Nov 9 2018

CARACALLA 210AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Juno MONETA Wealth i46742

CARACALLA 210AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Juno MONETA Wealth i46742

CARACALLA 210AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Juno MONETA Wealth i46742

CARACALLA 210AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Juno MONETA Wealth i46742

Item: i46742 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Caracalla – Roman Emperor : 198-217 A. Silver Denarius 20mm (3.02 grams) Rome mint: 210-213 A. Reference: RIC 224, C 165 ANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT – Laureate head right. MONETAAVG – Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia. In Roman mythology , Moneta (Latin Monta) was a title given to two separate goddesses: the goddess of memory (identified with the Greek goddess Mnemosyne) and an epithet of Juno , called Juno Moneta (Latin Ino Monta). The goddess Moneta was created largely under the influence of Greek religion as a cognate of Mnemosyne , the goddess of memory and the mother of the Muses. The goddess’s name is derived from Latin monre (which means to remind, warn, or instruct). She is mentioned in a fragment of Livius Andronicus’ Latin Odyssey: Nam diva Monetas filia docuit since the divine daughter of Moneta has taught… 21 Büchner, which may be the equivalent of either Od. 8,480-1 or 488. The epithet Moneta given to Juno more likely derives from the Greek word “moneres” and means “alone, unique”. By Andronicus’ age, the folk-etymology deduction from monre prevailed, and so he could transform this epithet into a separate goddess, the literary (but not religious) counterpart of Greek Mnemosyne. Juno Moneta, an epithet of Juno , was the protectress of funds. In several modern languages including Russian and Italian, moneta (Spanish moneda) is the word for coin. As with the goddess Moneta, Juno Moneta’s name is derived either from the Latin monre , since, as protectress of funds, she “warned” of instability or more likely from the Greek “moneres” meaning “alone, unique”. The Temple of Juno Moneta (Latin : Templum Iunonis Monetæ) was an ancient Roman temple that stood on the Arx or the citadel on the Capitoline Hill overlooking the Roman Forum. Located at the center of the city of Rome , it was the place where Roman coins were first minted, thereby initiating the ancient practice of associating mints with temples. In addition, it was the place where the books of the magistrates were deposited. Juno Moneta , an epithet of the Roman goddess Juno , was the protectress of funds. Cicero suggests that the name Moneta derived from the verb “monere”, because during an earthquake, a voice from this temple had demanded the expiatory sacrifice of a pregnant sow , connecting to the old Roman legend that Juno’s sacred geese warned the Roman commander Marcus Manlius Capitolinus of the approach of the Gauls in 390 BC. Moneta is also the name used for Mnemosyne , mother of the Muses , by Livius Andronicus in his translation of the Odyssey , and Hyginus’ citation of Jupiter and Moneta as parents of the muses. The name Mnemosyne or Memory was connected to Juno Moneta who maintained in her temple an unimpeachable record of historical events. In the beginning of the hostilities with the Aurunci in 345 BC, Camillus decided to summon the aid of the gods for the conflict by vowing to build a temple to Juno Moneta. While victoriously returning to Rome, he resigned from his post and the senate appointed two commissioners to build the temple. They chose its site to be on the citadel, where the house of Marcus Manlius Capitolinus had been, and dedicated it one year after the vow. This was recorded in Livy’s History of Rome and Ovid’s Fasti , where the latter states. The temple stored the Libri Lintei , the records of annually elected consuls, dating from 444 BC to 428 BC. From 273 BC, Roman silver mint and its workshops were attached to the temple. Moneta’s guardianship of Roman coinage encouraged Roman moneyers to use this means as a true record for glorifying their families by commemorating heroic family legends. Santa Maria in Aracoeli , some topographers’ possible location for the temple of Juno Moneta. According to legend, it was here that the Roman sibyl foretold the coming of Christ to the emperor Augustus , who was granted a heavenly vision of the Virgin Mary standing on an altar holding the Christ child. Augustus supposedly built an altar on the spot the altar of heaven or ara coeli – and the church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli rose around it. The original structure cannot possibly date back to the time of Augustus (Rome did not become officially Christian until the 4th century), but by the 6th century the existing church was already considered old. It was later rebuilt, with the present structure dating from the 13th century. Due to lack of vestiges and scarce information concerning the exact location, the temple is considered to be an enigma in the topography of ancient Rome. However, all agree on the fact that it stood on the summit of the citadel rather than on the other two areas of the hill. Some topographers placed the temple’s location under the church of Santa Maria in Aracoeli, while others placed it close to the edge of the hill facing the Forum alongside the stairway up to the back of the church. Although tradition talks about the construction of the temple on the site of the house of the patrician hero Manlius, ancient sources, in reference to the period of the Gallic Wars of 390 BC, suggest the existence of a previous temple building, which was linked to two found Archaic terracotta artefacts in the Aracoeli garden dating to the period between late 4th and early 5th centuries. Other remains of square walls and stones which were preserved in the garden, were attributed by scholars to the fortification work of the Arx, possibly going back to the supposed Archaic and Mid- Republican phases of the Temple. John Keats’ poem The Fall of Hyperion: A Dream describes a vision of Moneta. Moneta is the name assumed by a character in Dan Simmons’ Hyperion Cantos. The cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae) or horn of plenty is a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers, nuts, other edibles, or wealth in some form. Originating in classical antiquity , it has continued as a symbol in Western art , and it is particularly associated with the Thanksgiving holiday in North America. Allegorical depiction of the Roman goddess Abundantia with a cornucopia, by Rubens ca. Mythology offers multiple explanations of the origin of the cornucopia. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus , who had to be hidden from his devouring father Cronus. In a cave on Mount Ida on the island of Crete , baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amalthea (“Nourishing Goddess”), who fed him with her milk. The suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, and in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns , which then had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god. In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles (Roman Hercules) wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns; river gods were sometimes depicted as horned. This version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules mural painting by the American Regionalist artist Thomas Hart Benton. The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek and Roman deities , particularly those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth (Gaia or Terra); the child Plutus , god of riches and son of the grain goddess Demeter ; the nymph Maia ; and Fortuna , the goddess of luck, who had the power to grant prosperity. In Roman Imperial cult , abstract Roman deities who fostered peace (pax Romana) and prosperity were also depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia , “Abundance” personified, and Annona , goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Pluto , the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions , was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia to distinguish him from the gloomier Hades , who holds a drinking horn instead. In modern depictions, the cornucopia is typically a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit and vegetables. In North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving and the harvest. Cornucopia is also the name of the annual November Wine and Food celebration in Whistler , British Columbia, Canada. Two cornucopias are seen in the flag and state seal of Idaho. The Great Seal of North Carolina depicts Liberty standing and Plenty holding a cornucopia. The coat of arms of Colombia , Panama , Peru and Venezuela , and the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia , also feature the cornucopia, symbolising prosperity. The horn of plenty is used on body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility, fortune and abundance. Base of a statue of Louis XV of France. Septimius Severus Augustus: 198-217 A. Septimius Severus 209-211 A. Septimius Severus and Geta 211 A. With Geta 211-217 A. Sole Reign Son of. Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus. 4 April 188 8 April 217 was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 The eldest son of Septimius Severus , for a short time he ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered in 211. Caracalla is remembered as one of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Empire. He is also one of the emperors who commissioned a large public bath-house (thermae) in Rome. The remains of the Baths of Caracalla are still one of the major tourist attractions of the Italian capital. Caracalla, of mixed Punic Roman and Syrian descent, was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus in Lugdunum , Gaul (now Lyon , France), the son of the later Emperor Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. At the age of seven, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Septimius Bassianus Antoninus to create a connection to the family of the philosopher emperor Marcus Aurelius. He was later given the Caracalla nickname , which referred to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore and which he made fashionable. Murder of brother (211). His father died in 211 at Eboracum (now York) while on campaign in northern Britain. Caracalla was present and was then proclaimed emperor by the troops along with his brother Publius Septimius Antoninus Geta. Caracalla suspended the campaign in Caledonia and soon ended all military activity, as both brothers wanted to be sole ruler thus making relations between them increasingly hostile. When they tried to rule the Empire jointly they actually considered dividing it in halves, but were persuaded not to do so by their mother. Then in December 211 at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother Julia, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother’s arms. Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta’s supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother’s memory. Geta’s image was simply removed from all coinage, paintings and statues, leaving a blank space next to Caracalla’s. Among those executed were his former cousin-wife Fulvia Plautilla , his unnamed daughter with Plautilla along with her brother and other members of the family of his former father-in-law Gaius Fulvius Plautianus. Plautianus had already been executed for alleged treachery against emperor Severus in 205. About the time of his accession he ordered the Roman currency devalued, the silver purity of the denarius was decreased from 56.5% to 51.5%, the actual silver weight dropping from 1.81 grams to 1.66 grams though the overall weight slightly increased. In 215 he introduced the antoninianus , a “double denarius” weighing 5.1 grams and containing 2.6 grams of silver a purity of 52%. In the Roman provinces. In 213, Caracalla went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni tribesmen who were raiding in the Agri Decumates. The Romans did defeat the Alamanni in battle near the river Main , but failed to win a decisive victory over them. He also acquired the surname Alemannicus at this time. The following year the tyrant traveled to the East, to Syria and Egypt never to return to Rome. Gibbon in his work describes Caracalla as “the common enemy of mankind”. He left the capital in 213, about a year after the murder of Geta, and spent the rest of his reign in the provinces, particularly those of the East. He kept the Senate and other wealthy families in check by forcing them to construct, at their own expense, palaces, theaters, and places of entertainment throughout the periphery. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard Caracalla’s claims that he had killed Geta in self-defense, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla’s other pretensions. In 215, Caracalla savagely responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, and then unleashed his troops for several days of looting and plunder in Alexandria. According to historian Cassius Dio, over 20,000 people were killed. Affiliation with the army. During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the annual pay of an average legionary to 675 denarii and lavished many benefits on the army which he both feared and admired, as instructed by his father Septimius Severus who had told him on his deathbed to always mind the soldiers and ignore everyone else. Caracalla did manage to win the trust of the military with generous pay rises and popular gestures, like marching on foot among the ordinary soldiers, eating the same food, and even grinding his own flour with them. With the soldiers, “He forgot even the proper dignity of his rank, encouraging their insolent familiarity, ” according to Gibbon. The vigour of the army, instead of being confirmed by the severe discipline of the camps, melted away in the luxury of the cities. His official portraiture marks a break with the detached images of the philosopheremperors who preceded him: his close-cropped haircut is that of a soldier, his pugnacious scowl a realistic and threatening presence. This rugged soldieremperor iconic archetype was adopted by most of the following emperors who depended on the support of the troops to rule, like his eventual successor Maximinus Thrax. Seeking to secure his own legacy, Caracalla also commissioned one of Rome’s last major architectural achievements, the Baths of Caracalla , the 2nd largest public baths ever built in ancient Rome. The main room of the baths was larger than St. Peter’s Basilica , and could easily accommodate over 2,000 Roman citizens at one time. The bath house opened in 216, complete with libraries, private rooms and outdoor tracks. Internally it was lavishly decorated with gold-trimmed marble floors, columns, mosaics and colossal statuary. Edict of Caracalla (212). The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin: “Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus”) (also called Edict of Caracalla) was an edict issued in 212 by Caracalla which declared that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship and all free women in the Empire were given the same rights as Roman women. Before 212, for the most part only inhabitants of Italia held full Roman citizenship. Colonies of Romans established in other provinces, Romans (or their descendants) living in provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire, and small numbers of local nobles (such as kings of client countries) held full citizenship also. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although many held the Latin Right. The effect of this was to remove the distinction that citizenship had held since the foundation of Rome and as such the act had a profound effect upon the fabric of Roman society. According to the historian Herodian, in 216, Caracalla tricked the Parthians into believing that he accepted a marriage and peace proposal, but then had the bride and guests slaughtered after the wedding celebrations. The thereafter ongoing conflict and skirmishes became known as the Parthian war of Caracalla. The Roman Empire during the reign of Caracalla. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia , he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217 (4 days after his 29th birthday), by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard. Herodian says that Martialis’ brother had been executed a few days earlier by Caracalla on an unproven charge; Cassius Dio, on the other hand, says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. The escort of the emperor gave him privacy to relieve himself, and Martialis then ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. While attempting to flee, the bold assassin was then quickly dispatched by a Scythian archer of the Imperial Guard. Caracalla was succeeded by his Praetorian Guard Prefect , Macrinus , who (according to Herodian) was most probably responsible for having the emperor assassinated. According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus , the agnomen “Caracalla” refers to a Gallic cloak that Caracalla adopted as a personal fashion, which spread to his army and his court. Cassius Dio and the Historia Augusta agree that his nickname was derived from his cloak, but do not mention its country of origin. Legendary king of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s legendary History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name “Bassianus”, rather than the nickname Caracalla. In the story, after Severus’s death the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought a battle in which Geta was killed and Bassianus succeeded to the throne. He ruled until he was betrayed by his Pictish allies and overthrown by Carausius , who, according to Geoffrey, was a Briton, rather than the historically much later Menapian Gaul that he actually was. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CARACALLA 210AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Juno MONETA Wealth i46742″ is in sale since Monday, January 26, 2015. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver

Nov 5 2018

CARACALLA Genuine 215AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin SERAPIS i66106

CARACALLA Genuine 215AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin SERAPIS i66106

CARACALLA Genuine 215AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin SERAPIS i66106

CARACALLA Genuine 215AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin SERAPIS i66106

Item: i66106 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (3.30 grams) Rome mint, struck 215 A. Reference: RIC 263e; RSC 295 ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, wearing polos, standing left, raising right hand and holding transverse sceptre. Serapis (Latin spelling, or Sarapis in Greek) was a syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god in Antiquity. His most renowned temple was the Serapeum of Alexandria. Under Ptolemy Soter, efforts were made to integrate Egyptian religion with that of their Hellenic rulers. Ptolemy’s policy was to find a deity that should win the reverence alike of both groups, despite the curses of the Egyptian priests against the gods of the previous foreign rulers i. E Set who was lauded by the Hyksos. Alexander the Great had attempted to use Amun for this purpose, but he was more prominent in Upper Egypt, and not as popular with those in Lower Egypt, where the Greeks had stronger influence. The Greeks had little respect for animal-headed figures, and so a Greek-style anthromorphic statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as the equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi i. Osiris-Apis , which became Serapis , and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka (life force). The earliest mention of a Serapis is in the disputed death scene of Alexander (323 BC). Here, Serapis has a temple at Babylon, and is of such importance that he alone is named as being consulted on behalf of the dying king. His presence in Babylon would radically alter perceptions of the mythologies of this era, though fortunately it has been discovered that the unconnected Babylonian god Ea (Enki) was titled Serapsi , meaning king of the deep , and it is possibly this Serapsi which is referred to in the diaries. The significance of this Serapsi in the Hellenic psyche, due to its involvement in Alexander’s death, may have also contributed to the choice of Osiris-Apis as the chief Ptolemaic god. According to Plutarch, Ptolemy stole the cult statue from Sinope, having been instructed in a dream by the unknown god , to bring the statue to Alexandria, where the statue was pronounced to be Serapis by two religious experts. One of the experts was of the Eumolpidae, the ancient family from whose members the hierophant of the Eleusinian Mysteries had been chosen since before history, and the other was the scholarly Egyptian priest Manetho, which gave weight to the judgement both for the Egyptians and the Greeks. Plutarch may not however be correct, as some Egyptologists allege that the Sinope in the tale is really the hill of Sinopeion, a name given to the site of the already existing Serapeum at Memphis. Also, according to Tacitus, Serapis i. Apis explicitly identified as Osiris in full had been the god of the village of Rhakotis, before it suddenly expanded into the great capital of Alexandria. The statue suitably depicted a figure resembling Hades or Pluto, both being kings of the Greek underworld, and was shown enthroned with the modius , a basket/grain-measure, on his head, since it was a Greek symbol for the land of the dead. He also held a sceptre in his hand indicating his rulership, with Cerberus, gatekeeper of the underworld, resting at his feet, and it also had what appeared to be a serpent at its base, fitting the Egyptian symbol of rulership, the uraeus. Osiris’ wife Isis, and their son (at this point in history) Horus (in the form of Harpocrates), Serapis won an important place in the Greek world, reaching Ancient Rome, with Anubis being identified as Cerberus. In Rome, Serapis was worshiped in the Iseum Campense , the sanctuary of the goddess Isis located in the Campus Martius and built during the Second Triumvirate. The Roman cults of Isis and Serapis gained in popularity late in the first century thanks to the god’s role in the miracles that the imperial usurper Vespasian experienced in the city of Alexandria, where he stayed prior to his return to Rome as emperor in 70 AD. From the Flavian Dynasty on, Serapis sometimes appeared on imperial coinage with the reigning emperor. The great cult survived until 385, when a Christian mob destroyed the Serapeum of Alexandria, and subsequently the cult was forbidden by the Theodosian decree. The early Alexandrian Christian community appears to have been rather syncretic in their worship of Serapis and Jesus and would prostrate themselves without distinction between the two. A letter inserted in the Augustan History , ascribed to the Emperor Hadrian, refers to the worship of Serapis by residents of Egypt who described themselves as Christians, and Christian worship by those claiming to worship Serapis, suggesting a great confusion of the cults and practices. The land of Egypt, the praises of which you have been recounting to me, my dear Servianus, I have found to be wholly light-minded, unstable, and blown about by every breath of rumour. There those who worship Serapis are, in fact, Christians, and those who call themselves bishops of Christ are, in fact, devotees of Serapis. There is no chief of the Jewish synagogue, no Samaritan, no Christian presbyter, who is not an astrologer, a soothsayer, or an anointer. Even the Patriarch himself, when he comes to Egypt, is forced by some to worship Serapis, by others to worship Christ. Sole Reign Son of Septimius Severus. Caracalla (4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus , was Roman emperor from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus’ death in 211. Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla’s reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla’s reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla , which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla’s adopted praenomen and nomen: “Marcus Aurelius”. Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome, for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus , a sort of double denarius , and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus after three days. Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla’s role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla’s memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla’s apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. Caracalla was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus. He was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven as part of his father’s attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus , he became known by the agnomen “Caracalla” after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable. He may have begun wearing it during his campaigns on the Rhine and Danube. Dio generally referred to him as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. Caracalla was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (now Lyon, France), on 4 April 188 to Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. He had a slightly younger brother, Geta, who would briefly rule as co-emperor alongside him. Caracalla’s father, Septimius Severus, appointed Caracalla joint Augustus and full emperor from the year 198 onwards. His brother Geta was granted the same title in 210. In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, a woman whom he hated, though for what reason is unknown. By 205 Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, though he had probably fabricated the evidence of the plot himself. It was then that he banished his wife, whose later killing might have been carried out under Caracalla’s orders. Caracalla’s father, Septimius Severus, died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum (now York) while on campaign in Caledonia, north of the Roman Britannia. Caracalla and his brother, Publius Septimius Antoninus Geta, jointly inherited the throne upon their father’s death. During the journey back to Rome with their father’s ashes, Caracalla and his brother continuously argued with one another, making relations between them increasingly hostile. Caracalla and Geta considered dividing the empire in half along the Bosphorus to make their co-rule less hostile. Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta was to rule in the east. They were persuaded not to do this by their mother. On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother’s arms. Caracalla then persecuted and executed most of Geta’s supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother’s memory. Geta’s image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, and it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta’s name. In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae , an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. Those killed were Geta’s inner circle of guards and advisers, friends, and other military staff under his employ. The Roman Empire during the reign of Caracalla. In 213, about a year after Geta’s death, Caracalla left Rome never to return. He went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni and Goths tribesmen, a confederation of migrating Germanic tribes who had broken through the limes in Raetia. During the campaign of 213-214, Caracalla successfully defeated some of the Germanic tribes while settling other difficulties through diplomacy, though precisely with whom these treaties were made remains unknown. While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Historian Edward Gibbon compares Caracalla to emperors such as Hadrian who spent their careers campaigning in the provinces and then to tyrants such as Nero and Domitian whose entire reigns were confined to Rome and whose actions only impacted upon the senatorial and equestrian classes residing there. Gibbon then concludes that Caracalla was “the common enemy of mankind”, as both Romans and provincials alike were subject to “his rapine and cruelty”. After Caracalla concluded his campaign against the Alamanni, it became evident that he was inordinately preoccupied with the Greek-Macedonian general and conqueror Alexander the Great. He began openly mimicking Alexander in his personal style. In planning his invasion of the Parthian Empire, Caracalla decided to equip 16,000 of his men with Macedonian-style phalanxes, despite the Roman army having made the phalanx an obsolete tactical formation. The historian Christopher Matthew mentions that the term Phalangarii has two possible meanings, both with military connotations. The first refers merely to the Roman battle line and does not specifically mean that the men were armed with pikes, and the second bears similarity to the’Marian Mules’ of the late Roman Republic who carried their equipment suspended from a long pole, which were in use until at least the 2nd century AD. As a consequence, the Phalangarii of Legio II Parthica may not have been pikemen, but rather standard battle line troops or possibly Triarii. Caracalla’s mania for Alexander went so far that Caracalla visited Alexandria while preparing for his Persian invasion and persecuted philosophers of the Aristotelian school based on a legend that Aristotle had poisoned Alexander. This was a sign of Caracalla’s increasingly erratic behaviour. But this mania for Alexander, strange as it was, was overshadowed by subsequent events in Alexandria. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard of Caracalla’s claims that he had killed his brother Geta in self-defence, they produced a satire mocking this as well as Caracalla’s other pretensions. In 215 Caracalla travelled to Alexandria and responded to this insult by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, before setting his troops against Alexandria for several days of looting and plunder. Following the massacre at Alexandria, Caracalla moved east onto Armenia. By 216 he had pushed through Armenia and south into Parthia. During the reign of Septimius Severus, Julia Domna had played a prominent public role, receiving titles of honor such as “Mother of the camp”, but she also played a role behind the scenes helping Septimius administer the empire. Described as ambitious, Julia Domna surrounded herself with thinkers and writers from all over the empire. While Caracalla was mustering and training troops for his planned Persian invasion, Julia remained in Rome, administering the empire. Julia’s growing influence in state affairs was the beginning of a trend of emperors’ mothers having influence, which continued throughout the Severan dynasty. When Geta died in 211, her responsibilities increased because Caracalla found administrative tasks to be mundane. She may have taken upon one of the more important civil functions of the emperor; receiving petitions and answering correspondence. The extent of her role in this position, however, is probably overstated. She may have represented her son and played a role in meetings and answering queries; however, the final authority on legal matters was Caracalla. The emperor filled all of the roles in the legal system as judge, legislator, and administrator. He lavished many benefits on the army, which he both feared and admired, in accordance with the advice given by his father on his deathbed always to heed the welfare of the soldiers and ignore everyone else. Caracalla needed to gain and keep the trust of the military, and he did so with generous pay raises and popular gestures. He spent much of his time with the soldiers, so much so that he began to imitate their dress and adopt their manners. The Baths of Caracalla. Construction on the Baths of Caracalla began in 211 at the start of Caracalla’s rule. The baths are named for Caracalla, though it is most probable that his father was responsible for their planning. In 216 a partial inauguration of the baths took place, but the outer perimeter of the baths was not completed until the reign of Severus Alexander. These large baths were typical of the Roman practice of building complexes for social and state activities in large densely populated cities. The baths covered around 50 acres (or 202,000 square meters) of land and could accommodate around 1,600 bathers at any one time. They were the second largest public baths built in ancient Rome and were complete with swimming pools, exercise yards, a stadium, steam rooms, libraries, meeting rooms, fountains, and other amenities, all of which were enclosed within formal gardens. The interior spaces were decorated with colourful marble floors, columns, mosaics, and colossal statuary. At the outset of his reign, Caracalla declared divine support for Egyptian deity Serapis – a god of healing. The Iseum et Serapeum in Alexandria was apparently renovated during Caracalla’s co-rule with his father Septimius Severus. The evidence for this exists in two inscriptions found near the temple that appear to bear their names. Additional archaeological evidence exists for this in the form of two papyrii that have been dated to the Severan period and also two statues associated with the temple that have been dated to around 200 AD. Upon Caracalla’s ascension to sole ruler in 212, the imperial mint began striking coins bearing Serapis’ image. This was a reflection of the god’s central role during Caracalla’s reign. After Geta’s death, the weapon that had killed him was dedicated to Serapis by Caracalla. This was most likely done to cast Serapis into the role of Caracalla’s protector from treachery. Caracalla also erected a temple on the Quirinal Hill in 212, which he dedicated to Serapis. A fragmented inscription found in the church of Sant’ Agata dei Goti in Rome records the construction, or possibly restoration, of a temple dedicated to the god Serapis. The inscription bears the name “Marcus Aurelius Antoninus”, a reference to either Caracalla or Elagabalus, but more likely to Caracalla due to his known strong association with the god. Two other inscriptions dedicated to Serapis, as well as a granite crocodile similar to one discovered at the Iseum et Serapeum, were also found in the area around the Quirinal Hill. The Constitutio Antoniniana lit. “Constitution of Antoninus”, also called “Edict of Caracalla” or “Antonine Constitution” was an edict issued in 212 by Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given full Roman citizenship, with the exception of the dediticii , people who had become subject to Rome through surrender in war, and certain freed slaves. Whether the dediticii were excepted from the decree is a matter of debate. Before 212 the majority of Roman citizens had been inhabitants of Roman Italia, with about 4-7% of all peoples in the Roman empire being Roman citizens at the time of the death of Augustus in 14 AD. Outside Rome, citizenship was restricted to Roman coloniae. Romans, or their descendants, living in the provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire – and small numbers of local nobles such as kings of client countries. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some Magistrates and their families and relatives held the Latin Right. Dio maintains that one purpose for Caracalla issuing the edict was the desire to increase state revenue; at the time, Rome was in a difficult financial situation and needed to pay for the new pay raises and benefits that were being conferred on the military. The provincials also benefited from this edict because they were now able to think of themselves as equal partners to the Romans in the empire. However, few of those that gained citizenship were wealthy, and while it is true that Rome was in a difficult financial situation, it is thought that this could not have been the sole purpose of the edict. Another purpose for issuing the edict, as described within the papyrus upon which part of the edict was inscribed, was to appease the gods who had delivered Caracalla from conspiracy. The conspiracy in question was in response to Caracalla’s murder of Geta and the subsequent slaughter of his followers; fratricide would only have been condoned if his brother had been a tyrant. The damnatio memoriae against Geta and the large payments Caracalla had made to his own supporters were designed to protect himself from possible repercussions. After this had succeeded, Caracalla felt the need to repay the gods of Rome by returning the favour to the people of Rome through a similarly grand gesture. This was done through the granting of citizenship. Another purpose for issuing the edict might have been related to the fact that the periphery of the empire was now becoming central to its existence, and the granting of citizenship may have been simply a logical outcome of Rome’s continued expansion of citizenship rights. The expenditures that Caracalla made with the large bonuses he gave to soldiers prompted him to debase the coinage soon after his ascension. At the end of Severus’ reign, and early into Caracalla’s, the Roman denarius had an approximate silver purity of around 55%, but by the end of his reign the purity had been reduced to about 51%. In 215 Caracalla introduced the antoninianus , a coin intended to serve as a double denarius. This new currency, however, had a silver purity of about 52% for the period between 215 and 217 and an actual size ratio of 1 antoninianus to 1.5 denarii. This in effect made the antoninianus equal to about 1.5 denarii. The reduced silver purity of the coins caused people to hoard the old coins that had higher silver content, making the inflation problem caused by the earlier devaluation of the denarii worse than it had been before. In 216 Caracalla pursued a series of aggressive campaigns in the east against the Parthians, intended to bring more territory under direct Roman control. He offered the king of Parthia, Artabanus V of Parthia, a marriage proposal between himself and the king’s daughter. Artabanus refused the offer, realizing that the proposal was merely an attempt to unite the kingdom of Parthia under the control of Rome. In response, Caracalla used the opportunity to start a campaign against the Parthians. That summer Caracalla began to attack the countryside east of the Tigris in the Parthian war of Caracalla. In the following winter, Caracalla retired to Edessa, modern anlurfa in south-east Turkey, and began making preparations to renew the campaign by spring. At the beginning of 217, Caracalla was at Edessa with a large army preparing to start a new invasion of Parthia. On 8 April 217 Caracalla was travelling to visit a temple near Carrhae, now Harran in southern Turkey, where in 53 BC the Romans had suffered a defeat at the hands of the Parthians. After stopping briefly to urinate, Caracalla was approached by a soldier, Justin Martialis, and stabbed to death. Martialis had been incensed by Caracalla’s refusal to grant him the position of centurion, and the Praetorian Guard Prefect Macrinus, Caracalla’s successor, saw the opportunity to use Martialis to end Caracalla’s reign. In the immediate aftermath of Caracalla’s death, his murderer, Martialis, was killed as well. Three days later, Macrinus declared himself emperor with the support of the Roman army. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. The item “CARACALLA Genuine 215AD Rome Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin SERAPIS i66106″ is in sale since Sunday, December 24, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver

Oct 30 2018

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. Roman Empire: Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, circa AD 210-213. OBVERSE: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right. REVERSE: MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Mars Advancing left, holding spear and trophy. SIZE: (3.5g, 19mm). NUMISMATIC NOTES : Another Stunning Portrait of Caracalla. Scarce Depiction of Mars hurrying forward with spear. All coins are listed with a Top Rated Plus golden seal. (IF THERE IS ANY QUESTIONS OR CONCERNS PLEASE MESSAGE ME BEFORE LEAVING FEEDBACK , We take pride in your satisfaction with our customer service). The item “Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF” is in sale since Monday, October 29, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “centroneinvestments” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Culture: Roman
  • Modified Item: No
  • Grade: XF
  • Date: 210-213 AD
  • Certification Number: 4283187-001
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy
  • NGC Ancients, Caracalla: Certified XF
  • Certification: NGC
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver

Oct 27 2018

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF

Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. Roman Empire: Caracalla AR Denarius. Rome, circa AD 210-213. OBVERSE: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right. REVERSE: MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Mars Advancing left, holding spear and trophy. SIZE: (3.5g, 19mm). NUMISMATIC NOTES : Another Stunning Portrait of Caracalla. Scarce Depiction of Mars hurrying forward with spear. All coins are listed with a Top Rated Plus golden seal. (IF THERE IS ANY QUESTIONS OR CONCERNS PLEASE MESSAGE ME BEFORE LEAVING FEEDBACK , We take pride in your satisfaction with our customer service). The item “Caracalla 210-13 AD. Unique Denarius, Roman Empire, Ancient Silver Coin. NGC XF” is in sale since Sunday, October 21, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “centroneinvestments” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Culture: Roman
  • Modified Item: No
  • Grade: XF
  • Certification Number: 4283187-001
  • Date: 210-213 AD
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • NGC Ancients, Caracalla: Certified XF
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy
  • Certification: NGC
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver

Oct 9 2018

CARACALLA Authentic Ancient 198AD NGC Certified Choice MS Gold Aureus Coin

CARACALLA Authentic Ancient 198AD NGC Certified Choice MS Gold Aureus Coin

CARACALLA Authentic Ancient 198AD NGC Certified Choice MS Gold Aureus Coin

CARACALLA Authentic Ancient 198AD NGC Certified Choice MS Gold Aureus Coin

CARACALLA Authentic Ancient 198AD NGC Certified Choice MS Gold Aureus Coin

Caracalla – Roman Emperor: 198-217 A. Gold Aureus (7.13 grams) Laodicea ad Mare mint, struck 198 A. Reference: C 598 var. (different bust and legend). BMC 646 and pl. 43, 18 (these dies). Calicó 2821 (this coin). Pedigree / Provenance: Ex Egger 20 April 1904, 194; Sothebys November 1986, Deceased nobleman, 106; NFA XX 1988, 271; NFA 29, 1992, 390;Sothebys 1993, 106 and Heritage 3032, 2014, 23621 sales. From the Andre Constantine Dimitriadis and the Retired Banker collections. Certification: NGC (photo-certificate) Choice MS 5/5 – 5/5, Fine Style. IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG, Laureate bust right, wearingcuirass decorated with aegis. SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt. It was a special honour for a subsidiary imperial mint to strike in gold, and this remarkable aureus of Caracalla was struck at the branch mint of Laodicea in Syria, where the imperial family had resided during war against Pescennius Niger in A. At the time this coin was struck in A. 198, Severus along with his family was again in the East, having just waged a successful war against the Parthians in retaliation for their invasion of Roman territory while he was in Gaul eliminating his final adversary, Clodius Albinus. He sacked the city of Ctesiphon, and after enslaving the population and carrying off much booty which it should be noted is the likely source of the gold that was used to strike this coin he took the title Parthicus Maximus. He also elevated the positions of both his sons: Caracalla, his eldest son, was promoted from the rank of caesar to augustus, and Geta, his youngest son, was given the title of caesar. The obverse of this aureus, which belongs to one of the first issues struck for Caracalla as emperor, shows the youthful emperor wearing a cuirass or breastplate centrally embossed with the figure of a gorgoneion. The gorgoneion is often depicted as part of the aegis, a tasseled animal skin thought to be ageless and which extended an aura of immortality to the wearer. As part of the emperor’s armour its obvious purpose would have been to serve as a protective amulet during battle. The reverse depicts the goddess Spes, the personification of hope, and here expresses the stability that the Severan dynasty represents for an empire having just suffered several years of civil war. In Antioch on January 1, A. The family’s reception once back in the capital was attended with much fanfare. Rome had not only conquered its implacable enemy, Parthia, but Severus celebrated his decennalia with many festivities, including of course generous donatives to the people and the praetorian guardsmen, each of whom received ten gold aurei according to Dio Cassius. (under Septimius Severus) Augustus: 198-217 A. With Septimius Severus 209-211 A. With Septimius Severus and Geta 211 A. With Geta 211-217 A. Caracalla (4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus , was Roman emperor from AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus’ death in 211. Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta, with whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla’s reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla’s reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla , which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla’s adopted praenomen and nomen: “Marcus Aurelius”. Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome, for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus , a sort of double denarius , and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus after three days. Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla’s role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla’s memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla’s apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. The item “CARACALLA Authentic Ancient 198AD NGC Certified Choice MS Gold Aureus Coin” is in sale since Friday, October 5, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Culture: Roman
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins
  • Denomination: Aureus
  • Composition: Gold
  • Certification: NGC
  • Grade: Ch MS* 5/5 5/5 Fine Style

Sep 6 2018

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus

Coins like this and of this quality are incredibly rare and highly prized by collectors. The Geta coins is especially hard to find, especially at an affordable price. The detail on these coins is so fine and intricate that You can see the baby curls on their heads and innocent expressions on their faces. They look like the gerber baby and the coppertone kid. Make mo mistake though, they didnt behave like lovable youngsters. Their story is one of brutality and betrayal in a thirst for absolute power. The coin in the photos are the coins you will receive. Bonus: winner will receive at least one silver coin older than 200 years. Thanks and Good Luck. Caracalla coin: obv: M AVR ANTON CAES PONTIF – Bare head bust right, draped /Rev: FELICITATEM PVBLICAM – Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and scepter. Rome mint AD 196-198 = RIC IVi, 7 (r2) VERY RARE, page 213 – Cohen 74. The coin has great detail and some nice toning. These coins are nearly perfect! Caracalla was a nickname he picked up due to his fondness of a cloak of the same name. The nickname was a pejorative insult during his reign. Calling him Caracalla might not have been good for your health. The Antoninus Pius name was given him in an attempt to connect him to the beloved emperor Antoninus Pius, and his bloodline. Geta coin; Geta, as Caesar, Denarius. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Geta, in military dress, standing left with baton & scepter, trophy behind. This coin has beautiful toning and is near mint. The bust and reverse have high relief images. This is a very rare and beautiful coin. The reverse is interesting: showing a young Geta near his military hardware. They family resemblance between the princes represented on these coins is striking. Caracalla has the look of a mischievous youngster with a smart a#% look on his face. These youngsters, especially Caracalla, would have complete authority over the empire before long. These sons of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna were very different. Although Caracalla was only 11 months older than Geta, he was still the first born son, and Caracalla definitely reaped the benefits. Severus was a soldier emperor, and it seemed that Caracalla was groomed to fit this mold. He helped his father lead legions in trouble spots in the provinces. Geta surround himself with philosophers and intellectuals and handled administrative matters at Home. Their mother, Julia Domna, made sure that both her sons were well educated by the best philosophers and tutors available. As they grew older, Caracalla developed the image of a soldier and military leader. Geta was viewed as more an intellectual and administrator. The combined personalities would have made for a decent reign. Unfortunately, their dislike for one another grew as their rivalry grew. Many Romans saw Geta as essentially a spare emperor while their father was alive. Caracalla was the real heir in waiting to Severus throne. Domna and Severus encouraged their sons to get along as brothers and Kings, botb for their own sake and that of the empire. When Severus died during a campaign in Britain (211), and Caracalla, nearing his 23rd birthday, passed from the second to the first position in the empire. All attempts by their mother to bring about a reconciliation were in vain, and Caracalla finally killed Geta, in the arms of Their own mother. In 211 with the death of their father. Caracalla lured Geta to the apartment of the their mother Julia Domna under the pretense of reconciliation. Caracalla had decided Geta was becoming a threat to his power. Some historians believe this is what triggered the out of control cruelty and madness of the emperor. He ordered atrocities at home and abroad. He grew extremely paranoid, but in this case he was right to be wary. Pertinax, a praetorian prefect, had Caracalla killed in 217ad. The boys mother, Julia Domna, soon starved herself to death, although it is unclear weather she was forced to do so by Pertinax. The Severan dynasty gained back the throne in 218 under Elagabalus. The item “Lot Of 2 Ancient Roman Silver Coins Denarius Of Caracalla And GetaXF+bonus” is in sale since Wednesday, September 5, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “rve-jro-kbsp19lsbp” and is located in Ligonier, Pennsylvania. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Dominican republic, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Grade: XF+
  • Date: 192-217ad
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver

Aug 28 2018

CARACALLA 213AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God Cult i49836

CARACALLA 213AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God Cult i49836

CARACALLA 213AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God Cult i49836

CARACALLA 213AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God Cult i49836

Item: i49836 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Caracalla – Roman Emperor : 198-217 A. Silver Denarius 19mm (2.74 grams) Rome mint 213 A. Reference: RIC 223, S 6819, C 150 ANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT – Laureate head right. MARTIPROPVGNATORI – Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy. Was the Roman god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter , and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Martius Latin), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming. Mars was identified with the Greek god Ares , whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature. Mars was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus , the latter of whom as a guardian of the Roman people had no Greek equivalent. Mars’ altar in the Campus Martius , the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa , the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome. Although the center of Mars’ worship was originally located outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium) , Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum. Although Ares was viewed primarily as a destructive and destabilizing force, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace , and was a father (pater) of the Roman people. In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome , Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome’s founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas , celebrated as the Trojan refugee who “founded” Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls. The importance of Mars in establishing religious and cultural identity within the Roman Empire is indicated by the vast number of inscriptions identifying him with a local deity, particularly in the Western provinces. The union of Venus and Mars held greater appeal for poets and philosophers, and the couple were a frequent subject of art. In Greek myth, the adultery of Ares and Aphrodite had been exposed to ridicule when her husband Hephaestus (whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan) caught them in the act by means of a magical snare. Although not originally part of the Roman tradition, in 217 BC Venus and Mars were presented as a complementary pair in the lectisternium , a public banquet at which images of twelve major gods of the Roman state were presented on couches as if present and participating. Wall painting (mid-1st century AD) from which the House of Venus and Mars at Pompeii takes its name. Scenes of Venus and Mars in Roman art often ignore the adulterous implications of their union, and take pleasure in the good-looking couple attended by Cupid or multiple Loves (amores). Some scenes may imply marriage, and the relationship was romanticized in funerary or domestic art in which husbands and wives had themselves portrayed as the passionate divine couple. The uniting of deities representing Love and War lent itself to allegory , especially since the lovers were the parents of Harmonia. The Renaissance philosopher Marsilio Ficino notes that “only Venus dominates Mars, and he never dominates her”. In ancient Roman and Renaissance art, Mars is often shown disarmed and relaxed, or even sleeping, but the extramarital nature of their affair can also suggest that this peace is impermanent. She-wolf and twins from an altar to Venus and Mars. The earliest center in Rome for cultivating Mars as a deity was the Altar of Mars (Ara Martis) in the Campus Martius (“Field of Mars”) outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium). The Romans thought that this altar had been established by the semi-legendary Numa Pompilius , the peace-loving successor of Romulus. According to Roman tradition, the Campus Martius had been consecrated to Mars by their ancestors to serve as horse pasturage and an equestrian training ground for youths. During the Roman Republic (50927 BC), the Campus was a largely open expanse. No temple was built at the altar, but from 193 BC a covered walkway connected it to the Porta Fontinalis , near the office and archives of the Roman censors. Newly elected censors placed their curule chairs by the altar, and when they had finished conducting the census, the citizens were collectively purified with a suovetaurilia there. A frieze from the so-called “Altar” of Domitius Ahenobarbus is thought to depict the census, and may show Mars himself standing by the altar as the procession of victims advances. The main Temple of Mars (Aedes Martis) in the Republican period also lay outside the sacred boundary and was devoted to the god’s warrior aspect. It was built to fulfill a vow (votum) made by a Titus Quinctius in 388 BC during the Gallic siege of Rome. The founding day (dies natalis) was commemorated on June 1, and the temple is attested by several inscriptions and literary sources. The sculpture group of Mars and the wolves was displayed there. Soldiers sometimes assembled at the temple before heading off to war, and it was the point of departure for a major parade of Roman cavalry held annually on July 15. A temple to Mars in the Circus Flaminius was built around 133 BC, funded by Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus from war booty. It housed a colossal statue of Mars and a nude Venus. The Campus Martius continued to provide venues for equestrian events such as chariot racing during the Imperial period , but under the first emperor Augustus it underwent a major program of urban renewal, marked by monumental architecture. The Altar of Augustan Peace (Ara Pacis Augustae) was located there, as was the Obelisk of Montecitorio , imported from Egypt to form the pointer (gnomon) of the Solarium Augusti , a giant sundial. With its public gardens, the Campus became one of the most attractive places in the city to visit. Augustus chose the Campus Martius as the site of his new Temple to Mars Ultor, a manifestation of Mars he cultivated as the avenger (ultor) of the murder of Julius Caesar and of the military disaster suffered at the Battle of Carrhae. When the legionary standards lost to the Parthians were recovered, they were housed in the new temple. The date of the temple’s dedication on May 12 was aligned with the heliacal setting of the constellation Scorpio , the house of war. The date continued to be marked with circus games as late as the mid-4th century AD. A large statue of Mars was part of the short-lived Arch of Nero , which was built in 62 AD but dismantled after Nero’s suicide and disgrace (damnatio memoriae). Mars celebrated as peace-bringer on a Roman coin issued by Aemilianus. Antoninus (Called’Caracalla’) Caesar: 195-198 A. With Septimius Severus 209-211 A. With Septimius Severus and Geta 211-217 A. Caracallus , born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus , was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Roman Emperor from 211 to 217. He was one of the most nefarious of Roman emperors. Caracalla’s reign was notable for. The Constitutio Antoniniana , granting Roman citizenship to freemen throughout the Roman Empire , according to Cassius Dio in order to increase taxation. Debasing the silver content in Roman coinage by 25 percent in order to pay the legions; and. The construction of a large thermae outside Rome, the remains of which, known as the Baths of Caracalla , can still be seen today. “Caracalla was the common enemy of all mankind, ” wrote Edward Gibbon. He spent his reign traveling from province to province so that each could experience his rapine and cruelty. Caracalla’s real name was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. He got the nickname from his habit of wearing a cloak by the same name. Caracalla was the elder son of Septimius Severus and brother of Geta whom he positively hated. Hated so much, in fact, that he had him murdered a few years later. In the mayhem that followed, Caracalla’s men went on a killing spree of anyone suspected of being a Geta sympathizer. In the massacre, it’s estimated up to 20,000 people lost their lives. Caracalla would go on to rule for another five years but his bad karma caught up with him and he was assassinated in a plot perpetrated by Macrinus. As an emperor Caracalla possessed few redeeming qualities and among the worst of them would be his ruinous drain on the treasury. Because he knew everyone hated him he sought the protection of the army. He raised the pay of the solider to about four denarii per day, nearly quadrupling the salary of just a few years prior. And on top of their regular salary he heaped endless bonuses and other concessions meant to endear them. This not only intensified the hatred against him but also had the effect of corrupting the military who had become accustomed to this life of luxury and throwing the economy into lasting disarray. Caracalla, of mixed Punic / Berber and Syrian Arab descent, was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus in Lugdunum , Gaul (now Lyon , France), the son of the later Emperor Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. At the age of seven, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Septimius Bassianus Antoninus to solidify connection to the family of Marcus Aurelius. He was later given the Caracalla nickname , which referred to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore and which he made fashionable. His father, who had taken the imperial throne in 193, died in 211 while touring the northern marches at Eboracum (York), and Caracalla was proclaimed co-emperor with his brother Publius Septimius Antoninius Geta. However since both of them wanted to be the sole ruler, tensions between the brothers were evident in the few months they ruled the empire together (they even considered dividing the empire in two, but were persuaded not to do so by their mother). In December 211, Caracalla had Geta, the family of his former father-in-law Gaius Fulvius Plautianus , his wife Fulvia Plautilla (also his paternal second cousin), and her brother assassinated. He persecuted Geta’s supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae by the Senate against his brother. In 213 Caracalla went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni who were causing trouble in the Agri Decumates. The emperor managed to win the sympathy of the soldiers with generous pay rises and popular gestures, like marching on foot among the ordinary soldiers, eating the same food, and even grinding his own flour with them. Caracalla defeated the Alamanni in a battle near the river Main , but failed to win a decisive victory over them. After a peace agreement was brokered, the senate conferred upon him the title “Germanicus Maximus”. In the next year the emperor traveled to the East. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard Caracalla’s claims that he had killed Geta in self-defense, they produced a satire mocking this claim, as well as Caracalla’s other pretensions. Caracalla responded to this insult savagely in 215 by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, and then unleashed his troops for several days of looting and plunder in Alexandria. According to historian Cassius Dio, over 20,000 people were killed. During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the annual pay of an average legionary to 675 denarii and lavished many benefits on the army which he both feared and admired, as instructed by his father Septimius Severus who had told him to always mind the soldiers and ignore everyone else. His official portraiture marked a break with the detached images of the philosopher-emperors who preceded him: his close-cropped haircut is that of a soldier, his pugnacious scowl a realistic and threatening presence. The rugged soldier-emperor iconic type was adopted by several of the following emperors who depended on the support of the legions, like Trebonianus Gallus. Seeking to secure his own legacy, Caracalla also commissioned one of Rome’s last major architectural achievements, the Baths of Caracalla , the largest public bath ever built in ancient Rome. The main room of the baths was larger than St. Peter’s Basilica , and could easily accommodate over 2,000 Roman citizens at one time. The bath house opened in 216, complete with private rooms and outdoor tracks. Internally it was decorated with golden trim and mosaics. The Roman Empire and its provinces in 210 AD. While travelling from Edessa to begin a war with Parthia , he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Harran on. By Julius Martialis, an officer in the imperial bodyguard. Herodian says that Martialis’ brother had been executed a few days earlier by Caracalla on an unproven charge; Cassius Dio, on the other hand, says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. The escort of the emperor gave him privacy to relieve himself, and Martialis ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. He immediately fled on horseback, but was killed by a bodyguard archer. Caracalla was succeeded by the Praetorian Prefect of the Guard, Macrinus , who almost certainly was part of the conspiracy against the emperor. According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus , the cognomen “Caracalla” refers to a Gallic cloak that Caracalla adopted as a personal fashion, which spread to his army and his court. Cassius Dio and the Historia Augusta. Agree that his nickname derived from his cloak, but do not mention its country of origin. Caracalla and Geta by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Legendary king of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s legendary History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name “Bassianus”, rather than the nickname Caracalla. After Severus’s death, the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought a battle in which Geta was killed, and Bassianus succeeded to the throne. He ruled until he was betrayed by his Pictish allies and overthrown by Carausius , who, according to Geoffrey, was a Briton, rather than the Menapian Gaul that he actually was. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CARACALLA 213AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Mars Ares War God Cult i49836″ is in sale since Monday, April 20, 2015. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver

Jul 8 2018

CARACALLA Ancient Tetradrachm Silver Coin Roman Province Syria XF 198-217 AD

CARACALLA Ancient Tetradrachm Silver Coin Roman Province Syria XF 198-217 AD

ROMAN PROVINCE “Caracalla Silver Tetradrachm” Syria. 211-217 AD approximately 24 mm & 13.3 grams. IN EXTRA FINE CONDITION. COMES IN DISPLAY BOX WITH CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY GREAT GIFT! Caracalla was Roman emperor of Berber descent from 211 until his death He was the 22nd Roman Emperor and born in Lugdunum, Gaul (now Lyon, France) as the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. He was later given the nickname Caracalla, which referred to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore and which he made fashionable. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus death in 211. Introduced the Roman Civil Liberty Artificer of the world-famous Baths of Caracalla. GUARANTEED GENUINE Images are examples of the condition of the coin you will receive but not actual photos of the coin. Please see our other listings for more great coins & treasures. The item “CARACALLA Ancient Tetradrachm Silver Coin Roman Province Syria XF 198-217 AD” is in sale since Wednesday, August 2, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ World\Middle East\Syria”. The seller is “son-montuno” and is located in Illinois. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Grade: XF
  • Certification: Yes
  • Year: 198-217 AD
  • Composition: Silver
  • Denomination: Tetradrachm
  • Diameter: 24mm
  • Weight: 11.9-13.3 grams
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy

May 19 2018

198 AD Caracalla Ancient Roman coin Silver Denarius VF

198 AD Caracalla Ancient Roman coin Silver Denarius VF

198 AD Caracalla Ancient Roman coin Silver Denarius VF

198 AD Caracalla Ancient Roman coin Silver Denarius VF

198 AD Caracalla Ancient Roman coin Silver Denarius VF

198 AD roman coin. The item “198 AD Caracalla Ancient Roman coin Silver Denarius VF” is in sale since Thursday, February 1, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “kyledude420″ and is located in Boulder City, Nevada. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver
  • Grade: VF
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification: Uncertified
  • Date: AD 198-217

May 13 2018

CARACALLA as Caesar Authentic Ancient Roman Coin, Basket of fruit i22607

CARACALLA as Caesar Authentic Ancient Roman Coin, Basket of fruit i22607

Item: i22607 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Caracalla – Roman Emperor: 198-217 A. Struck as Caesar Bronze 17mm (1.68 grams) Struck in the Roman Provincial city of Nicopolis ad Istrum in Moesia Inferior M AVP ANTNI, Bare head right. NIKOO IT POC ICTPO, Basket of fruit overflowing with grape bunches at sides. Nicopolis ad Istrum was a Roman and Early Byzantine town founded by Emperor Trajan around 101106, at the junction of the Iatrus (Yantra) and the Rositsa rivers, in memory of his victory over the Dacians. Its ruins are located at the village of Nikyup , 20 km north of Veliko Tarnovo in northern Bulgaria. The town reached its apogee during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian , the Antonines and the Severan dynasty. The classical town was planned according to the orthogonal system. The network of streets, the forum surrounded by an Ionic colonnade and many buildings, a two-nave room later turned into a basilica and other public buildings have been uncovered. The rich architectures and sculptures show a similarity with those of the ancient towns in Asia Minor. Nicopolis ad Istrum had issued coins, bearing images of its own public buildings. In 447 AD , the town was destroyed by Attila’s Huns. Perhaps it was already abandoned before the early 400s. In the 6th century, it was rebuilt as a powerful fortress enclosing little more than military buildings and churches, following a very common trend for the cities of that century in the Danube area. The largest area of the extensive ruins (21.55 hectares) of the classical Nicopolis was not reoccupied since the fort covered only one fourth of it (5.75 hectares), in the southeastern corner. The town became an episcopal centre during the early Byzantine period. It was finally destroyed by the Avar invasions at the end of the 6th century. A Bulgarian medieval settlement arose upon its ruins later (10th-14th century). Nicopolis ad Istrum can be said to have been the birthplace of Germanic literary tradition. In the 4th century, the Gothic bishop, missionary and translator Ulfilas (Wulfila) obtained permission from Emperor Constantius II to immigrate with his flock of converts to Moesia and settle near Nicopolis ad Istrum in 347-8. There, he invented the Gothic alphabet and translated the Bible from Greek to Gothic. Caracallus , born Lucius Septimius Bassianus and later called Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus , was the eldest son of Septimius Severus and Roman Emperor from 211 to 217. He was one of the most nefarious of Roman emperors. Caracalla’s reign was notable for. The Constitutio Antoniniana , granting Roman citizenship to freemen throughout the Roman Empire , according to Cassius Dio in order to increase taxation. Debasing the silver content in Roman coinage by 25 percent in order to pay the legions; and. The construction of a large thermae outside Rome, the remains of which, known as the Baths of Caracalla , can still be seen today. “Caracalla was the common enemy of all mankind, ” wrote Edward Gibbon. He spent his reign traveling from province to province so that each could experience his rapine and cruelty. Caracalla, of mixed Punic / Berber. And Syrian Arab descent. Was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus in Lugdunum , Gaul (now Lyon , France), the son of the later Emperor Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. At the age of seven, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Septimius Bassianus Antoninus to solidify connection to the family of Marcus Aurelius. He was later given the Caracalla nickname , which referred to the Gallic hooded tunic he habitually wore and which he made fashionable. His father, who had taken the imperial throne in 193, died in 211 while touring the northern marches at Eboracum (York), and Caracalla was proclaimed co-emperor with his brother Publius Septimius Antoninius Geta. However since both of them wanted to be the sole ruler, tensions between the brothers were evident in the few months they ruled the empire together (they even considered dividing the empire in two, but were persuaded not to do so by their mother). In December 211, Caracalla had Geta, the family of his former father-in-law Gaius Fulvius Plautianus , his wife Fulvia Plautilla (also his paternal second cousin), and her brother assassinated. He persecuted Geta’s supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae by the Senate against his brother. In 213 Caracalla went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni who were causing trouble in the Agri Decumates. The emperor managed to win the sympathy of the soldiers with generous pay rises and popular gestures, like marching on foot among the ordinary soldiers, eating the same food, and even grinding his own flour with them. Caracalla defeated the Alamanni in a battle near the river Main , but failed to win a decisive victory over them. After a peace agreement was brokered, the senate conferred upon him the title “Germanicus Maximus”. In the next year the emperor traveled to the East. When the inhabitants of Alexandria heard Caracalla’s claims that he had killed Geta in self-defense, they produced a satire mocking this claim, as well as Caracalla’s other pretensions. Caracalla responded to this insult savagely in 215 by slaughtering the deputation of leading citizens who had unsuspectingly assembled before the city to greet his arrival, and then unleashed his troops for several days of looting and plunder in Alexandria. According to historian Cassius Dio, over 20,000 people were killed. During his reign as emperor, Caracalla raised the annual pay of an average legionary to 675 denarii and lavished many benefits on the army which he both feared and admired, as instructed by his father Septimius Severus who had told him to always mind the soldiers and ignore everyone else. His official portraiture marked a break with the detached images of the philosopher-emperors who preceded him: his close-cropped haircut is that of a soldier, his pugnacious scowl a realistic and threatening presence. The rugged soldier-emperor iconic type was adopted by several of the following emperors who depended on the support of the legions, like Trebonianus Gallus. Seeking to secure his own legacy, Caracalla also commissioned one of Rome’s last major architectural achievements, the Baths of Caracalla , the largest public bath ever built in ancient Rome. The main room of the baths was larger than St. Peter’s Basilica , and could easily accommodate over 2,000 Roman citizens at one time. The bath house opened in 216, complete with private rooms and outdoor tracks. Internally it was decorated with golden trim and mosaics. The Roman Empire and its provinces in 210 AD. While travelling from Edessa to begin a war with Parthia , he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Harran on. By Julius Martialis, an officer in the imperial bodyguard. Herodian says that Martialis’ brother had been executed a few days earlier by Caracalla on an unproven charge; Cassius Dio, on the other hand, says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. The escort of the emperor gave him privacy to relieve himself, and Martialis ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. He immediately fled on horseback, but was killed by a bodyguard archer. Caracalla was succeeded by the Praetorian Prefect of the Guard, Macrinus , who almost certainly was part of the conspiracy against the emperor. According to Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus , the cognomen “Caracalla” refers to a Gallic cloak that Caracalla adopted as a personal fashion, which spread to his army and his court. And the Historia Augusta. Agree that his nickname derived from his cloak, but do not mention its country of origin. Caracalla and Geta by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Legendary king of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth’s legendary History of the Kings of Britain makes Caracalla a king of Britain, referring to him by his actual name “Bassianus”, rather than the nickname Caracalla. After Severus’s death, the Romans wanted to make Geta king of Britain, but the Britons preferred Bassianus because he had a British mother. The two brothers fought a battle in which Geta was killed, and Bassianus succeeded to the throne. He ruled until he was betrayed by his Pictish allies and overthrown by Carausius , who, according to Geoffrey, was a Briton, rather than the Menapian Gaul that he actually was. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CARACALLA as Caesar Authentic Ancient Roman Coin, Basket of fruit i22607″ is in sale since Tuesday, August 16, 2011. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.