Oct 17 2017

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor’s Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor's Trophy

Generic > item/heirlooms in photos will arrive within 2 weeks +/- > is 2000 years old – is ok to bring to your master of the trade he may like it alot. (photos may be taken in different light). We trade to warm homes only is the job; everyone happy is the job; > People see errors in our listings and wish to start trouble / steal from the collections. If you feel something may not be to your liking here, Walk Away, & do not play games we may contact you/yours to resolve issues freindly peacefully swiftly 24/7 home office is ok, we follow e-bay policy. Many heirlooms were preserved by a master coin maven long ago – we have much like this. Say hello – we would be delighted to speak with : S cientist s / United States M useums. Birds Fish Horses depicted on countless precious heirlooms. Athena Alexander the Great & Apollo; Nero the Super hero she’d say; Skekel (Omer Cups relic solid silver, copper, silver-plated, silver unknowns, unknown labeled 69 AD 70AD & even 80 AD & younger + so be careful with your old books all); Sicily Greece India Coins, Africa Elephants Big & Small; GoatManFace Sicily MermaidMan HorseWithWings Corinthia Owl Coin Frog Coin tiny coins large coins, (some newer/older/mixed-in/mixed-up > No Hobby Talk in The Ark, Is Not our Hobby) Zeus Caesar Syracuse (Relic Silver 800 BC Greek mini-Giraffe Coin) Ancient Crab & Bee Stag Coins 200 of them, Roman Empire Tetradrachm & Drachm Peso Yen Griffin Widgets Noah’s ArkUSA > we have it. We’ve had some issues, Pardon the tone, You may not trade for the item pictured if you are unfamiliar with it. The title here has errors, so see all photos. We deal with religious fanatics who do not like us. We deal with angry historians / hobby mavens who have strong firm opinions & periodically cause trouble. We deal with individuals, families & organizations who wish to harm our ability to trade. Some heirlooms were named by a relative at some point & labeled as such ie: Michael, Jack, Eve, Charlotte, Cleo James Adam Lucy DingBat George Tiny Paul FancyPants Peter Jesus Lilian CrazyFace Carlos Ben Benny Benjamin (some ancestors were crazy). We are reasonable & fair though Radical Groups with International ties hate us because we are Jewish. (but not for e-bay business)… As a kid Grandfather shared stories told to him, of Kings Rabbis, the Church & the poverty-level people; coins given to the people to trade back to the temple to be closer to god (The Beggars Strike); distributed to the poor, poor trading with different trade than others; this was an ancient congregation of Levy Family Decedents – stories include religious institutions minting coins, minting during decades-long travels (entire cities relocating with no notice). We have Beggar Strike, to our heirloom Book 21 BC/AD Volume II. Newer Heirlooms were likely Grandfathers the first male not to follow in rabbinical studies (the outcast) he may have bought it on a cruise or trade show / we may have bought it at a garage sale; the cohen assets; Emma may have selected it as Ark worthy; great grandfather loved “genuine authentic patina weight history” hobby talk; > grandfather loved the depictions, & is all in Ark, & more. Assets may be silver, gold, copper, rock token brass tin silver-plated, clay pewter bronze nickel, the heirloom may be newer rather than older or made of iron; so, we take many photos (is always maybe silver maybe Copper, Maybe AD we like AC/DC; maybe aliens). We are not testing the compounds in each relic heirloom, most of which were labeled; though some mislabeled, miscellaneous, have no concerns about quality they were avid collectors & we have a good eye when sober. In any event: History, Content, & Trade Value Are Unknown all items, OK , > in the event you do not digest easily, it’s OK, much respect > shop elsewhere, is ok. The trade is for our blessings, the item / items pictured merely deliver it. The blessing isreal, you’ll feel it. The dates are a circus, books written when Earth was flat our books good too. We keep records for each trade. We authenticate everything in noah’s ark to our books the collection is diverse, science tests are thousands of dollars > heirlooms are offered as-is; so love the photos please. We are level-headed ish, fair friendly. To answer all of your questions: > ” we trade for another family too ” / ” we have more than one” / “Grandfather was planning to open a coin shop & always stocking ” / we don’t have the answers to your. Questions ” / ” please know your stuff if it’s important to you, Global Warming is important to us” / ” We felt it Ark worthy” / ” we do not need to trade & you do not need to trade. Many have been fortunate with heirlooms and later feel bad, don’t feel bad, ancestors collected throughout their lives, extra blessed & some want to punch our face, but only a little bit those that have played games in/with Noah’s Ark want to harm us; they simply can’t believe what happened to them, it must have been the bad karma miracle; > you read the listing, our customers include maven coin collectors, stores, diplomats, Hollywood Warner Bros. Teachers, students writing papers, TV media & art loving moms & pops like Grandpa. The item “Ancient Roman Coin / Medallion Caracalla 200 AD Pergamon Bronze Emperor’s Trophy” is in sale since Sunday, October 08, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “noahs_ark_usa” and is located in New York, New York. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Grade: we determine relic or non-relic, we do not grade
  • Composition: Bronze & Other Metals
  • Provenance: Ownership History Available
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: is clean & very big – they all are 55 + grams
  • Date: Circus 200AD 400 BC 2400CE
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Italy
  • Denomination: trophy
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Certification: Yes – Blessed Heirloom NO! Triple Blessed HUGE!
  • Certification Number: is two guys giving a high five – is nice

Oct 17 2017

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Geta Caesar, 198209 AD Denarius circa 200-202 AD, AR 19mm. Bare-headed and draped bust r. 7 March 189 -26 December 211. Who ruled with his father. And his older brother. From 209, when he was named. Like his brother who had held the title since 198. Severus died in 211, and although he intended for his sons to rule together, they proved incapable of sharing power culminating with the murder of Geta in December of that year. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Geta Caesar. Denarius circa 200-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Saturday, October 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Geta
  • Date: 200-202 AD

Oct 16 2017

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Marc Antony Legionary AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Antony, autumn 32 – spring 31 BC. ANTAVG IIIVIRRPC, praetorian galley to right / Aquila between two signa; LEG VII across fields. Crawford 544/20; CRI 357; RSC 34; BMCRR East 198. 3.28g, 20mm, 6h. August 1, 30 BC, commonly known in English as. Politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the. Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar. And served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul. And the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, and Spain. After Caesar’s death. In 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Another of Caesar’s generals, and Octavian. Caesar’s nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate. The Triumvirs defeated Caesar’s murderers, the Liberatores. At the Battle of Philippi. In 42 BC, and divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome’s eastern provinces, including the client kingdom. Then ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator. And was given the command in Rome’s war against Parthia. Relations among the Triumvirs were strained as the various members sought greater political power. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony’s relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, and in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs. Their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war. In 31 BC, as the Roman Senate. At Octavian’s direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. Later that year, Antony was defeated by Octavian’s forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, where they committed suicide. With Antony dead, Octavian was the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus. Marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Marc Antony Legionary. 32-31 BC. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Sunday, October 15, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Grade: High grade
  • Date: 32-31 BC
  • Composition: Silver
  • Ruler: Marc Antony
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman

Oct 16 2017

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Denarius 104 BC, AR 18.5mm. Helmeted head of Roma l. Victory in prancing biga l. Above, S : and below, C┬ĚCOIL. Gaius Coelius Caldus , nomen also spelled Caelius, was a consul of the Roman Republic in 94 BC alongside his colleague Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. In 107 BC, Coelius Caldus was elected tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, which ordained that in the courts of justice the votes should be given by means of tables in cases of high treason. Cicero stated that Caldus regretted this law as having been the source of injury to the republic. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 BC, and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. During Sulla’s second civil war he tried in conjunction with Gaius Carrinas and Brutust help Gaius Marius the Younger by preventing Pompey from joining his forces to Sulla, but failed. Coelius’ portrait appears on a small series of Roman silver coins from the late republic. Some of his coins feature the boar emblem of Clunia. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “C. Coelius Caldus. Denarius circa 104 BC. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin” is in sale since Friday, October 13, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Date: 104 BC
  • Consul: C. Coelius Caldus
  • Era: Roman: Republic

Oct 15 2017

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Philip I 244-249 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Imperial – Philip I – Emperor Riding Antoninianus. Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG legend with radiate, draped bust right. Rev: ADVENTVS AVGG legend with Philip on horseback left, holding sceptre and raising right hand. RIC 26b; RSC 3; Sear 8916. Philip’s rise to prominence began through the intervention of his brother Priscus, who was an important official under the emperor. His big break came in 243, during Gordian III’s campaign against. Of Persia, when the. Died under unclear circumstances. At the suggestion of his brother Priscus, Philip became the new Praetorian prefect, with the intention that the two brothers would control the young Emperor and rule the Roman world as unofficial regents. Following a military defeat, Gordian III died in 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts (including one coming from the Persian point of view) state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple robe following Gordian’s death. His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader. But his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, and his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, and was aware that he had to return to Rome. In order to secure his position with the senate. However, his first priority was to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur I of Persia, and withdraw the army from a potentially disastrous situation. Although Philip was accused of abandoning territory, the actual terms of the peace were not as humiliating as they could have been. Philip apparently retained Timesitheus reconquest of Osroene. But he had to agree that Armenia. Lay within Persias sphere of influence. He also had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip immediately issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians (pax fundata cum Persis). Leading his army back up the Euphrates. Philip erected a cenotaph. In honor of Gordian III, but his ashes were sent ahead to Rome. Where he arranged for Gordian IIIs deification. He left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces, with the title of rector Orientis. Moving westward, he gave his brother-in-law Severianus control of the provinces of Moesia. He eventually arrived in Rome in the late summer of 244, where he was confirmed Augustus. Before the end of the year, he nominated his young son Caesar. And heir, his wife, Otacilia Severa, was named Augusta, and he also deified his father Marinus, even though the latter had never been emperor. While in Rome, Philip also claimed an official victory over the Persians with the titles of Parthicus Adiabenicus , Persicus Maximus and Parthicus Maximus. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Philip I 244-249 AD. Double-Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Saturday, October 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Double-Denarius
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Philip I
  • Date: 244-249 AD

Oct 15 2017

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Wife of Septimius Severus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus Denarius circa 207-211 AD, AR 20.5mm. Holding palm frond and cornucopia; child to either side. Julia Domna, Latin: Iulia Domna; c. 170 AD 217 AD was Empress consort of the Roman Empire, being wife to the Roman Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus and mother of Emperors Geta and Caracalla. She was born in Emesa in the Roman province of Syria to a family of king priests devoted to the god Ba’al and Elagabalus. Julia was famous for her prodigious learning as well as her extraordinary political influence, and is remembered for being a patron of the arts, music, and philosophy, using her title and influence to spread the previously persecuted Philosophy and helping it improve and flourish in Rome. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Julia Domna. Wife of Septimius Severus. Denarius. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Friday, October 13, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: Beautiful Iridescent Tone. High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Septimius Severus
  • Date: 207-211 AD
  • Coin of: Julia Domna

Oct 14 2017

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin

Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Rare Denarius 114 or 113 BC, AR 19mm. ROMA Laureate, diademed and draped bust of Roma r. Equestrian statue on triumphal arch; between the arches, L E P. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120 BC 77 BC) was a Roman statesman. After the death of Sulla, he attempted to undermine the Sullan constitution and revive the populares faction. His forces were defeated in a battle on the Campus Martius. He was the father of the triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus a Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Rare Denarius. Ancient Roman Republic Silver Coin” is in sale since Thursday, October 12, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Date: 114-113 BC
  • Ruler:: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus

Oct 14 2017

Ancient Roman Antoninianus Coin of Emperor Maximianus 286 AD

Ancient Roman Antoninianus Coin of Emperor Maximianus 286 AD

Ancient Roman Antoninianus Coin of Emperor Maximianus 286 AD

A well struck, centred and beautifully preserved ancient Roman antoninianus, minted under Emperor Maximianus (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus). Struck, circa 286 AD. The obverse with a superb, detailed portrait of Maximianus, facing right, wearing radiate crown and toga. The reverse shows the goddess of health, Salus. She is shown feeding serpent from a patera. “To the Health of the Augustus”. A beautiful coin, with much silvering intact. Weight: 4.05 g. Diameter: 23.25 mm. Our parent company, ArtAncient Ltd. Are members of the Antiquities Dealer’s Association, LAPADA, CINOA and the BNTA. All objects we sell are authentic as described. We send all collectibles Registered, Signed-for and Insured. Please note that in most countries, antiques and collectibles are eligible for minimal/zero charges on importation. The item “Ancient Roman Antoninianus Coin of Emperor Maximianus 286 AD” is in sale since Thursday, July 07, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “artancientltd” and is located in London. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Oct 14 2017

FAUSTINA II Jr. 164AD VENUS grabs at MARS Lover Couple Ancient Roman Coin i42195

FAUSTINA II Jr. 164AD VENUS grabs at MARS Lover Couple Ancient Roman Coin i42195

FAUSTINA II Jr. 164AD VENUS grabs at MARS Lover Couple Ancient Roman Coin i42195

Item: i42195 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Faustina II – Roman Empress & Wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius – 161-175 A. Bronze As 25mm (9.96 grams) Rome mint, under Marcus Aurelius, 164-169 A. Reference: RIC III 1680 (Aurelius); C 241 FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right. VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing right, grabbing with both hands arms of Mars standing right, looking left, holding shield and parazonium. A few surviving statuary groups of this type featuring portraits of married aristocrats on the bodies of the Mars and Venus survive from the Antonine period and reflect both the popularity of the motif at the time and the desire of the well to do be portrayed in the guise of deities. This type of group is itself a combination two famous statue types: the 4th century BC Venus of Capua and the 5th century Ares Borghese types. Venus of Capua is statuary type representing a semi-naked Aphrodite. Its prototype, named after its findspot at the ruins of an ancient theater in Capua , Italy, is now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli (Naples National Archaeological Museum). An earlier version of the type of the Venus de Milo , and close to the Venus of Arles , the statue probably represented the goddess admiring her reflection inside the reflective inner surface of Ares’ shield, a motif known on coins from Corinth. The Ares Borghese is a Roman marble statue of the imperial era (1st or 2nd century AD). It is 2.11m high. It is identifiable as Ares by the helmet and by the ankle ring given him by his lover Aphrodite. This statue possibly preserves some features of an original work in bronze, now lost, of the 5th century BC. The cult and representation of Ares are very rare in the ancient Greek world, especially in sculpture. It has been thought that this statue may be derived from one by Alcamenes , an Athenian sculptor who, according to Pausanias (I, 8, 4), made a statue of Ares that was erected on the Athenian agora. However, the temple of Ares to which he refers had only been moved from Acharnes and re-sited in the Agora in Augustus’s time, making this a chronological impossibility. Also, statues known to derive from Alcamenes’ statue show the god in a breastplate (one is depicted in this relief). So, in all, this statue may not be a copy of Alcamenes’s, but instead a Roman creation according to a classicising or Neo-Attic type. Later, widely dispersed, this type was paired with female statues of the Venus de Milo type for portraits of the imperial Roman couple, symbol of the union between military and peace, such as the Mars and Venus. Formerly part of the Borghese collection. Faustina the Younger or Faustina Minor , the younger Latin for Minor Annia Galeria Faustina Minor. Between 125 and 130-175 was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Though Roman sources give a generally negative view of her character, she was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. The item “FAUSTINA II Jr. 164AD VENUS grabs at MARS Lover Couple Ancient Roman Coin i42195″ is in sale since Tuesday, August 19, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Marcus Aurelius

Oct 13 2017

Roman Republic 97BC Quinarius Apollo Victory Trophy Ancient Silver Coin i55496

Roman Republic 97BC Quinarius Apollo Victory Trophy Ancient Silver Coin i55496

Roman Republic 97BC Quinarius Apollo Victory Trophy Ancient Silver Coin i55496

Item: i55496 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Moneyer Silver Quinarius 15mm (2.00 grams) Rome mint, circa 97 B. Reference: Egnatuleia 1; B. 333/1 Head of Apollo right, Q below, C. Victory standing left erecting trophy, Q in field, ROMA in exergue. In Greek and Roman mythology , Apollo , is one of the most important and diverse of the Olympian deities. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun; truth and prophecy; archery ; medicine and healing; music, poetry, and the arts; and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto , and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis. Apollo is known in Greek-influenced Etruscan mythology as Apulu. Apollo was worshiped in both ancient Greek and Roman religion , as well as in the modern Greco – Roman Neopaganism. As the patron of Delphi (Pythian Apollo), Apollo was an oracular god the prophetic deity of the Delphic Oracle. Medicine and healing were associated with Apollo, whether through the god himself or mediated through his son Asclepius , yet Apollo was also seen as a god who could bring ill-health and deadly plague as well as one who had the ability to cure. Amongst the god’s custodial charges, Apollo became associated with dominion over colonists , and as the patron defender of herds and flocks. As the leader of the Muses (Apollon Musagetes) and director of their choir, Apollo functioned as the patron god of music and poetry. Hermes created the lyre for him, and the instrument became a common attribute of Apollo. Hymns sung to Apollo were called paeans. In Hellenistic times, especially during the third century BCE, as Apollo Helios he became identified among Greeks with Helios , god of the sun , and his sister Artemis similarly equated with Selene , goddess of the moon. In Latin texts, on the other hand, Joseph Fontenrose declared himself unable to find any conflation of Apollo with Sol among the Augustan poets of the first century, not even in the conjurations of Aeneas and Latinus in Aeneid XII (161215). Apollo and Helios/Sol remained separate beings in literary and mythological texts until the third century CE. In ancient Roman religion , Victoria or Victory was the personified goddess of victory. She is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Nike , and was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine agricultural goddess Vacuna and had a temple on the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota was also sometimes identified with Victoria. Unlike the Greek Nike , the goddess Victoria (Latin for “victory”) was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus there was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant generals returning from war. Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races , Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war. Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts. She is often seen with or in a chariot , as in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin , Germany; ” Il Vittoriano ” in Rome has two. Winged figures, very often in pairs, representing victory and referred to as “victories”, were common in Roman official iconography, typically hovering high in a composition, and often filling spaces in spandrels or other gaps in architecture. These represent the spirit of victory rather than the goddess herself. They continued to appear after Christianization of the Empire, and slowly mutated into Christian angels. The Roman Republic Latin. Was the period of the ancient Roman civilization when the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy , traditionally dated around 509 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls , elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate. A complex constitution gradually developed, centered on the principles of a separation of powers and checks and balances. Except in times of dire national emergency, public offices were limited to one year, so that, in theory at least, no single individual could dominate his fellow citizens. Roman society was hierarchical. The evolution of the Constitution of the Roman Republic was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians , Rome’s land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry back to the early history of the Roman kingdom, and the plebeians , the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome’s highest offices were repealed or weakened, and a new aristocracy emerged from among the plebeian class. The leaders of the Republic developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked. During the first two centuries of its existence the Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century it included North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula , Greece, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, despite the Republic’s traditional and lawful constraints against any individual’s acquisition of permanent political powers, Roman politics was dominated by a small number of Roman leaders, their uneasy alliances punctuated by a series of civil wars. The victor in one of these civil wars, Octavian , reformed the Republic as a Principate , with himself as Rome’s “first citizen” (princeps). The Senate continued to sit and debate. Annual magistrates were elected as before, but final decisions on matters of policy, warfare, diplomacy and appointments were privileged to the princeps as “first among equals” later to be known as imperator due to the holding of imperium , from which the term emperor is derived. His powers were monarchic in all but name, and he held them for his lifetime, on behalf of the Senate and people of Rome. The Roman Republic was never restored, but neither was it abolished, so the exact date of the transition to the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44 BC, the defeat of Mark Antony at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and the Roman Senate’s grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian under the first settlement and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic. Many of Rome’s legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations. Latin , the language of the Romans, has influenced language across parts of Europe and the world. The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an unwritten set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent. The Roman constitution was not formal or even official. It was largely unwritten, uncodified, and constantly evolving. The Roman Forum , the commercial, cultural, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government. Senate of the Roman Republic. The Senate’s ultimate authority derived from the esteem and prestige of the Senate. This esteem and prestige was based on both precedent and custom, as well as the high calibre and prestige of the Senators. The Senate passed decrees, which were called senatus consulta. This was officially “advice” from the Senate to a magistrate. In practice, however, these were usually obeyed by the magistrates. The focus of the Roman Senate was directed towards foreign policy. Though it technically had no official role in the management of military conflict, the Senate ultimately was the force that oversaw such affairs. Not all those rights were available to every citizen – women could be citizens, but were denied the rights to vote or hold elected office. An adult male citizen with the full complement of legal and political rights was called optimo jure. The optimo jure elected their assemblies, whereupon the assemblies elected magistrates, enacted legislation, presided over trials in capital cases, declared war and peace, and forged or dissolved treaties. There were two types of legislative assemblies. The first was the comitia (“committees”), which were assemblies of all optimo jure. The second was the concilia (“councils”), which were assemblies of specific groups of optimo jure. Assembly of the Centuries. Citizens were organized on the basis of centuries and tribes. The centuries and the tribes would each gather into their own assemblies. The Comitia Centuriata (“Century Assembly”) was the assembly of the centuries. The president of the Comitia Centuriata was usually a consul. The centuries would vote, one at a time, until a measure received support from a majority of the centuries. The Comitia Centuriata would elect magistrates who had imperium powers (consuls and praetors). It also elected censors. Only the Comitia Centuriata could declare war, and ratify the results of a census. It also served as the highest court of appeal in certain judicial cases. Assembly of the Tribes. The assembly of the tribes, the Comitia Tributa, was presided over by a consul, and was composed of 35 tribes. The tribes were not ethnic or kinship groups, but rather geographical subdivisions. The order that the thirty-five tribes would vote in was selected randomly by lot. Once a measure received support from a majority of the tribes, the voting would end. While it did not pass many laws, the Comitia Tributa did elect quaestors, curule aediles , and military tribunes. The Plebeian Council was an assembly of plebeians, the non-patrician citizens of Rome, who would gather into their respective tribes. They elected their own officers, plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles. Usually a plebeian tribune would preside over the assembly. This assembly passed most laws, and could also act as a court of appeal. Since it was organised on the basis of the tribes, its rules and procedures were nearly identical to those of the Comitia Tributa. Each magistrate was vested with a degree of maior potestas (“major power”). Each magistrate could veto any action that was taken by a magistrate of an equal or lower rank. Plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles , on the other hand, were independent of the other magistrates. Magisterial powers, and checks on those powers. Each republican magistrate held certain constitutional powers. Only the People of Rome (both plebeians and patricians) had the right to confer these powers on any individual magistrate. The most powerful constitutional power was imperium. Imperium was held by both consuls and praetors. Imperium gave a magistrate the authority to command a military force. All magistrates also had the power of coercion. This was used by magistrates to maintain public order. While in Rome, all citizens had a judgement against coercion. This protection was called provocatio (see below). Magistrates also had both the power and the duty to look for omens. This power would often be used to obstruct political opponents. One check on a magistrate’s power was his collegiality. Each magisterial office would be held concurrently by at least two people. Another such check was provocatio. Provocatio was a primordial form of due process. It was a precursor to habeas corpus. This created problems for some consuls and praetors, and these magistrates would occasionally have their imperium extended. In effect, they would retain the powers of the office (as a promagistrate), without officially holding that office. Consuls, Praetors, Censors, Aediles, Quaestors, Tribunes, and Dictators. Of Marius, had been put on full display. The populares party took full advantage of this opportunity by allying itself with Marius. Several years later, in 88 BC, a Roman army was sent to put down an emerging Asian power, king Mithridates of Pontus. The army, however, was defeated. One of Marius’ old quaestors, Lucius Cornelius Sulla , had been elected consul for the year, and was ordered by the senate to assume command of the war against Mithridates. Marius, a member of the ” populares ” party, had a tribune revoke Sulla’s command of the war against Mithridates. Sulla, a member of the aristocratic (” optimates “) party, brought his army back to Italy and marched on Rome. Sulla was so angry at Marius’ tribune that he passed a law intended to permanently weaken the tribunate. With Sulla gone, the populares under Marius and Lucius Cornelius Cinna soon took control of the city. During the period in which the populares party controlled the city, they flouted convention by re-electing Marius consul several times without observing the customary ten-year interval between offices. They also transgressed the established oligarchy by advancing unelected individuals to magisterial office, and by substituting magisterial edicts for popular legislation. Sulla soon made peace with Mithridates. Sulla and his supporters then slaughtered most of Marius’ supporters. Sulla, having observed the violent results of radical popular reforms, was naturally conservative. As such, he sought to strengthen the aristocracy, and by extension the senate. Sulla made himself dictator, passed a series of constitutional reforms , resigned the dictatorship, and served one last term as consul. He died in 78 BC. Pompey, Crassus and the Catilinarian Conspiracy. A Roman marble head of Pompey (now found in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek). In 77 BC, the senate sent one of Sulla’s former lieutenants, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (“Pompey the Great”), to put down an uprising in Spain. Around the same time, another of Sulla’s former lieutenants, Marcus Licinius Crassus , had just put down the Spartacus led gladiator/slave revolt in Italy. Upon their return, Pompey and Crassus found the populares party fiercely attacking Sulla’s constitution. They attempted to forge an agreement with the populares party. If both Pompey and Crassus were elected consul in 70 BC, they would dismantle the more obnoxious components of Sulla’s constitution. The two were soon elected, and quickly dismantled most of Sulla’s constitution. Around 66 BC, a movement to use constitutional, or at least peaceful, means to address the plight of various classes began. After several failures, the movement’s leaders decided to use any means that were necessary to accomplish their goals. The movement coalesced under an aristocrat named Lucius Sergius Catilina. The movement was based in the town of Faesulae, which was a natural hotbed of agrarian agitation. The rural malcontents were to advance on Rome, and be aided by an uprising within the city. After assassinating the consuls and most of the senators, Catiline would be free to enact his reforms. The conspiracy was set in motion in 63 BC. The consul for the year, Marcus Tullius Cicero , intercepted messages that Catiline had sent in an attempt to recruit more members. As a result, the top conspirators in Rome (including at least one former consul) were executed by authorisation (of dubious constitutionality) of the senate, and the planned uprising was disrupted. Cicero then sent an army, which cut Catiline’s forces to pieces. The most important result of the Catilinarian conspiracy was that the populares party became discredited. The prior 70 years had witnessed a gradual erosion in senatorial powers. The violent nature of the conspiracy, in conjunction with the senate’s skill in disrupting it, did a great deal to repair the senate’s image. The Senate, elated by its successes against Catiline, refused to ratify the arrangements that Pompey had made. Pompey, in effect, became powerless. Caesar and Pompey, along with Crassus, established a private agreement, now known as the First Triumvirate. Under the agreement, Pompey’s arrangements would be ratified. Caesar would be elected consul in 59 BC, and would then serve as governor of Gaul for five years. Crassus was promised a future consulship. Caesar became consul in 59 BC. His colleague, Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , was an extreme aristocrat. Caesar submitted the laws that he had promised Pompey to the assemblies. Bibulus attempted to obstruct the enactment of these laws, and so Caesar used violent means to ensure their passage. Caesar was then made governor of three provinces. He facilitated the election of the former patrician Publius Clodius Pulcher to the tribunate for 58 BC. Clodius set about depriving Caesar’s senatorial enemies of two of their more obstinate leaders in Cato and Cicero. Clodius was a bitter opponent of Cicero because Cicero had testified against him in a sacrilege case. Clodius attempted to try Cicero for executing citizens without a trial during the Catiline conspiracy, resulting in Cicero going into self-imposed exile and his house in Rome being burnt down. Clodius also passed a bill that forced Cato to lead the invasion of Cyprus which would keep him away from Rome for some years. Clodius also passed a bill that gave the populace a free grain dole, which had previously just been subsidised. The end of the First Triumvirate. Clodius formed armed gangs that terrorised the city and eventually began to attack Pompey’s followers, who in response funded counter-gangs formed by Titus Annius Milo. The political alliance of the triumvirate was crumbling. Domitius Ahenobarbus ran for the consulship in 55 BC promising to take Caesar’s command from him. Eventually, the triumvirate was renewed at Lucca. Pompey and Crassus were promised the consulship in 55 BC, and Caesar’s term as governor was extended for five years. Crassus led an ill-fated expedition with legions led by his son, Caesar’s lieutenant, against the Kingdom of Parthia. This resulted in his defeat and death at the Battle of Carrhae. Finally, Pompey’s wife, Julia, who was Caesar’s daughter, died in childbirth. This event severed the last remaining bond between Pompey and Caesar. Beginning in the summer of 54 BC, a wave of political corruption and violence swept Rome. This chaos reached a climax in January of 52 BC, when Clodius was murdered in a gang war by Milo. On 1 January 49 BC, an agent of Caesar presented an ultimatum to the senate. The ultimatum was rejected, and the senate then passed a resolution which declared that if Caesar did not lay down his arms by July of that year, he would be considered an enemy of the Republic. On 7 January of 49 BC, the senate passed a senatus consultum ultimum , which vested Pompey with dictatorial powers. Pompey’s army, however, was composed largely of untested conscripts. On 10 January, Caesar crossed the Rubicon with his veteran army (in violation of Roman laws) and marched towards Rome. Caesar’s rapid advance forced Pompey, the consuls and the Senate to abandon Rome for Greece. Caesar entered the city unopposed. The period of transition (4929 BC). By 29 BC, Rome had completed its transition from being a city-state with a network of dependencies, to being the capital of a world empire. With Pompey defeated and order restored, Caesar wanted to ensure that his control over the government was undisputed. The powers which he would give himself would ultimately be used by his imperial successors. He would assume these powers by increasing his own authority, and by decreasing the authority of Rome’s other political institutions. Caesar would hold both the dictatorship and the tribunate, but alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship. In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers. This made his person sacrosanct, gave him the power to veto the senate, and allowed him to dominate the Plebeian Council. In 46 BC, Caesar was given censorial powers, which he used to fill the senate with his own partisans. Caesar then raised the membership of the Senate to 900. This robbed the senatorial aristocracy of its prestige, and made it increasingly subservient to him. While the assemblies continued to meet, he submitted all candidates to the assemblies for election, and all bills to the assemblies for enactment. Thus, the assemblies became powerless and were unable to oppose him. Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. Since his absence from Rome would limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC. This, in effect, transformed the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator. Caesar’s assassination and the Second Triumvirate. Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC. The assassination was led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus. Most of the conspirators were senators, who had a variety of economic, political, or personal motivations for carrying out the assassination. Many were afraid that Caesar would soon resurrect the monarchy and declare himself king. Others feared loss of property or prestige as Caesar carried out his land reforms in favor of the landless classes. Virtually all the conspirators fled the city after Caesar’s death in fear of retaliation. The civil war that followed destroyed what was left of the Republic. After the assassination, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar’s adopted son and great-nephew, Gaius Octavian. Along with Marcus Lepidus , they formed an alliance known as the Second Triumvirate. They held powers that were nearly identical to the powers that Caesar had held under his constitution. As such, the Senate and assemblies remained powerless, even after Caesar had been assassinated. The conspirators were then defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC. Eventually, however, Antony and Octavian fought against each other in one last battle. Antony was defeated in the naval Battle of Actium in 31 BC, and he committed suicide with his love, Cleopatra. Julius Caesar , from the bust in the British Museum , in Cassell’s History of England (1902). Life in the Roman Republic revolved around the city of Rome, and its famed seven hills. The city also had several theatres , gymnasiums , and many taverns, baths and brothels. Throughout the territory under Rome’s control, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas , and in the capital city of Rome, to the residences on the elegant Palatine Hill , from which the word ” palace ” is derived. The vast majority of the population lived in the city center, packed into apartment blocks. Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temples, as did the city of Rome itself. Aqueducts brought water to urban centers and wine and cooking oil were imported from abroad. Landlords generally resided in cities and left their estates in the care of farm managers. To stimulate a higher labour productivity, many landlords freed large numbers of slaves. Beginning in the middle of the 2nd century BC, Greek culture was increasingly ascendant, in spite of tirades against the “softening” effects of Hellenised culture. By the time of Augustus, cultured Greek household slaves taught the Roman young (sometimes even the girls). Greek sculptures adorned Hellenistic landscape gardening on the Palatine or in the villas, and much of Roman cuisine was essentially Greek. Roman writers disdained Latin for a cultured Greek style. Social history and structure. Many aspects of Roman culture were borrowed from the Greeks. In architecture and sculpture , the difference between Greek models and Roman paintings are apparent. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome. Rome has also had a tremendous impact on European cultures following it. Its significance is perhaps best reflected in its endurance and influence, as is seen in the longevity and lasting importance of works of Virgil and Ovid. Latin, the Republic’s primary language, remains used for liturgical purposes by the Roman Catholic Church, and up to the 19th century was used extensively in scholarly writings in, for example, science and mathematics. Roman law laid the foundations for the laws of many European countries and their colonies. The center of the early social structure was the family, which was not only marked by blood relations but also by the legally constructed relation of patria potestas. The Pater familias was the absolute head of the family; he was the master over his wife, his children, the wives of his sons, the nephews, the slaves and the freedmen, disposing of them and of their goods at will, even putting them to death. Roman law recognised only patrician families as legal entities. Generally, mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation. It is estimated that over 25% of the Roman population was enslaved. Roman clad in a toga. Men typically wore a toga , and women a stola. The woman’s stola differed in looks from a toga, and was usually brightly coloured. The cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. The tunic worn by plebeians , or common people, like shepherds and slaves, was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool. A knight or magistrate would wear an augusticlavus , a tunic bearing small purple studs. Senators wore tunics with broad red stripes, called tunica laticlavia. Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians. Boys, up until the festival of Liberalia , wore the toga praetexta , which was a toga with a crimson or purple border. The toga virilis , (or toga pura) was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome. The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning. Even footwear indicated a person’s social status. Patricians wore red and orange sandals, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. The Romans also invented socks for those soldiers required to fight on the northern frontiers, sometimes worn in sandals. Romans had simple food habits. Staple food was generally consumed at around 11 o’clock, and consisted of bread, salad, cheese, fruits, nuts, and cold meat left over from the dinner the night before. The Roman poet, Horace mentions another Roman favorite, the olive, in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: As for me, olives, endives , and smooth mallows provide sustenance. The family ate together, sitting on stools around a table. Fingers were used to eat solid foods and spoons were used for soups. Wine was considered a staple drink, consumed at all meals and occasions by all classes and was quite cheap. Cato the Elder once advised cutting his rations in half to conserve wine for the workforce. Many types of drinks involving grapes and honey were consumed as well. Drinking on an empty stomach was regarded as boorish and a sure sign for alcoholism, the debilitating physical and psychological effects of which were known to the Romans. An accurate accusation of being an alcoholic was an effective way to discredit political rivals. Prominent Roman alcoholics included Mark Antony , and Cicero’s own son Marcus (Cicero Minor). Even Cato the Younger was known to be a heavy drinker. Following various military conquests in the Greek East , Romans adapted a number of Greek educational precepts to their own fledgling system. Physical training to prepare the boys to grow as Roman citizens and for eventual recruitment into the army. Conforming to discipline was a point of great emphasis. Girls generally received instruction from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving, and sewing. Schooling in a more formal sense was begun around 200 BC. Education began at the age of around six, and in the next six to seven years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of reading, writing and counting. By the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking. Oratory was an art to be practiced and learnt, and good orators commanded respect. The native language of the Romans was Latin. Although surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin , an artificial and highly stylised and polished literary language from the 1st century BC, the actual spoken language was Vulgar Latin , which significantly differed from Classical Latin in grammar, vocabulary, and eventually pronunciation. Rome’s expansion spread Latin throughout Europe, and over time Vulgar Latin evolved and dialectised in different locations, gradually shifting into a number of distinct Romance languages. Many of these languages, including French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and Spanish, flourished, the differences between them growing greater over time. Although English is Germanic rather than Roman in origin, English borrows heavily from Latin and Latin-derived words. Roman literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest works we possess are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the republic expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Virgil represents the pinnacle of Roman epic poetry. His Aeneid tells the story of flight of Aeneas from Troy and his settlement of the city that would become Rome. Lucretius , in his On the Nature of Things , attempted to explicate science in an epic poem. The genre of satire was common in Rome, and satires were written by, among others, Juvenal and Persius. The rhetorical works of Cicero are considered to be some of the best bodies of correspondence recorded in antiquity. In the 3rd century BC, Greek art taken as booty from wars became popular, and many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. Portrait sculpture during the period utilised youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, often depicting Roman victories. Music was a major part of everyday life. The word itself derives from Greek (mousike), “(art) of the Muses “. Many private and public events were accompanied by music, ranging from nightly dining to military parades and manoeuvres. In a discussion of any ancient music, however, non-specialists and even many musicians have to be reminded that much of what makes our modern music familiar to us is the result of developments only within the last 1,000 years; thus, our ideas of melody, scales, harmony, and even the instruments we use would not be familiar to Romans who made and listened to music many centuries earlier. Over time, Roman architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction technology became developed and refined. The Roman concrete has remained a riddle, and even after more than 2,000 years some Roman structures still stand magnificently. The architectural style of the capital city was emulated by other urban centers under Roman control and influence. Roman cities were well planned, efficiently managed and neatly maintained. The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius (“Field of Mars”), which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers. Later, the Campus became Rome’s track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Equestrian sports, throwing, and swimming were also preferred physical activities. In the countryside, pastime included fishing and hunting. Board games played in Rome included dice (Tesserae or Tali), Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and Ludus duodecim scriptorum and Tabula, predecessors of backgammon. There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances. Roman religious beliefs date back to the founding of Rome, around 800 BC. However, the Roman religion commonly associated with the republic and early empire did not begin until around 500 BC, when Romans came in contact with Greek culture, and adopted many of the Greek religious beliefs. Private and personal worship was an important aspect of religious practices. In a sense, each household was a temple to the gods. Each household had an altar (lararium), at which the family members would offer prayers, perform rites, and interact with the household gods. Many of the gods that Romans worshiped came from the Proto-Indo-European pantheon , others were based on Greek gods. The two most famous deities were Jupiter (the king God) and Mars (the god of war). With its cultural influence spreading over most of the Mediterranean, Romans began accepting foreign gods into their own culture, as well as other philosophical traditions such as Cynicism and Stoicism. The structural history of the Roman military describes the major chronological transformations in the organisation and constitution of the Roman armed forces. The Roman military was split into the Roman army and the Roman navy , although these two branches were less distinct than they tend to be in modern defence forces. Within the top-level branches of army and navy, structural changes occurred both as a result of positive military reform and through organic structural evolution. During this period, Roman soldiers seem to have been modelled after those of the Etruscans to the north, who themselves seem to have copied their style of warfare from the Greeks. Traditionally, the introduction of the phalanx formation into the Roman army is ascribed to the city’s penultimate king, Servius Tullius (ruled 578 to 534 BC). Each subsequent rank consisted of those with less wealth and poorer equipment than the one before it. One disadvantage of the phalanx was that it was only effective when fighting in large, open spaces, which left the Romans at a disadvantage when fighting in the hilly terrain of central Italian peninsula. In the 4th century BC, the Romans abandoned the phalanx in favour of the more flexible manipular formation. This change is sometimes attributed to Marcus Furius Camillus and placed shortly after the Gallic invasion of 390 BC; it is more likely, however, that they were copied from Rome’s Samnite enemies to the south, possibly as a result of Samnite victories during the Second Samnite War (326 to 304 BC). During this period, an army formation of around 5,000 men (of both heavy and light infantry) was known as a legion. The manipular army was based upon social class, age and military experience. Maniples were units of 120 men each drawn from a single infantry class. The maniples were typically deployed into three discrete lines based on the three heavy infantry types. Each first line maniple were leather-armoured infantry soldiers who wore a bronze breastplate and a bronze helmet adorned with 3 feathers approximately 30 cm (12 in) in height and carried an iron-clad wooden shield. They were armed with a sword and two throwing spears. The second infantry line was armed and armoured in the same manner as was the first infantry line. The third infantry line was the last remnant of the hoplite-style (the Greek-style formation used occasionally during the early Republic) troops in the Roman army. They were armed and armoured in the same manner as were the soldiers in the second line, with the exception that they carried a lighter spear. The three infantry classes may have retained some slight parallel to social divisions within Roman society, but at least officially the three lines were based upon age and experience rather than social class. Young, unproven men would serve in the first line, older men with some military experience would serve in the second line, and veteran troops of advanced age and experience would serve in the third line. The heavy infantry of the maniples were supported by a number of light infantry and cavalry troops, typically 300 horsemen per manipular legion. The cavalry was drawn primarily from the richest class of equestrians. There was an additional class of troops who followed the army without specific martial roles and were deployed to the rear of the third line. Their role in accompanying the army was primarily to supply any vacancies that might occur in the maniples. The light infantry consisted of 1,200 unarmoured skirmishing troops drawn from the youngest and lower social classes. They were armed with a sword and a small shield, as well as several light javelins. Rome’s military confederation with the other peoples of the Italian peninsula meant that half of Rome’s army was provided by the Socii , such as the Etruscans, Umbrians, Apulians, Campanians, Samnites, Lucani, Bruttii, and the various southern Greek cities. Polybius states that Rome could draw on 770,000 men at the beginning of the Second Punic War, of which 700,000 were infantry and 70,000 met the requirements for cavalry. Rome’s Italian allies would be organized in alae , or wings , roughly equal in manpower to the Roman legions, though with 900 cavalry instead of 300. A small navy had operated at a fairly low level after about 300 BC, but it was massively upgraded about forty years later, during the First Punic War. After a period of frenetic construction, the navy mushroomed to a size of more than 400 ships on the Carthaginian (“Punic”) pattern. Once completed, it could accommodate up to 100,000 sailors and embarked troops for battle. The navy thereafter declined in size. The extraordinary demands of the Punic Wars , in addition to a shortage of manpower, exposed the tactical weaknesses of the manipular legion, at least in the short term. In 217 BC, near the beginning of the Second Punic War , Rome was forced to effectively ignore its long-standing principle that its soldiers must be both citizens and property owners. During the 2nd century BC, Roman territory saw an overall decline in population, partially due to the huge losses incurred during various wars. This was accompanied by severe social stresses and the greater collapse of the middle classes. As a result, the Roman state was forced to arm its soldiers at the expense of the state, which it had not had to do in the past. The distinction between the heavy infantry types began to blur, perhaps because the state was now assuming the responsibility of providing standard-issue equipment. In addition, the shortage of available manpower led to a greater burden being placed upon Rome’s allies for the provision of allied troops. Eventually, the Romans were forced to begin hiring mercenaries to fight alongside the legions. The legion after the reforms of Gaius Marius (10727 BC). Bust of Gaius Marius , instigator of the Marian reforms. In a process known as the Marian reforms , Roman consul Gaius Marius carried out a programme of reform of the Roman military. In 107 BC, all citizens, regardless of their wealth or social class, were made eligible for entry into the Roman army. This move formalised and concluded a gradual process that had been growing for centuries, of removing property requirements for military service. The distinction between the three heavy infantry classes, which had already become blurred, had collapsed into a single class of heavy legionary infantry. The heavy infantry legionaries were drawn from citizen stock, while non-citizens came to dominate the ranks of the light infantry. The army’s higher-level officers and commanders were still drawn exclusively from the Roman aristocracy. Unlike earlier in the Republic, legionaries were no longer fighting on a seasonal basis to protect their land. Instead, they received standard pay, and were employed by the state on a fixed-term basis. As a consequence, military duty began to appeal most to the poorest sections of society, to whom a salaried pay was attractive. A destabilising consequence of this development was that the proletariat acquired a stronger and more elevated position within the state. The legions of the late Republic were, structurally, almost entirely heavy infantry. The legion’s main sub-unit was called a cohort and consisted of approximately 480 infantrymen. The cohort was therefore a much larger unit than the earlier maniple sub-unit, and was divided into six centuries of 80 men each. Each century was separated further into 10 “tent groups” of 8 men each. Legions additionally consisted of a small body, typically 120 men, of Roman legionary cavalry. The cavalry troops were used as scouts and dispatch riders rather than battlefield cavalry. Legions also contained a dedicated group of artillery crew of perhaps 60 men. Each legion was normally partnered with an approximately equal number of allied (non-Roman) troops. However, the most obvious deficiency of the Roman army remained its shortage of cavalry, especially heavy cavalry. As Rome’s borders expanded and its adversaries changed from largely infantry-based to largely cavalry-based troops, the infantry-based Roman army began to find itself at a tactical disadvantage, particularly in the East. After having declined in size following the subjugation of the Mediterranean, the Roman navy underwent short-term upgrading and revitalisation in the late Republic to meet several new demands. Under Caesar , an invasion fleet was assembled in the English Channel to allow the invasion of Britannia ; under Pompey , a large fleet was raised in the Mediterranean Sea to clear the sea of Cilician pirates. During the civil war that followed, as many as a thousand ships were either constructed or pressed into service from Greek cities. The core of the campaign history of the Roman Republican military is the account of the Roman military’s land battles. Despite the encompassing of lands around the periphery of the Mediterranean sea, naval battles were typically less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome. As with most ancient civilisations, Rome’s military served the triple purposes of securing its borders, exploiting peripheral areas through measures such as imposing tribute on conquered peoples, and maintaining internal order. From the outset, Rome’s military typified this pattern and the majority of Rome’s campaigns were characterised by one of two types. The first is the territorial expansionist campaign, normally begun as a counter-offensive. In which each victory brought subjugation of large areas of territory. The second is the civil war, of which examples plagued the Roman Republic in its final century. Roman armies were not invincible, despite their formidable reputation and host of victories. Over the centuries the Romans ” produced their share of incompetents ” who led Roman armies into catastrophic defeats. Nevertheless, it was generally the fate of even the greatest of Rome’s enemies, such as Pyrrhus and Hannibal , to win the battle but lose the war. The history of Rome’s campaigning is, if nothing else, a history of obstinate persistence overcoming appalling losses. Early Republic (458274 BC). Early Italian campaigns (458396 BC). The first Roman republican wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region. Initially, Rome’s immediate neighbours were either Latin towns and villages, or else tribal Sabines from the Apennine hills beyond. One by one Rome defeated both the persistent Sabines and the local cities that were either under Etruscan control or else Latin towns that had cast off their Etruscan rulers. Rome defeated Latin cities in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 496 BC, the Battle of Mons Algidus in 458 BC, the Battle of Corbione in 446 BC. The Battle of Aricia. And an Etruscan city in the Battle of the Cremera in 477 BC. By the end of this period, Rome had effectively completed the conquest of their immediate Etruscan and Latin neighbours, as well as secured their position against the immediate threat posed by the tribespeople of the nearby Apennine hills. Celtic invasion of Italia (390387 BC). By 390 BC, several Gallic tribes had begun invading Italy from the north as their culture expanded throughout Europe. The Romans were alerted of this when a particularly warlike tribe invaded two Etruscan towns from the north. These two towns were not far from Rome’s sphere of influence. These towns, overwhelmed by the size of the enemy in numbers and ferocity, called on Rome for help. The Romans met them in pitched battle at the Battle of Allia River around 390387 BC. The Gauls, under their chieftain Brennus , defeated the Roman army of around 15,000 troops and proceeded to pursue the fleeing Romans back to Rome itself and sacked the city. Before being either driven off or bought off. Now that the Romans and Gauls had bloodied one another, intermittent warfare was to continue between the two in Italy for more than two centuries. The Celtic problem would not be resolved for Rome until the final subjugation of all Gaul by Julius Caesar at the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC. Roman expansion into Italia (343282 BC). Map showing Roman expansion in Italy. After recovering surprisingly swiftly from the sack of Rome, the Romans immediately resumed their expansion within Italy. The First Samnite War of between 343 BC and 341 BC was a relatively short affair: the Romans beat the Samnites in two battles, but were forced to withdraw from the war before they could pursue the conflict further due to the revolt of several of their Latin allies in the Latin War. Rome bested the Latins in the Battle of Vesuvius and again in the Battle of Trifanum , after which the Latin cities were obliged to submit to Roman rule. The Second Samnite War , from 327 BC to 304 BC, was a much longer and more serious affair for both the Romans and Samnites. The fortunes of the two sides fluctuated throughout its course. The Romans then proved victorious at the Battle of Bovianum and the tide turned strongly against the Samnites from 314 BC onwards, leading them to sue for peace with progressively less generous terms. By 304 BC the Romans had effectively annexed the greater degree of the Samnite territory, founding several colonies. Seven years after their defeat, with Roman dominance of the area looking assured, the Samnites rose again and defeated a Roman army in 298 BC, to open the Third Samnite War. With this success in hand they managed to bring together a coalition of several previous enemies of Rome. In the Battle of Populonia in 282 BC Rome finished off the last vestiges of Etruscan power in the region. Pyrrhic War (280275 BC). Route of Pyrrhus of Epirus. By the beginning of the 3rd century, Rome had established itself as a major power on the Italian Peninsula , but had not yet come into conflict with the dominant military powers in the Mediterranean Basin at the time: Carthage and the Greek kingdoms. When a diplomatic dispute between Rome and a Greek colony erupted into open warfare in a naval confrontation, the Greek colony appealed for military aid to Pyrrhus , ruler of the northwestern Greek kingdom of Epirus. Motivated by a personal desire for military accomplishment, Pyrrhus landed a Greek army of some 25,000 men on Italian soil in 280 BC. Despite early victories, Pyrrhus found his position in Italy untenable. Rome steadfastly refused to negotiate with Pyrrhus as long as his army remained in Italy. Facing unacceptably heavy losses with each encounter with the Roman army, Pyrrhus withdrew from the peninsula (thus deriving the term ” pyrrhic victory “). In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. While Beneventum was indecisive, Pyrrhus realised his army had been exhausted and reduced, by years of foreign campaigns, and seeing little hope for further gains, he withdrew completely from Italy. The conflicts with Pyrrhus would have a great effect on Rome. Rome had shown it was capable of pitting its armies successfully against the dominant military powers of the Mediterranean, and that the Greek kingdoms were incapable of defending their colonies in Italy and abroad. Rome quickly moved into southern Italia, subjugating and dividing the Greek colonies. Now, Rome effectively dominated the Italian peninsula, and won an international military reputation. Punic Wars (264146 BC). Theatre of the Punic Wars. The First Punic War began in 264 BC when settlements on Sicily began to appeal to the two powers between which they lay Rome and Carthage to solve internal conflicts. The war saw land battles in Sicily early on, but the theatre shifted to naval battles around Sicily and Africa. Before the First Punic War there was no Roman navy to speak of. The new war in Sicily against Carthage , a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. The first few naval battles were catastrophic disasters for Rome. However, after training more sailors and inventing a grappling engine, a Roman naval force was able to defeat a Carthaginian fleet, and further naval victories followed. The Carthaginians then hired Xanthippus of Carthage , a Spartan mercenary general, to reorganize and lead their army. He managed to cut off the Roman army from its base by re-establishing Carthaginian naval supremacy. With their newfound naval abilities, the Romans then beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again at the Battle of the Aegates Islands and leaving Carthage without a fleet or sufficient coin to raise one. For a maritime power the loss of their access to the Mediterranean stung financially and psychologically, and the Carthaginians sued for peace. Continuing distrust led to the renewal of hostilities in the Second Punic War when Hannibal Barca attacked a Spanish town, which had diplomatic ties to Rome. Hannibal then crossed the Italian Alps to invade Italy. Hannibal’s successes in Italy began immediately, and reached an early climax at the Battle of Cannae , where 70,000 Romans were killed. In three battles, the Romans managed to hold off Hannibal but then Hannibal smashed a succession of Roman consular armies. By this time Hannibal’s brother Hasdrubal Barca sought to cross the Alps into Italy and join his brother with a second army. Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively on the Metaurus River. Unable to defeat Hannibal himself on Italian soil, the Romans boldly sent an army to Africa under Scipio Africanus with the intention of threatening the Carthaginian capital. Hannibal was recalled to Africa, and defeated at the Battle of Zama. Carthage never managed to recover after the Second Punic War. And the Third Punic War that followed was in reality a simple punitive mission to raze the city of Carthage to the ground. Carthage was almost defenseless and when besieged offered immediate surrender, conceding to a string of outrageous Roman demands. The Romans refused the surrender, and the city was stormed after a short siege and completely destroyed. Ultimately, all of Carthage’s North African and Spanish territories were acquired by Rome. Kingdom of Macedonia, the Greek poleis, and Illyria (215148 BC). Rome’s preoccupation with its war with Carthage provided an opportunity for Philip V of the kingdom of Macedonia , located in the north of the Greek peninsula , to attempt to extend his power westward. Philip sent ambassadors to Hannibal’s camp in Italy, to negotiate an alliance as common enemies of Rome. However, Rome discovered the agreement when Philip’s emissaries were captured by a Roman fleet. The First Macedonian War saw the Romans involved directly in only limited land operations, but they ultimately achieved their objective of pre-occupying Philip and preventing him from aiding Hannibal. Macedonia began to encroach on territory claimed by Greek city states in 200 BC and these states pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. Rome gave Philip an ultimatum that he must submit several parts of Greater Macedonia to Rome and give up his designs on Greece. Philip refused, and Rome declared war starting the Second Macedonian War. Ultimately, in 197 BC, the Romans decisevely defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae , subsequently Macedonia was reduced to a central rump state. Rome now turned its attentions to one of the Greek kingdoms, the Seleucid Empire , in the east. A Roman force defeated the Seleucids at the Battle of Thermopylae and forced them to evacuate Greece. The Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them in the decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. In 179 BC, Philip died and his talented and ambitious son, Perseus, took his throne and showed a renewed interest in Greece. Rome declared war on Macedonia again, starting the Third Macedonian War. Perseus initially had some success against the Romans. However, Rome responded by simply sending another stronger army. The second consular army decisively defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC and the Macedonians duly capitulated, ending the Third Macedonian War. The Kingdom of Macedonia was then divided by the Romans into four client republics. The Fourth Macedonian War, fought from 150 BC to 148 BC, was fought against a Macedonian pretender to the throne who was attempting to re-establish the old Kingdom. The Romans swiftly defeated the Macedonians at the Second battle of Pydna. The Achaean League chose this moment to rebel against Roman domination but was swiftly defeated. Corinth was besieged and destroyed in 146 BC, the same year as the destruction of Carthage , which led to the league’s surrender. Late Republic (14730 BC). Jugurthine War (111104 BC). The Jugurthine War of 111104 BC was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of the North African kingdom of Numidia. It constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa, after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. Following Jugurtha’s usurpation of the throne of Numidia, a loyal ally of Rome since the Punic Wars, Rome felt compelled to intervene. Jugurtha impudently bribed the Romans into accepting his usurpation. Jugurtha was finally captured not in battle but by treachery. The Celtic threat (121 BC) and the new Germanic threat (113101 BC). In 121 BC, Rome came into contact with two Celtic tribes (from a region in modern France), both of which they defeated with apparent ease. The Cimbrian War (113101 BC) was a far more serious affair than the earlier clashes of 121 BC. The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons migrated from northern Europe into Rome’s northern territories, and clashed with Rome and her allies. At the Battle of Aquae Sextiae and the Battle of Vercellae both tribes were virtually annihilated, which ended the threat. Internal unrest (13571 BC). The extensive campaigning abroad by Roman generals, and the rewarding of soldiers with plunder on these campaigns, led to a general trend of soldiers becoming increasingly loyal to their generals rather than to the state. Rome was also plagued by several slave uprisings during this period, in part because vast tracts of land had been given over to slave farming in which the slaves greatly outnumbered their Roman masters. In the last century BC at least twelve civil wars and rebellions occurred. This pattern did not break until Octavian (later Caesar Augustus) ended it by becoming a successful challenger to the Senate’s authority, and was made princeps (emperor). Between 135 BC and 71 BC there were three “Servile Wars” involving slave uprisings against the Roman state. The third and final uprising was the most serious, involving ultimately between 120,000 and 150,000. Slaves under the command of the gladiator Spartacus. Additionally, in 91 BC the Social War broke out between Rome and its former allies in Italy over dissent among the allies that they shared the risk of Rome’s military campaigns, but not its rewards. Although they lost militarily, the allies achieved their objectives with legal proclamations which granted citizenship to more than 500,000 Italians. The internal unrest reached its most serious state, however, in the two civil wars that were caused by the consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla at the beginning of 82 BC. In the Battle of the Colline Gate at the very door of the city of Rome, a Roman army under Sulla bested an army of the Roman Senate and entered the city. Sulla’s actions marked a watershed in the willingness of Roman troops to wage war against one another that was to pave the way for the wars which ultimately overthrew the Republic, and caused the founding of the Roman Empire. Conflicts with Mithridates (8963 BC) and the Cilician pirates (67 BC). Mithridates the Great was the ruler of Pontus , a large kingdom in Asia Minor (modern Turkey), from 120 to 63 BC. The massacre was the official reason given for the commencement of hostilities in the First Mithridatic War. The Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper, but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival, Gaius Marius. A peace was made between Rome and Pontus, but this proved only a temporary lull. The Second Mithridatic War began when Rome tried to annex a province that Mithridates claimed as his own. In the Third Mithridatic War , first Lucius Licinius Lucullus and then Pompey the Great were sent against Mithridates. Mithridates was finally defeated by Pompey in the night-time Battle of the Lycus. The Mediterranean had at this time fallen into the hands of pirates, largely from Cilicia. Pompey was nominated as commander of a special naval task force to campaign against the pirates. It took Pompey just forty days to clear the western portion of the sea of pirates and restore communication between Iberia (Spain), Africa, and Italy. Caesar’s early campaigns (5950 BC). Map of the Gallic Wars. During a term as praetor in the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal and Spain), Pompey’s contemporary Julius Caesar defeated two local tribes in battle. Following his term as consul in 59 BC, he was then appointed to a five-year term as the proconsular Governor of Cisalpine Gaul (current northern Italy), Transalpine Gaul (current southern France) and Illyria (the modern Balkans). Not content with an idle governorship, Caesar strove to find reason to invade Gaul, which would give him the dramatic military success he sought. When two local tribes began to migrate on a route that would take them near (not into) the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul, Caesar had the barely sufficient excuse he needed for his Gallic Wars , fought between 58 BC and 49 BC. Caesar defeated large armies at major battles 58 BC and 57 BC. In 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions into Britain , becoming the first Roman to do so. Caesar then defeated a union of Gauls at the Battle of Alesia , completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. By 50 BC, the entirety of Gaul lay in Roman hands. Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and, other than the crisis of the 3rd century, remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the western empire in 476. Triumvirates and Caesarian ascension (5330 BC). By 59 BC an unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate was formed between Gaius Julius Caesar , Marcus Licinius Crassus , and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (“Pompey the Great”) to share power and influence. In 53 BC, Crassus launched a Roman invasion of the Parthian Empire (modern Iraq and Iran). He marched his army deep into the desert; but here his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and slaughtered at the Battle of Carrhae in which Crassus himself perished. The death of Crassus removed some of the balance in the Triumvirate and, consequently, Caesar and Pompey began to move apart. While Caesar was fighting in Gaul, Pompey proceeded with a legislative agenda for Rome that revealed that he was at best ambivalent towards Caesar. And perhaps now covertly allied with Caesar’s political enemies. In 51 BC, some Roman senators demanded that Caesar not be permitted to stand for consul unless he turned over control of his armies to the state, which would have left Caesar defenceless before his enemies. Caesar chose civil war over laying down his command and facing trial. By the spring of 49 BC, the hardened legions of Caesar crossed the river Rubicon and swept down the Italian peninsula towards Rome, while Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome. Afterwards Caesar turned his attention to the Pompeian stronghold of Iberia (modern Spain) but decided to tackle Pompey himself in Greece. Pompey initially defeated Caesar, but failed to follow up on the victory, and was decisively defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, despite outnumbering Caesar’s forces two to one, albeit with inferior quality troops. Pompey fled again, this time to Egypt, where he was murdered. Pompey’s death did not result in an end to the civil war as Caesar’s enemies were manifold and continued to fight on. In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army, but ultimately came back to defeat the Pompeian army of Metellus Scipio in the Battle of Thapsus , after which the Pompeians retreated yet again to Iberia. Caesar then defeated the combined Pompeian forces at the Battle of Munda. Caesar was now the primary figure of the Roman state, enforcing and entrenching his powers and his enemies feared that he had ambitions to become an autocratic ruler. Arguing that the Roman Republic was in danger a group of senators hatched a conspiracy and murdered Caesar in the Senate in March 44 BC. Mark Antony , Caesar’s lieutenant, condemned Caesar’s assassination, and war broke out between the two factions. Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Caesar’s adopted son and chosen heir, Gaius Octavian , was entrusted with the command of the war against him. At the Battle of Mutina Antony was defeated by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa , who were both killed. Octavian came to terms with Caesarians Antony and Lepidus in 43 BC when the Second Triumvirate was formed. In 42 BC Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought the Battle of Philippi with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius. Although Brutus defeated Octavian, Antony defeated Cassius, who committed suicide. Brutus joined him shortly afterwards. However, civil war flared again when the Second Triumvirate of Octavian, Lepidus and Mark Antony failed. The ambitious Octavian built a power base of patronage and then launched a campaign against Mark Antony. At the naval Battle of Actium off the coast of Greece, Octavian decisively defeated Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian was granted a series of special powers including sole “imperium” within the city of Rome, permanent consular powers and credit for every Roman military victory, since all future generals were assumed to be acting under his command. In 27 BC Octavian was granted the use of the names “Augustus” and “Princeps” indicating his primary status above all other Romans, and he adopted the title “Imperator Caesar” making him the first Roman Emperor. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “Roman Republic 97BC Quinarius Apollo Victory Trophy Ancient Silver Coin i55496″ is in sale since Saturday, May 14, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Republic (300 BC-27 BC)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
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