorned with the busts of gods and emperors. During his visit in 130 CE, Emperor Hadrian personally inaugurated wrestling, boxing, and oratorical competitions in Gaza’s new stadium, which became known from Alexandria to Damascus. The city was adorned with many pagan temples; the main cult being that of Marnas. Other temples were dedicated to Zeus , Helios , Aphrodite , Apollo , Athena and the local Tyche. Christianity began to spread throughout Gaza in 250 CE, including in the port of Maiuma. A large synagogue existed in Gaza in the 6th century, according to excavations. Conversion to Christianity in Gaza was accelerated under Saint Porphyrius between 396 and 420. In 402, Theodosius II ordered all eight of the city’s pagan temples destroyed, and four years later Empress Aelia Eudocia commissioned the construction of a church atop the ruins of the Temple of Marnas. It was during this era that the Christian philosopher Aeneas of Gaza called Gaza, his hometown, the Athens of Asia. Following the division of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century CE, Gaza remained under control of the Eastern Roman Empire that in turn became the Byzantine Empire. The city prospered and was an important center for the southern Palestine. Hercules is the Roman name for the Greek divine hero Heracles , who was the son of Zeus (Roman equivalent Jupiter) and the mortal Alcmene. In classical mythology , Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures. The Romans adapted the Greek hero’s iconography and myths for their literature and art under the name Hercules. In later Western art and literature and in popular culture , Hercules is more commonly used than Heracles as the name of the hero. Hercules was a multifaceted figure with contradictory characteristics, which enabled later artists and writers to pick and choose how to represent him. This article provides an introduction to representations of Hercules in the later tradition. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the Greco-Roman world. One cycle of these adventures became canonical as the “Twelve Labours, ” but the list has variations. One traditional order of the labours is found in the Bibliotheca as follows. Slay the Nemean Lion. Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull. Steal the Mares of Diomedes. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta , Queen of the Amazons. Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Steal the apples of the Hesperides. Capture and bring back Cerberus. The Latin name Hercules was borrowed through Etruscan , where it is represented variously as Heracle , Hercle, and other forms. Hercules was a favorite subject for Etruscan art , and appears often on bronze mirrors. The Etruscan form Herceler derives from the Greek Heracles via syncope. A mild oath invoking Hercules Hercule! Was a common interjection in Classical Latin. Baby Hercules strangling a snake sent to kill him in his cradle (Roman marble, 2nd century CE). Hercules had a number of myths that were distinctly Roman. One of these is Hercules’ defeat of Cacus , who was terrorizing the countryside of Rome. The hero was associated with the Aventine Hill through his son Aventinus. Mark Antony considered him a personal patron god, as did the emperor Commodus. Hercules received various forms of religious veneration , including as a deity concerned with children and childbirth , in part because of myths about his precocious infancy, and in part because he fathered countless children. Roman brides wore a special belt tied with the ” knot of Hercules “, which was supposed to be hard to untie. The comic playwright Plautus presents the myth of Hercules’ conception as a sex comedy in his play Amphitryon ; Seneca wrote the tragedy Hercules Furens about his bout with madness. During the Roman Imperial era , Hercules was worshipped locally from Hispania through Gaul. After the Roman Empire became Christianized , mythological narratives were often reinterpreted as allegory , influenced by the philosophy of late antiquity. In the 4th century, Servius had described Hercules’ return from the underworld as representing his ability to overcome earthly desires and vices, or the earth itself as a consumer of bodies. In medieval mythography, Hercules was one of the heroes seen as a strong role model who demonstrated both valor and wisdom, with the monsters he battles as moral obstacles. One glossatorr noted that when Hercules became a constellation , he showed that strength was necessary to gain entrance to Heaven. The Renaissance and the invention of the printing press brought a renewed interest in and publication of Greek literature. Renaissance mythography drew more extensively on the Greek tradition of Heracles, typically under the Romanized name Hercules, or the alternate name Alcides. In a chapter of his book Mythologiae (1567), the influential mythographer Natale Conti collected and summarized an extensive range of myths concerning the birth, adventures, and death of the hero under his Roman name Hercules. Conti begins his lengthy chapter on Hercules with an overview description that continues the moralizing impulse of the Middle Ages. Hercules, who subdued and destroyed monsters, bandits, and criminals, was justly famous and renowned for his great courage. His great and glorious reputation was worldwide, and so firmly entrenched that he’ll always be remembered. In fact the ancients honored him with his own temples, altars, ceremonies, and priests. But it was his wisdom and great soul that earned those honors; noble blood, physical strength, and political power just aren’t good enough. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (as emperor peror Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus , and Divus Hadrianus after his apotheosis , known as Hadrian in English ; 24 January 76 10 July 138) was emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia , Hadrian was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica or, less probably, in Rome , from a well-established family which had originated in Picenum in Italy and had subsequently settled in Italica , Hispania Baetica (the republican Hispania Ulterior), near the present day location of Seville, Spain. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian’s father. Trajan never officially designated a successor, but, according to his wife, Pompeia Plotina , Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan’s wife was well-disposed toward Hadrian: Hadrian may well have owed his succession to her. Hadrian’s presumed indebtedness to Plotina was widely regarded as the reason for Hadrian’s succession. However, there is evidence that he accomplished his succession on his own governing and leadership merits while Trajan was still alive. For example, between the years AD 100108 Trajan gave several public examples of his personal favour towards Hadrian, such as betrothing him to his grandniece, Vibia Sabina , designating him quaestor Imperatoris , comes Augusti , giving him Nerva’s diamond “as hope of succession”, proposing him for consul suffectus , and other gifts and distinctions. The young Hadrian was Trajan’s only direct male family/marriage/bloodline. The support of Plotina and of L. Licinius Sura (died in AD 108) were nonetheless extremely important for Hadrian, already in this early epoch. Although it was an accepted part of Hadrian’s personal history that Hadrian was born in Italica located in the province called Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula , comprising modern Spain and Portugal), his biography in Augustan History states that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian, but Hispanian for many generations. However, this may be a ruse to make Hadrian look like a person from Rome instead of a person hailing from the provinces. His father was the Hispano-Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer , who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome. Hadrians forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri , an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan. His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman Senatorial family. Hadrians elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina , married with the triple consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus , his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino. His parents died in 86 when Hadrian was ten, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajans Praetorian Prefect). Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus (“Greekling”). Hadrian visited Italica when (or never left it until) he was 14, when he was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. His first military service was as a tribune of the Adiutrix Legio II. Later, he was to be transferred to the Minervia Legio I in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen. His career before becoming emperor follows: decemvir stlitibus iudicandis – sevir turmae equitum Romanorum – praefectus Urbi feriarum Latinarum – tribunus militum legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis (95, in Pannonia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis V Macedonicae (96, in Moesia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis XXII Primigeniae Piae Fidelis (97, in Germania Superior) – quaestor (101) – ab actis senatus – tribunus plebis (105) – praetor (106) – legatus legionis I Minerviae Piae Fidelis (106, in Germania Inferior) – legatus Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae Inferioris (107) – consul suffectus (108) – septemvir epulonum (before 112) – sodalis Augustalis (before 112) – archon Athenis (112/13) – legatus Syriae (117). Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the Macedonica V) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian’s military skill is not well attested; however, his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent. Hadrian joined Trajan’s expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajans staff. Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command. Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan’s heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Since the document was signed by Plotina, it has been suggested that Trajan may have already been dead. The Roman empire in 125 AD, under the rule of Hadrian. Castel Sant’Angelo , the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum. This famous statue of Hadrian in Greek dress was revealed in 2008 to have been forged in the Victorian era by cobbling together a head of Hadrian and an unknown body. For years the statue had been used by historians as proof of Hadrian’s love of Hellenic culture. Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus , was instantly dismissed. The Senate’s endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight Hadrian’s legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate and the Syrian armies. Hadrian did not at first go to Rome he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian’s former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he “discovered” a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial they were hunted down and killed out of hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initiative. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan’s men. Hadrian and the military. Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian’s reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan’s conquests in Mesopotamia , considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. The peace policy was strengthened by the erection of permanent fortifications along the empire’s borders limites , sl. The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian’s Wall in Great Britain , and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications , forts, outposts and watchtowers , the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, even threat. Cultural pursuits and patronage. Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian’s Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d’Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d’Este. In Rome , the Pantheon , originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome’s ancient buildings and was highly influential to many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus , famed architect of the Forum of Trajan , dismissed his designs. When Trajan , predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems. ” “Pumpkins refers to Hadrian’s drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this later story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward. Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer whether Marius Maximus or someone else on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography. Hadrian was a passionate hunter, already from the time of his youth according to one source. In northwest Asia, he founded and dedicated a city to commemorate a she-bear he killed. It is documented that in Egypt he and his beloved Antinous killed a lion. In Rome, eight reliefs featuring Hadrian in different stages of hunting on a building that began as a monument celebrating a kill. Another of Hadrian’s contributions to “popular” culture was the beard, which symbolised his philhellenism. Except for Nero (also a great lover of Greek culture), all Roman emperors before Hadrian were clean shaven. Most of the emperors after Hadrian would be portrayed with beards. Their beards, however, were not worn out of an appreciation for Greek culture but because the beard had, thanks to Hadrian, become fashionable. Hadrian had a face covered in warts and scars, and this may have partially motivated Hadrian’s beard growth. Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus , Heliodorus and Favorinus , but was generally considered an Epicurean , as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts , baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him “the Empire’s first servant”, and British historian Edward Gibbon admired his “vast and active genius”, as well as his “equity and moderation”. In 1776, he stated that Hadrian’s epoch was part of the “happiest era of human history”. While visiting Greece in 126, Hadrian attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion , failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes. Hadrian had a close relationship, widely reported to have been romantic, with a Greek youth, Antinous , whom he met in Bithynia in 124 when the boy was thirteen or fourteen. While touring Egypt in 130, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis , and had Antinous deified – an unprecedented honour for one not of the ruling family. Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber , in Rome , a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant’Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus. According to Cassius Dio a gigantic equestrian statue was erected to Hadrian after his death. It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small. The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero , once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii , to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad. Hadrian’s visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian’s will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt , this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship. At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class. Hadrian’s first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire’s very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed to Britannia. Hadrian’s Wall (Vallum Hadriani), a fortification in Northern England (viewed from Vercovicium). Hadrian’s Gate , in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 CE. Prior to Hadrian’s arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia , spanning roughly two years (119121). It was here where in 122 he initiated the building of Hadrian’s Wall (the exact Latin name of which is unknown). The purpose of the wall is academically debated. In 1893, Haverfield stated categorically that the Wall was a means of military defence. This prevailing, early 20th century view was challenged by Collingwood. Since then, other points of view have been put forwards; the wall has been seen as a marker to the limits of Romanitas , as a monument to Hadrian to gain glory in lieu of military campaigns, as work to keep the Army busy and prevent mutiny and waste through boredom, or to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future small scale invasions and unwanted immigration from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland). Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes , built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction; nevertheless, the Western third of the wall, from modern-day Carlisle to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone. This problem also led to the narrowing of the width of the wall, from the original 12 feet to 7, saving masonry. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian’s will to improve and develop within the Empire , rather than waging wars and conquering. Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled. By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania. In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels. However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt. When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates , he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king Osroes I. He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea. He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia , the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous , a young boy who was destined to become the emperor’s beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous’s drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14. It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite. After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably more than a mere whim lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city’s construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble. Temple of Zeus in Athens. The Pantheonn was rebuilt by Hadrian. The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians’ request he conducted a revision of their constitution among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name. During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their “restorer”. He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian’s lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous’s home in Bithynia. By March 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building the Temple of Olympian Zeus it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct. On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade. Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon. Also completed by then was Hadrian’s villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian. Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day. Greece, Asia and Egypt. In September 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries. This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece. Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time Hadrian set off for Ephesus. In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile , Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated. The emperor was grief stricken. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinopolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died Cassius Dio, LIX. 11; Historia Augusta , Hadrian. Hadrians movements subsequent to the founding of Antinopolis on October 30, 130 are obscure. See also: Bar Kokhba revolt. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem , in Judaea , left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 6673. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus , the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple , which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision , which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence “barbaric”. These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain , and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian’s report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation “I and the legions are well”. However, Hadrian’s army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio , during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar , a fortified city 10 km. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian only allowed the Jews to bury their dead after a period of six days. According to the Babylonian Talmud , after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism , which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph “may his bones be crushed” (or , the Aramaic equivalent), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple. Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation or the end of the Second Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of Venus and Roma on the former site of Nero’s Golden House. About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession. In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the “four consulars” executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia , Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138. Following the death of Aelius Caesar, Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrians close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesars daughter Ceionia Fabia). Hadrians precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part. It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius who was Annius Veruss uncle who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus’ daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative. The ancient sources present Hadrian’s last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness. The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian’s brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus’ grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death. Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would “long for death but be unable to die”. The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions. Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62. The cause of death is believed to have been heart failure. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta record details of his failing health, and a study published in 1980 drew attention to classical sculptures of Hadrian that show he had diagonal earlobe creases a characteristic associated with coronary heart disease. Hadrian was buried first at Puteoli , near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius , his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius , who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius. According to the Historia Augusta Hadrian composed shortly before his death the following poem. Quae nunc abibis in loca. Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos.. Little soul, roamer and charmerr. Body’s guest and companion. Into what places will you now depart. Pale, stiff, and nude. An end to all your jokes.. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “HADRIAN visits Gaza in Judaea 132AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Hercules i52679″ is in sale since Saturday, October 31, 2015. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Sep 7 2017

NERO Rome 63 AD. Authentic Ancient Roman Bronze Coin. Left Portrait Very Rare

NERO Rome 63 AD. Authentic Ancient Roman Bronze Coin. Left Portrait Very Rare

NERO Rome 63 AD. Authentic Ancient Roman Bronze Coin. Left Portrait Very Rare

[5148] NERO, 54-68 A. Bronze Sestertius 37 mm, 25.95 gm. Rome mint: 63 A. Very Rare bust type to the left! Reference: RIC 108; Cohen 95; WCN 78. Laureate head to left. Nero on horseback right, holding spear, one soldier advancing before him bearing a vexillium, second soldier running behind the horse; DECVRSIO in ex. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December AD 37-9 June AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus , also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus , was the fifth and lastRoman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become heir to the throne. As Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, he succeeded to the throne on 13 October 54, following Claudius’s death. One of ancient history’s most infamous characters, Nero rose to power in his mid-teens following the death of Claudius, his adoptive father. To speed things along he had Britannicus poisoned and in league with his mother Agrippina had had Claudius poisoned as well. His next few years were fairly unremarkable one way or the other largely in part because of Agrippina’s overbearing influence. He corrected the problem, however, by having her executed on the pretext that she had a unfavorable view of Poppaea, his new mistress. Because he was already married to a certain Octavia he had her exiled and murdered as well. He would later kick Poppaea to death while she was pregnant. To round things out he had his teacher Seneca, another influential man of his age, commit suicide on suspicions of him and others plotting against him. Popular legend holds that he set fire to Rome. Modern historians dismiss this account as an exaggeration but his decision to hold a poetry recital with the conflagration as his background was a crass political blunder that would hurt his popularity immensely. Needing to find a scapegoat, he chose to point the finger at Christians who up until then had been but a fledgling cult. For the next 300 years Christians would be vilified for every ailment within the empire and used regularly as cannon fodder in the Coliseum. In one of the more bizarre spectacles imaginable, Nero would set Christians on fire and held in position to act as torches during his parties. Becoming ever more hated for his cruelty and the demoralizing effect of the execution of countless innocent individuals, one by one far-flung provinces seceded and named emperors among their own. When Nero was unable to deal with the insurgencies he lost hope and fled to the countryside. The Senate then issued a warrant for his arrest and, on hearing of this, decided to commit suicide… But not before asking one of his slaves to commit suicide first just to see what it would be like! Nero ruled from 54 to 68, focusing much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. He ordered the building of theaters and promoted athletic games. His reign included a successful warand negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire (58-63), the suppression of the British revolt (60-61) and improving relations with Greece. The First Roman-Jewish War (66-70) started during his reign. In 68 a military coup drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. Nero’s rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance. He is known for a number of executions, including those of his mother and step-brother, as the emperor who “fiddled while Rome burned”, and as an early persecutor of Christians. This view is based upon the main surviving sources for Nero’s reign-Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light. Some sources, though, including those mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, especially in the East. The study of Nero is problematic as some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero’s tyrannical acts. Nero was born with the name Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus on 15 December, AD 37, in Antium, near Rome. He was the only son of 12, by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and second and third cousin Agrippina the Younger, sister of emperor Caligula. Lucius’ father was the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Aemilia Lepida through their son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. Gnaeus was a grandson to Mark Antony and Octavia Minor through their daughtersAntonia Major and Antonia Minor, by each parent. With Octavia, he was the grandnephew of Caesar Augustus. Nero’s father had been employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligula’s staff when the latter traveled to the East. Nero’s father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by emperor Tiberiuswith treason, adultery, and incest. Tiberius died, allowing him to escape these charges. Nero’s father died of edema(or “dropsy”) in 39 AD when Nero was three. Lucius’ mother was Agrippina the Younger, who was great-granddaughter to Caesar Augustus and his wifeScribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippina’s father, Germanicus, was grandson to Augustus’s wife, Livia, on one side and to Mark Antony and Octavia on the other. Germanicus’ mother Antonia Minor, was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Octavia was Augustus’ second elder sister. Germanicus was also the adoptive son of Tiberius. A number of ancient historians accuse Agrippina of murdering her third husband, emperor Claudius. The item “NERO Rome 63 AD. Authentic Ancient Roman Bronze Coin. Left Portrait Very Rare” is in sale since Friday, January 24, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Sep 6 2017

Coins Of Julius Caesar Authentic Ancient Roman Coins For Sale By Expert On Ebay