Oct 12 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass’s head i44263

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass's head i44263

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass's head i44263

Item: i44263 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Trajan Decius – Roman Emperor : 249-251 A. Silver Antoninianus 23mm (3.97 grams) Rome mint: 249-250 A. Reference: RIC 12b, C 16 IMPCMQTRAIANVSDECIVSAVG – Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. DACIA – Dacia standing left, holding staff with ass’s head on it. In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Getae as they were known by the Greeksa branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range. Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the Istros , or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons (the Balkan Mountains). Moesia (Dobrogea), a region south of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea) and the river Danastris (Dniester), in Greek sources the Tyras. But several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis (Bug River), and the Tisia (Tisza) to the west. At times Dacia included areas between the Tisza and the Middle Danube. The Carpathian Mountains were located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present day countries of Romania and Moldova , as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria , Serbia , Hungary , and Ukraine. Dacians (or Getae) were North Thracian tribes. Dacian tribes had both peaceful and military encounters with other neighboring tribes, such as Celts , Ancient Germanics , Sarmatians , and Scythians , but were most influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The latter eventually conquered, and linguistically and culturally assimilated the Dacians. A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa , located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia. The Dacians, situated north of the lower Danube in the area of the Carpathians and Transylvania , are the earliest named people on the present territory of Romania. They are first mentioned in the writings of the Ancient Greeks , in Herodotus (Histories Book IV XCIII: “[Getae] the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes”) and Thucydides (Peloponnesian Wars , Book II: ” [Getae] border on the Scythians and are armed in the same manner, being all mounted archers “). Later, the Dacians were mentioned in Roman documents: Caesar’s De Bello Gallico , Book VI 25,1: The Hercynian Forest… Stretches along the Danube to the areas of the Daci and Anarti , and also under the name Geta (plural Getae). Strabo in his Geography , Book VII 3,12, tells about the Daci-Getae division “Getae, those who incline towards the Pontus and the east, and Daci, those who incline in the opposite direction towards Germany and the sources of the Ister”. In Strabo’s opinion, the original name of the Dacians was “daoi”, which Mircea Eliade in his De Zalmoxis à Genghis Khan explained with a possible Phrygian cognate “Daos”, the name of the wolf god. This assumption is supported by the fact that the Dacian standard, the Dacian Draco , had a wolf head. The late Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana indicates them as Dagae and Gaete. Much later, in the Late Middle Ages , the Roman Catholic Church on a few occasions used the term Dacia to denote Denmark , and referred to several notables from Denmark as “of Dacia”. The term did not catch on, and fell into disuse soon after its (re)introduction, so normally there is no confusion with the original usage. The extent and location of the geographical entity Dacia varied in its three distinct historical periods (see History , below). The Dacia of King Burebista (8244 BC), stretched from the Black Sea to the river Tisza and from the Balkan Mountains to Bohemia. During that period, the Geto-Dacians conquered a wider territory and Dacia extended from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea littoral (between Apollonia and Olbia) and from present-day Slovakia’s mountains to the Balkan mountains. In 53 BC, Julius Caesar stated that the lands of the Dacians started on the eastern edge of the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest). After Burebista’s death, his kingdom split in four states, later five. Around 20 AD, Strabo wrote Geographica. Which delineates the regions inhabited by Dacians at that time. On its basis, Lengyel and Radan (1980), Hoddinott (1981) and Mountain (1998) consider that the Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians. The hold of the Dacians between the Danube and Tisza was tenuous. However, the archaeologist Parducz argued a Dacian presence west of the Tisza dating from the time of Burebista. According to Tacitus (AD 56 AD 117) Dacians bordered Germania in the south-east, while Sarmatians bordered it in the east. In the 1st century AD, the Iazyges settled West of Dacia, on the plain between the Danube and the Tisza rivers, according to the scholars’ interpretation of Pliny’s text: The higher parts between the Danube and the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest) as far as the winter quarters of Pannonia at Carnutum and the plains and level country of the German frontiers there are occupied by the Sarmatian Iazyges, while the Dacians whom they have driven out hold the mountains and forests as far as the river Theiss. Strabo, in his Geography written between 20 BC 23 AD, says. As for the southern part of Germany beyond the Albis, the portion which is just contiguous to that river is occupied by the Suevi; then immediately adjoining this is the land of the Getae, which, though narrow at first, stretching as it does along the Ister on its southern side and on the opposite side along the mountain-side of the Hercynian Forest (for the land of the Getae also embraces a part of the mountains), afterwards broadens out towards the north as far as the Tyregetae; but I cannot tell the precise boundaries. Towards the west Dacia may originally have extended as far as the Danube, where it runs from north to south at Vác. In the 1st century BC, at the time of the Dacian Kingdom of Burebista , Julius Caesar in his De Bello Gallico (book 6) speaks of the Hercynian forest extending along the Danube to the territory of the Dacians. Written a few decades after the Roman conquest of Dacia 105106 AD. Ptolemy’s Geographia included the boundaries of Dacia. According to the scholars’ interpretation of Ptolemy (Hrushevskyi 1997, Bunbury 1879, Mocsy 1974, Barbulescu and Nagler 2005) Dacia was the region between the rivers Tisza , Danube, upper Dniester, and Siret. Mainstream historians accept this interpretation: Avery (1972) Berenger (1994) Fol (1996) Mountain (1998), Waldman Mason (2006). Ptolemy also provided a couple of Dacian toponyms in south Poland in the Upper Vistula (Polish: Wisla) river basin: Susudava and Setidava with a manuscript variant Getidava This could have been an echo of Burebistas expansion. It seems that this northern expansion of the Dacian language, as far as the Vistula river, lasted until AD 170-180 when the migration of the Vandal Hasdingi pushed out this northern Dacian group. This Dacian group, possibly the Costoboci / Lipia culture , is associated by Gudmund Schütte with towns having the specific Dacian language ending ” dava ” i. The Roman province Dacia Traiana , established by the victors of the Dacian Wars during 101106 AD, initially comprised only the regions known today as Banat , Oltenia , Transylvania , and was subsequently gradually extended to parts of Moldavia , while Dobruja and Budjak belonged the Roman province of Moesia. In the 2nd century AD, after the Roman conquest, Ptolemy puts the eastern boundary of Dacia Traiana (the Roman province) as far east as the Hierasus (Siret) river, in modern Romania. Roman rule extended to include the south-western area of the Dacian Kingdom, but not to what later became known as Maramure , to parts of the later Principality of Moldavia east of the Siret and north of the Upper Trajan Wall , and to areas in modern Muntenia and Ukraine, except the Black Sea shore. After the Marcomannic Wars (166-180 AD), Dacian groups from outside Roman Dacia had been set in motion. So were the 12,000 Dacians’from the neighbourhood of Roman Dacia sent away from their own country’. Their native country could have been the Upper Tisza region but some other places cannot be excluded. The later Roman province Dacia Aureliana , was organized inside former Moesia Superior after the retreat of the Roman army from Dacia, during the reign of emperor Aurelian during 271275. It was reorganised as Dacia Ripensis (as a military province) and Dacia Mediterranea (as a civil province). Ptolemy gives a list of 43 names of towns in Dacia, out of which arguably 33 were of Dacian origin. Most of the latter included the added suffix dava (meaning settlement, village) But, other Dacian names from his list lack the suffix e. Zarmisegethusa regia = Zermizirga In addition, nine other names of Dacian origin seem to have been Latinised. The cities of the Dacians were known as -dava , -deva , – “-dawa” or “-dava”, Anc. Or – “-dava”, Byz. There is a list of Dacian davas 1 and, more actual, at SOLTDM. In Dacia: Acidava , Argedava , Buridava , Dokidava , Carsidava , Clepidava , Cumidava , Marcodava , Netindava , Patridava , Pelendava , Perburidava , Petrodaua , Piroboridaua , Rhamidaua , Rusidava , Sacidava , Sangidava , Setidava , Singidava , Tamasidava , Utidava , Zargidava , Ziridava , Sucidava 26 names altogether. In Lower Moesia (the present Northern Bulgaria) and Scythia minor (Dobrudja): Aedeba , Buteridava , Giridava , Dausadava , Kapidaua , Murideba , Sacidava , Scaidava (Skedeba), Sagadava , Sukidaua (Sucidava)10 names in total. In Upper Moesia (the districts of Nish, Sofia, and partly Kjustendil): Aiadaba , Bregedaba , Danedebai , Desudaba , Itadeba , Kuimedaba , Zisnudeba seven names in total. Gil-doba , a village in Thracia , of unknown location. Thermi-daua , a town in Dalmatia. Probably a Grecized form of Germidava. Pulpu-deva , (Phillipopolis) today Plovdiv in Bulgaria. The migrations of the forebears of Ancient Greece c. 750 BC or earlier are thought to have originated from periodically swelled populations in the fertile plains of the region. Such migrations would have occurred in prehistoric times, and therefore no documentation exists about them. There may have been trade with communities along the Danube via the Black sea , even in Minoan times (2700 to 1450 BC). Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians under the king Burebista. It seems likely that the Dacian state arose as an unstable tribal confederacy, which was united only fitfully by charismatic leadership in both military-political and ideological-religious domains. At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, under the rule of Rubobostes , a Dacian king in present-day Transylvania , the Dacians’ power in the Carpathian basin increased after they defeated the Celts , who previously held power in the region. A kingdom of Dacia also existed as early as the first half of the 2nd century BC under King Oroles. Conflicts with the Bastarnae and the Romans (112 109 BC, 74 BC), against whom they had assisted the Scordisci and Dardani , greatly weakened the resources of the Dacians. Burebista (Boerebista), a contemporary of Julius Caesar , ruled Geto-Dacian tribes between 82 BC and 44 BC. He thoroughly reorganised the army and attempted to raise the moral standard and obedience of the people by persuading them to cut their vines and give up drinking wine. During his reign, the limits of the Dacian Kingdom were extended to their maximum. The Bastarnae and Boii were conquered, and even the Greek towns of Olbia and Apollonia on the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) recognized Burebista’s authority. In 53 BC, Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest. Burebista suppressed the indigenous minting of coinages by four major tribal groups, adopting imported or copied Roman denarii as a monetary standard. During his reign, Burebista transferred Geto-Dacians capital from Argedava to Sarmizegetusa Regia. For at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegetusa was the Dacians’ capital and reached its peak under King Decebalus. The Dacians appeared so formidable that Caesar contemplated an expedition against them, which his death in 44 BC prevented. In the same year Burebista was murdered, and the kingdom was divided into four (later five) parts under separate rulers. One of these entities was Cotiso’s state, to whom Augustus betrothed his own five-year-old daughter Julia. He is well known from the line in Horace Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen , Odes, III. The Dacians are often mentioned under Augustus, according to whom they were compelled to recognize Roman supremacy. However they were by no means subdued, and in later times to maintain their independence they seized every opportunity of crossing the frozen Danube during the winter and ravaging the Roman cities in the province of Moesia. Strabo testified: “although the Getae and Daci once attained to very great power, so that they actually could send forth an expedition of two hundred thousand men, they now find themselves reduced to as few as forty thousand, and they have come close to the point of yielding obedience to the Romans, though as yet they are not absolutely submissive, because of the hopes which they base on the Germans, who are enemies to the Romans” [17]. In fact, this occurred because Burebista’s empire split after his death into four and later five smaller states, as Strabo explains, only recently, when Augustus Caesar sent an expedition against them, the number of parts into which the empire had been divided was five, though at the time of the insurrection it had been four. Such divisions, to be sure, are only temporary and vary with the times. Decebalus ruled the Dacians between 87 AD and 106 AD. The frontiers of Decebal’s Dacia were marked by the Tisza River to the west, by the Carpathians to the north and by the Dniester River to the east. Fiery battle scene between the Roman and Dacian armies, Trajan’s Column , Rome. Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedonia and Greece and east of the Danube that had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Julius Caesar. When a Roman army had been beaten at the Battle of Histria. In 85 AD, the Dacians had swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia. And initially defeated an army the Emperor Domitian sent against them. But the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae in 88 AD and a truce was drawn up. From 85 to 89 AD, the Dacians under Decebalus were engaged in two wars with the Romans. In 87 AD, the Roman troops under Cornelius Fuscus were defeated, and Cornelius Fuscus was killed by the Dacians by authority of their ruler, Diurpaneus. After this victory, Diurpaneus took the name of Decebalus. The next year, 88 AD, new Roman troops under Tettius Iullianus , gained a significant advantage, but were obliged to make peace following the defeat of Domitian by the Marcomanni , leaving the Dacians effectively independent. Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles. Defeated the Dacian general Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. With Trajan’s troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa , Decebalus once more sought terms. Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105 AD. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia. Attacking the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegethusa , and razing it to the ground. With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east. His conquests brought the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Rome’s borders in the east were governed indirectly in this period, through a system of client states , which led to less direct campaigning than in the west. To increase the glory of his reign, restore the finances of Rome, and end a treaty perceived as humiliating, Trajan resolved on the conquest of Dacia, the capture of the famous Treasure of Decebalus, and control over the Dacian gold mines of Transylvania. The result of his first campaign (101102) was the siege of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa and the occupation of part of the country. The second campaign (105106) ended with the suicide of Decebalus, and the conquest of the territory that was to form the Roman province Dacia Traiana. The history of the war is given by Cassius Dio , but the best commentary upon it is the famous Column of Trajan in Rome. Although the Romans conquered and destroyed the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, a large remainder of the land remained outside of Roman Imperial authority. Additionally, the conquest changed the balance of power in the region and was the catalyst for a renewed alliance of Germanic and Celtic tribes and kingdoms against the Roman Empire. However, the material advantages of the Roman Imperial system was attractive to the surviving aristocracy. Thus, most of the Romanian historians and linguists believe that many of the Dacians became Romanised (see also Origin of Romanians). In 183 AD, war broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne of emperor Commodus , Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger , both distinguished themselves in the campaign. The Roman emperor Decius (249-251 AD) had to restore Roman Dacia from the Carpo-Dacians of Zosimus “having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia and Moesia”. Even so, the Germanic and Celtic kingdoms, particularly the Gothic tribes , slowly moved toward the Dacian borders, and within a generation were making assaults on the province. Ultimately, the Goths succeeded in dislodging the Romans and restoring the “independence” of Dacia following Emperor Aurelian’s withdrawal, in 275. In 268-269 AD, at Naissus , Claudius II (Gothicus Maximus) obtained a decisive victory over the Goths. Since at that time Romans were still occupying Roman Dacia it is assumed that the Goths didn’t cross the Danube from the Roman province. The Goths who survived their defeat didn’t even attempt to escape through Dacia, but through Thrace. At the boundaries of Roman Dacia , Carpi (Free Dacians) were still strong enough to sustain five battles in eight years against the Romans from 301308 AD. That makes it probable that Roman Dacia was left in 275 AD by the Romans, to the Carpi again, and not to the Goths. There were still Dacians in 336 AD, against whom Constantine the Great fought. The province was abandoned by Roman troops, and, according to the Breviarium historiae Romanae by Eutropius , Roman citizens “from the towns and lands of Dacia” were resettled to the interior of Moesia. However, some historians maintain that the bulk of the civilian population remained and a surviving aristocratic Dacian line revived the kingdom under Regalianus. The Historia Augusta says he was a Dacian, a kinsman of [Decebalus]. Nonetheless, the Gothic aristocracy remained ascendant and through intermarriage soon dominated the kingdom, which was absorbed into their large empire. 296 AD, in order to defend the Roman border, fortifications were erected by the Romans on both banks of the Danube. By 336 AD, Constantine the Great had reconquered the lost province. He took the title Dacicus Maximus (“The great Victor over the Dacians”) when he restored Dacia back to the Roman Empire in 336 AD. However following his death, the Romans abandoned Dacia permanently. Gaius Messius Quintus Decius ca. 201- June 251 was the Emperor of Rome from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until both of them were killed in the Battle of Abrittus. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin DACIA with ass’s head i44263″ is in sale since Monday, November 10, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Silver
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius

Aug 10 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin

NGC AU Ancient Double Denarius. This is a great investment with graded ancient. Coins gaining in value every day. This is a great looking coin with amazing detail. Trajan Decius Story from Wikipedia. Gaius Messius Quintus Decius Augustus. 201 June 251, was. From 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son. Until they were both killed in the. Around 245, Emperor Philip entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of. And his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim him Emperor. Philip had to advance against him and was killed near. Then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute. As a reference to the good emperor. According to the Byzantine historian. Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. You may be interested in our other listings. We Guarantee 100% Satisfaction. If you have any questions feel free to ask. New items every day. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS Roman Empire NGC AU Silver Double Denarius Ancient God Angel Coin” is in sale since Wednesday, December 07, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “morgandollartrader” and is located in Waukesha, Wisconsin. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia.
  • Certification: NGC
  • Certification Number: 4277509-007
  • Grade: AU
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Date: 249-251
  • Composition: Silver
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown
  • Denomination: Double Denarius
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: Uncleaned
  • Provenance: Ownership History Not Available

May 6 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 20mm (3.54 grams) Rome mint: 249-250 A. Reference: RIC 12b; RSC 16 Certification: NGC Ancients. MS Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5 1883004-072 IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Decius right. DACIA, Dacia standing left, holding draco standard. Numismatic Note: Unusually detailed reverse, showing the standard held by Dacia is a dragon-headed draco, not an “ass’s head” as described by RIC. Of the Roman Empire. Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana and Dacia Felix) was a province. From 106 to 274275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania. Regions of modern Romania. It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province. And remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians’ estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000. The conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan. (98-117) after two major campaigns. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia. Was ruled by Free Dacians. Even after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Superior (Upper Dacia) and Dacia Inferior (Lower Dacia) (later named Dacia Malvensis). In 124 (or around 158), Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars. The military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor. With another two senators the legati legionis. As his subordinates; the province was called tres Daciæ (Three Dacias) or simply Dacia. The Roman authorities undertook in Dacia a massive and organized colonization. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but also to the rest of the Balkan area. It became a highly urban province, with 11 or 12 cities known, 8 of which held the highest rank of colonia. Though the number of cities was fewer than in the region’s other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. The seat of the imperial procurator. (finance officer) for all the three subdivisions was the financial, religious, and legislative center of the province. Where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia’s existence. Who bordered the province were the first adversary, who, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians. Hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus. (180-217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi. A Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths. Who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, becoming the first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic. Together with the Carpi in 248-250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, the Goths and Heruli. In 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus. (253-268), but they also report that it was Aurelian. (270-275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana. With its capital at Serdica. The fate of the Romanized. Population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future, gradually turned into Romanian. In parallel, a new peoplethe Romanians. Were formed from the Daco-Romans. (the Romanized population of Dacia Traiana). The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus. 201 June 251 was Roman Emperor. From 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus. Until they were both killed in the Battle of Abritus. Early life and rise to power. Decius, who was born at Budalia. , was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab. Who did not have extensive administrative experience before assuming the throne, Decius was a distinguished senator. Who had served as consul. In 232, had been governor of Moesia. Soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Between 235238, and was urban prefect. Of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Iulius Phillippus). Around 245, Philip I. Entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus. And his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim him Emperor. Philip had to advance against him and was killed at Verona. Then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus as a reference to the good emperor Trajan. According to the Byzantine historian Zosimus. Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. Political and monumental initiatives. Decius’ political program was focused on the restoration of the strength of the State, both militarily opposing the external threats, and restoring the public piety. With a program of renovation of the State religion. Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor. The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian. But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attached to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility. The invasion of the Goths. And Decius’ death put an end to the abortive attempt. The Baths of Decius. During his reign, he proceeded with several building projects in Rome, including the Thermae Decianae or Baths of Decius. On the Aventine, which was completed in 252 and survived through to the 16th century; Decius also repaired the Colosseum, which had been damaged by lightning strikes. Main article: Decian persecution. See also Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire#Under Decius. In January 250, Decius is said to have issued one of the most remarkable Roman imperial edicts. From the numerous surviving texts from Egypt, recording the act of sacrifice, it appears that the edict itself was fairly clear. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community’for the safety of the empire’ by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the order may have been that the sacrifice had to be completed within a specified period after a community received the edict). When they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate (libellus) recording the fact that they had complied with the order. That is, the certificate would testify the sacrificant’s loyalty to the ancestral gods and to the consumption of sacrificial food and drink as well as the names of the officials who were overseeing the sacrifice. Potter, Decius did not try to impose the superiority of the Roman pantheon over any other gods. It is very probable that the edict was an attempt to legitimize his position and to respond to a general unease provoked by the passing of the Roman millennium. While Decius himself may have intended the edict as a way to reaffirm his conservative vision of the Pax Romana and to reassure Rome’s citizens that the empire was still secure, it nevertheless sparked a terrible crisis of authority as various Christian bishops and their flocks reacted to it in different ways. Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops. And officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor. The sacrifice was “on behalf of” (Latin pro) the Emperor, not to the Emperor, since a living Emperor was not considered divine. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the commissioners during the persecution of Christians under Decius. Forty-six such certificates have been published, all dating from 250, four of them from Oxyrhynchus. Anyone, including Christian followers, who refused to offer a sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire’s well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution. A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process, including Pope Fabian. Himself in 250, and anti-Christian feeling[s] led to pogroms at Carthage and Alexandria. ” In reality, however, towards the end of the second year of Decius’ reign, “the ferocity of the [anti-Christian] persecution had eased off, and the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself. ” The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that “fierce tyrant. At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague. Which at its height from 251 to 266, took the lives of 5,000 daily in Rome. This outbreak is referred to as the Plague of Cyprian. The bishop of Carthage. Where both the plague and the persecution of Christians. Cyprian’s biographer Pontius. Gave a vivid picture of the demoralizing effects of the plague and Cyprian moralized the event in his essay De mortalitate. In Carthage, the “Decian persecution”, unleashed at the onset of the plague, sought out Christian scapegoats. Decius’ edicts were renewed under Valerian in 253 and repealed under his son, Gallienus. Fighting the Goths and death. The Goths enter the Balkans. Incursions into the Empire were becoming more and more daring and frequent whereas the Empire was facing a serious economic crisis in Decius’ time. During his brief reign, Decius engaged in important operations against the Goths. Who crossed the Danube to raid districts of Moesia and Thrace. This is the first considerable occasion the Goths who would later come to play such an important role appear in the historical record. The Goths under King Cniva. Were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis. On the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans. But then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë modern Stara Zagora. , sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops. The Goths then moved to attack Philippopolis. , which fell into their hands. The governor of Thrace, Titus Julius Priscus. Declared himself Emperor under Gothic protection in opposition to Decius but Priscus’s challenge was rendered moot when he was killed soon afterwards. Then the invaders began returning to their homeland, laden with booty and captives, among them many of senatorial rank. Main article: Battle of Abritus. Intending to defeat the invaders and recover the booty. The final engagement, the battle of Abrittus. In which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie. (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abrittus or Forum Terebronii modern Razgrad. Records that Decius’ son Herennius Etruscus. Was killed by an arrow early in the battle, and to cheer his men Decius exclaimed, Let no one mourn; the death of one soldier is not a great loss to the republic. Nevertheless, Decius’ army was entangled in the swamp and annihilated in this battle, while he himself was killed on the field of battle. As the historian Aurelius Victor. Decius and his son, while pursuing the barbarians across the Danube, died through treachery at Abrittus after reigning two years. Very many report that the son had fallen in battle while pressing an attack too boldly; that the father however, has strenuously asserted that the loss of one soldier seemed to him too little to matter. And so he resumed the war and died in a similar manner while fighting vigorously. One literary tradition claims that Decius was betrayed by his successor Trebonianus Gallus, who was involved in a secret alliance with the Goths but this cannot be substantiated and was most likely a later invention since Gallus felt compelled to adopt Decius’ younger son, Gaius Valens Hostilianus, as joint emperor even though the latter was too young to rule in his own right. It is also unlikely that the shattered Roman legions would proclaim as emperor a traitor who was responsible for the loss of so many soldiers from their ranks. Decius was the first Roman Emperor to die in battle against a foreign enemy. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA Ancient Silver Roman NGC Certified MS Coin i58205″ is in sale since Monday, December 19, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Grade: MS
  • Certification: NGC
  • Certification Number: 1883004-072
  • Composition: Silver

Apr 8 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA DRACO Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i60347

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA DRACO Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i60347

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA DRACO Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i60347

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (3.16 grams) Rome mint: 249-250 A. Reference: RIC 12b; RSC 16 IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Decius right. DACIA, Dacia standing left, holding draco standard. Numismatic Note: Unusually detailed reverse, showing the standard held by Dacia is a dragon-headed draco, not an “ass’s head” as described by RIC. Of the Roman Empire. Roman Dacia (also Dacia Traiana and Dacia Felix) was a province. From 106 to 274275 AD. Its territory consisted of eastern and south-eastern Transylvania. Regions of modern Romania. It was from the very beginning organized as an imperial province. And remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians’ estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000. The conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan. (98-117) after two major campaigns. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia. Was ruled by Free Dacians. Even after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Superior (Upper Dacia) and Dacia Inferior (Lower Dacia) (later named Dacia Malvensis). In 124 (or around 158), Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Apulensis and Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars. The military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor. With another two senators the legati legionis. As his subordinates; the province was called tres Daciæ (Three Dacias) or simply Dacia. The Roman authorities undertook in Dacia a massive and organized colonization. New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, and commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but also to the rest of the Balkan area. It became a highly urban province, with 11 or 12 cities known, 8 of which held the highest rank of colonia. Though the number of cities was fewer than in the region’s other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. The seat of the imperial procurator. (finance officer) for all the three subdivisions was the financial, religious, and legislative center of the province. Where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not simply the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were military and political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia’s existence. Who bordered the province were the first adversary, who, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians. Hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus. (180-217 AD), the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi. A Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths. Who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it increasingly difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, becoming the first of Rome’s long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic. Together with the Carpi in 248-250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, the Goths and Heruli. In 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus. (253-268), but they also report that it was Aurelian. (270-275) who relinquished Dacia Traiana. He evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, and founded Dacia Aureliana. With its capital at Serdica. The fate of the Romanized. Population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future, gradually turned into Romanian. In parallel, a new peoplethe Romanians. Were formed from the Daco-Romans. (the Romanized population of Dacia Traiana). The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus. 201 June 251 was Roman Emperor. From 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus. Until they were both killed in the Battle of Abritus. Early life and rise to power. Decius, who was born at Budalia. , was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab. Who did not have extensive administrative experience before assuming the throne, Decius was a distinguished senator. Who had served as consul. In 232, had been governor of Moesia. Soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Between 235238, and was urban prefect. Of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Iulius Phillippus). Around 245, Philip I. Entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus. And his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim him Emperor. Philip had to advance against him and was killed at Verona. Then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus as a reference to the good emperor Trajan. According to the Byzantine historian Zosimus. Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. Political and monumental initiatives. Decius’ political program was focused on the restoration of the strength of the State, both militarily opposing the external threats, and restoring the public piety. With a program of renovation of the State religion. Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor. The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian. But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attached to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility. The invasion of the Goths. And Decius’ death put an end to the abortive attempt. The Baths of Decius. During his reign, he proceeded with several building projects in Rome, including the Thermae Decianae or Baths of Decius. On the Aventine, which was completed in 252 and survived through to the 16th century; Decius also repaired the Colosseum, which had been damaged by lightning strikes. Main article: Decian persecution. See also Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire#Under Decius. In January 250, Decius is said to have issued one of the most remarkable Roman imperial edicts. From the numerous surviving texts from Egypt, recording the act of sacrifice, it appears that the edict itself was fairly clear. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community’for the safety of the empire’ by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the order may have been that the sacrifice had to be completed within a specified period after a community received the edict). When they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate (libellus) recording the fact that they had complied with the order. That is, the certificate would testify the sacrificant’s loyalty to the ancestral gods and to the consumption of sacrificial food and drink as well as the names of the officials who were overseeing the sacrifice. Potter, Decius did not try to impose the superiority of the Roman pantheon over any other gods. It is very probable that the edict was an attempt to legitimize his position and to respond to a general unease provoked by the passing of the Roman millennium. While Decius himself may have intended the edict as a way to reaffirm his conservative vision of the Pax Romana and to reassure Rome’s citizens that the empire was still secure, it nevertheless sparked a terrible crisis of authority as various Christian bishops and their flocks reacted to it in different ways. Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops. And officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor. The sacrifice was “on behalf of” (Latin pro) the Emperor, not to the Emperor, since a living Emperor was not considered divine. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the commissioners during the persecution of Christians under Decius. Forty-six such certificates have been published, all dating from 250, four of them from Oxyrhynchus. Anyone, including Christian followers, who refused to offer a sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire’s well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution. A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process, including Pope Fabian. Himself in 250, and anti-Christian feeling[s] led to pogroms at Carthage and Alexandria. ” In reality, however, towards the end of the second year of Decius’ reign, “the ferocity of the [anti-Christian] persecution had eased off, and the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself. ” The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that “fierce tyrant. At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague. Which at its height from 251 to 266, took the lives of 5,000 daily in Rome. This outbreak is referred to as the Plague of Cyprian. The bishop of Carthage. Where both the plague and the persecution of Christians. Cyprian’s biographer Pontius. Gave a vivid picture of the demoralizing effects of the plague and Cyprian moralized the event in his essay De mortalitate. In Carthage, the “Decian persecution”, unleashed at the onset of the plague, sought out Christian scapegoats. Decius’ edicts were renewed under Valerian in 253 and repealed under his son, Gallienus. Fighting the Goths and death. The Goths enter the Balkans. Incursions into the Empire were becoming more and more daring and frequent whereas the Empire was facing a serious economic crisis in Decius’ time. During his brief reign, Decius engaged in important operations against the Goths. Who crossed the Danube to raid districts of Moesia and Thrace. This is the first considerable occasion the Goths who would later come to play such an important role appear in the historical record. The Goths under King Cniva. Were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis. On the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans. But then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë modern Stara Zagora. , sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops. The Goths then moved to attack Philippopolis. , which fell into their hands. The governor of Thrace, Titus Julius Priscus. Declared himself Emperor under Gothic protection in opposition to Decius but Priscus’s challenge was rendered moot when he was killed soon afterwards. Then the invaders began returning to their homeland, laden with booty and captives, among them many of senatorial rank. Main article: Battle of Abritus. Intending to defeat the invaders and recover the booty. The final engagement, the battle of Abrittus. In which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie. (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abrittus or Forum Terebronii modern Razgrad. Records that Decius’ son Herennius Etruscus. Was killed by an arrow early in the battle, and to cheer his men Decius exclaimed, Let no one mourn; the death of one soldier is not a great loss to the republic. Nevertheless, Decius’ army was entangled in the swamp and annihilated in this battle, while he himself was killed on the field of battle. As the historian Aurelius Victor. Decius and his son, while pursuing the barbarians across the Danube, died through treachery at Abrittus after reigning two years. Very many report that the son had fallen in battle while pressing an attack too boldly; that the father however, has strenuously asserted that the loss of one soldier seemed to him too little to matter. And so he resumed the war and died in a similar manner while fighting vigorously. One literary tradition claims that Decius was betrayed by his successor Trebonianus Gallus, who was involved in a secret alliance with the Goths but this cannot be substantiated and was most likely a later invention since Gallus felt compelled to adopt Decius’ younger son, Gaius Valens Hostilianus, as joint emperor even though the latter was too young to rule in his own right. It is also unlikely that the shattered Roman legions would proclaim as emperor a traitor who was responsible for the loss of so many soldiers from their ranks. Decius was the first Roman Emperor to die in battle against a foreign enemy. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome DACIA DRACO Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i60347″ is in sale since Saturday, April 08, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Composition: Silver
  • Material: Silver

Feb 13 2017

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59253

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59253

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59253

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 21mm (4.08 grams) Rome mint, struck circa 249-251 A. Reference: RIC 29c; C 113; S 2714; RSC 113a IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm. In ancient Roman religion. Or Victory was the personified. She is the Roman equivalent. Of the Greek goddess. And was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine. And had a temple. On the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota. Was also sometimes identified with Victoria. Unlike the Greek Nike. The goddess Victoria Latin. For “victory” was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus. There was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant. Generals returning from war. Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races. Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war. Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts. She is often seen with or in a chariot. As in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga. On the Brandenburg Gate. In Rome has two. Winged figures, very often in pairs, representing victory and referred to as “victories”, were common in Roman official iconography, typically hovering high in a composition, and often filling spaces in spandrels. Or other gaps in architecture. These represent the spirit of victory rather than the goddess herself. They continued to appear after Christianization of the Empire, and slowly mutated into Christian angels. Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus. 201 June 251 was Roman Emperor. From 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus. Until they were both killed in the Battle of Abritus. Early life and rise to power. Decius, who was born at Budalia. , was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the Danube provinces, often simply called Illyricum. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab. Who did not have extensive administrative experience before assuming the throne, Decius was a distinguished senator. Who had served as consul. In 232, had been governor of Moesia. Soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis. Between 235238, and was urban prefect. Of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Iulius Phillippus). Around 245, Philip I. Entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus. And his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; some modern historians see this rebellion as a reflection of emerging Balkan separatism. After the collapse of the revolt, Decius let the troops proclaim him Emperor. Philip had to advance against him and was killed at Verona. Then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus as a reference to the good emperor Trajan. According to the Byzantine historian Zosimus. Decius was clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. Political and monumental initiatives. Decius’ political program was focused on the restoration of the strength of the State, both militarily opposing the external threats, and restoring the public piety. With a program of renovation of the State religion. Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor. The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian. But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attached to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility. The invasion of the Goths. And Decius’ death put an end to the abortive attempt. The Baths of Decius. During his reign, he proceeded with several building projects in Rome, including the Thermae Decianae or Baths of Decius. On the Aventine, which was completed in 252 and survived through to the 16th century; Decius also repaired the Colosseum, which had been damaged by lightning strikes. Main article: Decian persecution. See also Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire#Under Decius. In January 250, Decius is said to have issued one of the most remarkable Roman imperial edicts. From the numerous surviving texts from Egypt, recording the act of sacrifice, it appears that the edict itself was fairly clear. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community’for the safety of the empire’ by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the order may have been that the sacrifice had to be completed within a specified period after a community received the edict). When they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate (libellus) recording the fact that they had complied with the order. That is, the certificate would testify the sacrificant’s loyalty to the ancestral gods and to the consumption of sacrificial food and drink as well as the names of the officials who were overseeing the sacrifice. Potter, Decius did not try to impose the superiority of the Roman pantheon over any other gods. It is very probable that the edict was an attempt to legitimize his position and to respond to a general unease provoked by the passing of the Roman millennium. While Decius himself may have intended the edict as a way to reaffirm his conservative vision of the Pax Romana and to reassure Rome’s citizens that the empire was still secure, it nevertheless sparked a terrible crisis of authority as various Christian bishops and their flocks reacted to it in different ways. Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops. And officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor. The sacrifice was “on behalf of” (Latin pro) the Emperor, not to the Emperor, since a living Emperor was not considered divine. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the commissioners during the persecution of Christians under Decius. Forty-six such certificates have been published, all dating from 250, four of them from Oxyrhynchus. Anyone, including Christian followers, who refused to offer a sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire’s well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution. A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process, including Pope Fabian. Himself in 250, and anti-Christian feeling[s] led to pogroms at Carthage and Alexandria. ” In reality, however, towards the end of the second year of Decius’ reign, “the ferocity of the [anti-Christian] persecution had eased off, and the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself. ” The Christian church, despite no indication in the surviving texts that the edict targeted any specific group, never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that “fierce tyrant. At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague. Which at its height from 251 to 266, took the lives of 5,000 daily in Rome. This outbreak is referred to as the Plague of Cyprian. The bishop of Carthage. Where both the plague and the persecution of Christians. Cyprian’s biographer Pontius. Gave a vivid picture of the demoralizing effects of the plague and Cyprian moralized the event in his essay De mortalitate. In Carthage, the “Decian persecution”, unleashed at the onset of the plague, sought out Christian scapegoats. Decius’ edicts were renewed under Valerian in 253 and repealed under his son, Gallienus. Fighting the Goths and death. The Goths enter the Balkans. Incursions into the Empire were becoming more and more daring and frequent whereas the Empire was facing a serious economic crisis in Decius’ time. During his brief reign, Decius engaged in important operations against the Goths. Who crossed the Danube to raid districts of Moesia and Thrace. This is the first considerable occasion the Goths who would later come to play such an important role appear in the historical record. The Goths under King Cniva. Were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis. On the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans. But then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë modern Stara Zagora. , sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops. The Goths then moved to attack Philippopolis. , which fell into their hands. The governor of Thrace, Titus Julius Priscus. Declared himself Emperor under Gothic protection in opposition to Decius but Priscus’s challenge was rendered moot when he was killed soon afterwards. Then the invaders began returning to their homeland, laden with booty and captives, among them many of senatorial rank. Main article: Battle of Abritus. Intending to defeat the invaders and recover the booty. The final engagement, the battle of Abrittus. In which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie. (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abrittus or Forum Terebronii modern Razgrad. Records that Decius’ son Herennius Etruscus. Was killed by an arrow early in the battle, and to cheer his men Decius exclaimed, Let no one mourn; the death of one soldier is not a great loss to the republic. Nevertheless, Decius’ army was entangled in the swamp and annihilated in this battle, while he himself was killed on the field of battle. As the historian Aurelius Victor. Decius and his son, while pursuing the barbarians across the Danube, died through treachery at Abrittus after reigning two years. Very many report that the son had fallen in battle while pressing an attack too boldly; that the father however, has strenuously asserted that the loss of one soldier seemed to him too little to matter. And so he resumed the war and died in a similar manner while fighting vigorously. One literary tradition claims that Decius was betrayed by his successor Trebonianus Gallus, who was involved in a secret alliance with the Goths but this cannot be substantiated and was most likely a later invention since Gallus felt compelled to adopt Decius’ younger son, Gaius Valens Hostilianus, as joint emperor even though the latter was too young to rule in his own right. It is also unlikely that the shattered Roman legions would proclaim as emperor a traitor who was responsible for the loss of so many soldiers from their ranks. Decius was the first Roman Emperor to die in battle against a foreign enemy. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59253″ is in sale since Sunday, February 12, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Composition: Silver
  • Material: Silver