Nov 22 2017

GORDIAN III 242AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin i63325

GORDIAN III 242AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin i63325

GORDIAN III 242AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin i63325

Item: i63325 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (3.54 grams) Rome mint 242-244 A. Reference: RIC 216, C 319 IMPGORDIANVSPIVSFELAVG – Radiate, cuirassed bust right. SAECVLIFELICITAS – Gordian III standing right, holding spear and globe. Ruling dynasties often exploit pomp and ceremony with the use of regalia: crowns, robes, orb (globe) and scepters. Gordian III (Latin: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus ; 20 January 225 AD – 11 February 244 AD) was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD. In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Superior, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian’s grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus’ oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian’s fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica , who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Due to Gordian’s age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy’s territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor’s security, were at risk. Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars, such as Kettenhofen, Hartman and Winter have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids. Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deication. Gordian’s youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans. The soldiers held Gordian in high esteem, as he had possibly sacrificed his life to save them in 244. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the Guide on How to Use My Store. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. The item “GORDIAN III 242AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin i63325″ is in sale since Saturday, August 12, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Gordian III
  • Composition: Silver

Oct 10 2017

PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621

PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621

PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621

Item: i55621 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Probus – Roman Emperor : 276-282 A. Bronze Antoninianus 21mm (3.49 grams) Siscia mint, 1st officina. 5th emission, 278 A. Reference: RIC V 612; Alföldi, Siscia V 44.5; Pink VI/1 p. 51 (variant for all, no star) IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right. P M TR P COS II P P Exe: XXIP, Lion standing left; head of ox to lower left; star above. Numismatic Note: The lion and the ox depicted on this coin are likely symbols of specific Roman legions, and therefore this coin could have either honored those legions, or possibly even legionary coinage. Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus. 19 August 232 September/October 282, was Roman Emperor from 276 to 282. During his reign, the Rhine and Danube frontier was strengthened after successful wars against several Germanic tribes such as the Goths , Alamanni , Longiones , Franks , Burgundians , and Vandals. The Agri Decumates and much of the Limes Germanicus in Germania Superior were officially abandoned during his reign, with the Romans withdrawing to the Rhine and Danube rivers. Born in 232 in Sirmium (modern day Sremska Mitrovica), Pannonia Inferior , the son of Dalmatius, Probus entered the army around 250 upon reaching adulthood. Appointed as a military tribune by the emperor Valerian , he later distinguished himself under the emperors Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, whose death in 276 prompted Probus’ soldiers to proclaim him emperor. Florianus , the half-brother of Tacitus, was also proclaimed successor by his soldiers, but he was killed after an indecisive campaign. Probus travelled west, defeating the Goths along the lower Danube in 277, and acquiring the title of Gothicus. His position as emperor was ratified by the Senate around this time. In 278, Probus campaigned successfully in Gaul against the Alamanni and Longiones ; both tribes had advanced through the Neckar valley and across the Rhine into Roman territory. Meanwhile, his generals defeated the Franks and these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of Germanic invaders (Franks and Burgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands. Of a greater and more lasting significance, Probus began the strategy of settling the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the empire. Antoninianus of Probus minted in 280. Depicts the solar divinity Sol Invictus riding a quadriga. Probus issued many different coins during his six years of rule. In 279280, Probus was, according to Zosimus , in Raetia , Illyricum and Lycia , where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus’ generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt. Probus then ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered. In 280281, Probus put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus , Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph. Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, travelling first towards Sirmium, his birth city. About Probus’ death different accounts exist. According to John Zonaras , the commander of the Praetorian Guard Marcus Aurelius Carus had been proclaimed, more or less unwillingly, emperor by his troops. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus’ remaining soldiers assassinated him at Sirmium (September/October 282). According to other sources, however, Probus was killed by disgruntled soldiers, who rebelled against his orders to be employed for civic purposes, like draining marshes. Carus was proclaimed emperor after Probus’ death and avenged the murder of his predecessor. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “PROBUS 278AD LION with OX Legion Symbols Rare Original Ancient Roman Coin i55621″ is in sale since Wednesday, May 18, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Sep 10 2017

Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring

Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring

Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring

Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring

Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring

Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring

You can flip it each side you like. Collectable stunning detail of ancieng coin This is an ancient Roman coin of Emperor with muscular Hercules god holding holy GOLD CUP! The coin is dated to circa, 300 – 400 AD Found near Jerusalem. Materal : original Ancient sterling silver coin , Solid gold geuine 22 KARAT Gold Flip able. Feedback please leave us 5 star point. But we respond the question normally in night time, please to realize. The item “Original Ancient Roman Real Silver Hercules Coin Flip Solid 22K Genuie Gold Ring” is in sale since Thursday, July 27, 2017. This item is in the category “Jewelry & Watches\Vintage & Antique Jewelry\Fine\Victorian, Edwardian 1837-1910\Rings”. The seller is “nightingale_box” and is located in Bangkok, default. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Metal: Solid gold
  • Metal Purity: 22k
  • Ring Size: 8.5 -9

May 8 2017

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549

TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Denarius 17mm (2.87 grams) Rome mint 103-111 A. Reference: RIC 187, BMC 218 IMPTRAIANOAVGGERDACPMTRPCOSVPP – Laureate bust right, aegis on left shoulder. SPQROPTIMOPRINCIPI – Pax seated left, holding branch and scepter, kneeling captive to left. Or aigis , as stated in the Iliad. Is carried by Athena. But its nature is uncertain. It had been interpreted as an animal skin or a shield. Sometimes bearing the head of a Gorgon. There may be a connection with a deity named Aex. Or Aix , a daughter of Helios. And a nurse of Zeus or alternatively a mistress of Zeus Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. The aegis of Athena is referred to in several places in the Iliad. It produced a sound as from a myriad roaring dragons (Iliad, 4.17) and was borne by Athena in battle… And among them went bright-eyed Athene, holding the precious aegis which is ageless and immortal: a hundred tassels of pure gold hang fluttering from it, tight-woven each of them, and each the worth of a hundred oxen. Medusa, the gorgon, was beheaded by the hero Perseus. Who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon until he gave it to the goddess Athena. To place on her shield. The image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device. Known as the Gorgoneion. Gorgons were a popular image in Greek mythology, appearing in the earliest of written records of Ancient Greek religious beliefs. Such as those of Homer. Which may date to as early as 11941184 BC. Because of their legendary and powerful gaze that could turn one to stone, images of the Gorgons were put upon objects and buildings for protection. The modern concept of doing something “under someone’s aegis ” means doing something under the protection of a powerful, knowledgeable, or benevolent source. The word aegis is identified with protection by a strong force with its roots in Greek mythology. And adopted by the Romans; there are parallels in Norse mythology. And in Egyptian mythology. As well, where the Greek word aegis is applied by extension. Was originally a horror-creating apotropaic. It was assimilated by the Olympian deities. Both are said to have worn it as a protective pendant. It was assumed, among other godlike attributes, as a royal aegis. By rulers of the Hellenistic age, as shown, for instance, on the Alexander Mosaic. And the Gonzaga Cameo. Refers to the Gorgon on four occasions, each time alluding to the head alone, as if the creature had no body. Notes that Medusa is a head and nothing more… With a body later appended. Up to the 5th century BC, the head was depicted as particularly ugly, with a protruding tongue, boar. Puffy cheeks, her eyeballs staring fixedly on the viewer and the snakes twisting all around her. The direct frontal stare, “seemingly looking out from its own iconographical context and directly challenging the viewer”, was highly unusual in ancient Greek art. In some instances a beard (probably standing for streaks of blood) was appended to her chin, making her appear as an orgiastic deity. Gorgoneia that decorate the shields of warriors on mid-5th century Greek vases are considerably less grotesque and menacing. By that time, the Gorgon had lost her tusks and the snakes were rather stylized. Marble known as the Medusa Rondanini. Illustrates the Gorgon’s eventual transformation into a beautiful woman. Was recognized as a goddess. During the rule of Augustus. On the Campus Martius. She had a temple called the Ara Pacis. And another temple on the Forum Pacis. She was depicted in art with olive. There was a festival in her honor on January 3. Pax was often associated with spring. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus. Commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor. Who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician. Family in the Hispania Baetica. Province modern day Spain. , Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian. Serving as a general in the Roman army. Along the German frontier. And successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva. An old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard. Compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome. And left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum. And Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition. Into the kingdom of Dacia. Defeating the Dacian army near Tapae. In 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom. Establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia. Advancing as far as the city of Susa. In 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke. In the city of Selinus. By the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus. Commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning may he be luckier than Augustus. And better than Trajan. Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan. While the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon. Popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors. Of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. In what is now Andalusia. In modern Spain, a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica. Stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia. And Marcus Ulpius Traianus. And general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana. And his niece was Salonina Matidia. Of the Ulpii was Italica. In Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army. Serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 7677, Trajan’s father was Governor. Pro praetore Syriae , where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus. Trajan was nominated as Consul. And brought Apollodorus of Damascus. With him to Rome. Along the Rhine River. He took part in the Emperor Domitian. S wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva. Who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History. It was the future Emperor Hadrian. Who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate. Eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific. Of optimus , meaning “the best”. Sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus. Induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East. But initially for the two wars against Dacia. The reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Daciaan area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian. S ministers In the first war c. MarchMay 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia. With four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River. On a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass. See Second Battle of Tapae. Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus. Launched a counter-attack across the Danube. Further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87. Without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus. His massive bridge over the Danube. He conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus. And his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter. One of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom. Although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra. As is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea. And north west Saudi Arabia. The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger. On the subject of how to deal with the Christians. Telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia. And his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia. (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)consisting of a forum. And Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches. Many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads Via Traiana. And Via Traiana Nova. One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial. Festival in the great Colosseum. In Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients Paul Veyne. Has assumed that, in the city of Veleia. Only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. That the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia. S decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia. A kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony. Since the time of Nero. Some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur. In order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis. And organizing a province of Mesopotamia. In the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris. Sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae. A second followed the river South, capturing Babylon. While Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates. Then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia. And finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf. Receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax. Whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. And reach the distant India. A province of Assyria. Was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I. And put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra. In his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege. And it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews. Inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus. Who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa. From the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian. Who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra. Showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia. Which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian. As his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina. Who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene. To the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. Widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column. And possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. Of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval. Times that Pope Gregory I. Through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas. Discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy. Following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter. With other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan. Was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain. Comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs. To paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid. Considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania. Among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “TRAJAN 103AD Rome Authentic Original Ancient Silver Roman Coin PAX Peace i58549″ is in sale since Thursday, January 19, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Composition: Silver

Apr 30 2017

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Gold Solidus 20mm (4.50 grams) Constantinople mint, circa 397-402 A. Reference: RIC 8 Pedigree: From the Dr. Michael Popoff Collection; Ex: Coin Galleries Sale 11/1994, Lot #15. AU Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5 4373045-009 DN HONORI – VS P F AVG, Helmeted, Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust of Honorius facing, holding spear over right shoulder, shield with effigy of horseman riding down enemy. CONCORDIA AVG G I Exe: CONOB, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head turned right, her right foot on prow, holding scepter and globe surmounted by Victory, who faces left crowning Constantinopolis. Sole Reign except 421 A. Ruling in the East: Theodosius I. (9 September 384 15 August 423) was Roman Emperor. (393395) and then Western Roman Emperor. From 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I. And his first wife Aelia Flaccilla. And brother of the Eastern Emperor Arcadius. Even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Empire, Honorius’ reign was precarious and chaotic. His throne was guarded by his principal general, Flavius Stilicho. Who was successively Honorius’s guardian (during his childhood) and his father-in-law (after the emperor became an adult). Stilicho’s generalship helped preserve some level of stability, but with his execution, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse. After holding the consulate. At the age of two, Honorius was declared Augustus. And thus co-ruler, on. After the death of Valentinian II. And the usurpation of Eugenius. When Theodosius died, in January 395, Honorius and Arcadius divided the Empire, so that Honorius became Western Roman Emperor at the age of ten. During the first part of his reign Honorius depended on the military leadership of the general Stilicho, who was of mixed Vandal. To strengthen his bonds with the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria. Written for the occasion by Stilicho’s court poet Claudian. At first Honorius based his capital in Mediolanum. But when the Visigoths. Entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna. Which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the increasingly regular threat of barbarian incursions. Erosion of the Western Roman Empire. Honorius’ reign was plagued by many threats: from the barbarians entering within the Empire’s borders to several usurpers. A revolt led by Gildo. Comes Africae , in Northern Africa lasted for two years (397-398). In 405, a barbarian army led by Radagaisus. Bringing devastation to the heart of the Empire, until Stilicho defeated them in 406. The situation in Britannia. Was even more problematic. The British provinces were isolated, lacking support from the Empire, and the soldiers supported the revolts of Marcus. (406 – 407), Gratian. (407), and Constantine “III”. Constantine invaded Gaul in 407, occupying Arles. An invasion of Alans. Moved from Gaul on. 406, and arrived in Hispania. In 408, Stilicho (after forcing the Roman Senate to pay 4,000 pounds of gold) was arrested and executed by the order of Honorius, probably because of a court conspiracy against the Arian. The Visigoths under their King Alaric I. Invaded Italy in 408, besieged Rome, and extorted from the city a ransom of 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, 4,000 silken tunics, 3,000 hides dyed scarlet, and 3,000 pounds of pepper, while Honorius in Ravenna did nothing. In 410, the Eastern Roman Empire. (6,000 men; late Roman legions were small units) to aid Honorius. To counter Priscus, Honorius tried to negotiate with Alaric. Alaric withdrew his support for Priscus in 410, but the negotiations with Honorius broke down. Alaric again entered Italy and sacked Rome. The revolt of Constantine III in the west continued through this period. Constantine III’s general in Hispania, rebelled against him, proclaimed Maximus. Emperor, and besieged Constantine at Arles. Honorius now found himself an able commander, Constantius. Who defeated Maximus and Gerontius, and then Constantine, in 411. Revolted in northern Gaul, with the support of Alans, Burgundians, and the Gallic nobility. Jovinus tried to negotiate with the invading Goths. Of Ataulf (412), but his proclamation of his brother Sebastianus. Made Ataulf seek alliance with Honorius. Honorius had Ataulf settle the matter with Jovinus, and the rebel was defeated and executed in 413. In 414, Constantius attacked Ataulf, who proclaimed Priscus Attalus emperor again. Constantius drove Ataulf into Hispania, and Attalus, having again lost Visigoth support, was captured and deposed. Northeastern Gaul became subject to even greater Frankish. Influence, while a treaty signed in 418 granted to the Visigoths. The southwestern portion, the former Gallia Aquitania. In 417, Constantius married Honorius’ sister, Galla Placidia. In 421, Honorius recognized him as co-emperor Constantius III, but he died early in 422. In 420-422, another Maximus (or perhaps the same) gained and lost power in Hispania. Honorius died of dropsy. In 423, leaving no heir. In the subsequent interregnum Joannes. The following year, however, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. Elected emperor his cousin Valentinian III. Son of Galla Placidia. The Favorites of the Emperor Honorius , by John William Waterhouse. The most notable event of his reign was the assault and Sack of Rome. By the Visigoths under Alaric. The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho’s deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric’s forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could in the situation: wait passively for the Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius’ indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians. Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome’s defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gauls some eight centuries before. The sack itself was notably mild as sacks go; Churches and religious statuary went unharmed for example. The psychological blow to the Romans was considerably more painful. The shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine. To write his magnum opus, The City of God. The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British. Plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths, Honorius lacked any military capability to assist the distant province. 19th century engraving of Honorius, derived from his coinage. In his History of the Wars , Procopius. Mentions a story which Gibbon. Disbelieved where, on hearing the news that Rome had “perished”, Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken. He had named “Roma”, he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city. Summarizing his account of Honorius’ reign, the historian J. Wrote, His name would be forgotten among the obscurest occupants of the Imperial throne were it not that his reign coincided with the fatal period in which it was decided that western Europe was to pass from the Roman to the Teuton. ” After listing the disasters of those 28 years, Bury concludes that Honorius “himself did nothing of note against the enemies who infested his realm, but personally he was extraordinarily fortunate in occupying the throne till he died a natural death and witnessing the destruction of the multitude of tyrants who rose up against him. Honorius issued a decree during his reign, prohibiting men from wearing trousers in Rome Codex Theodosianus 14.10.2-3, tr. Pharr, “The Theodosian Code, ” p. The last known gladiatorial fight took place during the reign of Honorius. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “HONORIUS 397AD Original Authentic GOLD Solidus Ancient Roman Coin NGC Au i58859″ is in sale since Sunday, January 29, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Honorius
  • Composition: Gold
  • Certification: NGC
  • Denomination: Solidus
  • Grade: MS
  • Certification Number: 4373045-010

Mar 1 2017

AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59645

AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59645

AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59645

Authentic Ancient Coin of. July 455- October 456 A. Bronze AE4 11mm (1.52 grams) Struck circa 455-456 A. Reference: RIC 2413 DNAVITVSPFAVG – Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. VICTORIAAVGG Exe: /RM – Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. 385 – after 17 October 456 or in 457 was Western Roman Emperor. From July 8 or July 9, 455 to October 17, 456. A Gallic-Roman aristocrat, he was a senator and a high-ranking officer both in the civil and military administration, as well as Bishop of Piacenza. A representative of the Gallic-Roman aristocracy, he opposed the reduction of the Western Roman Empire to Italy alone, both politically and from the administrative point of view. For this reason, as Emperor he introduced several Gallic senators in the imperial administration; this policy, however, was opposed by both the senatorial aristocracy and by the people of Rome, which had suffered because of the Vandalic sack of the city in 455. Avitus had a good relationship with the Visigoths. In particular with their king Theodoric II. Who was a friend of his and who acclaimed Avitus Emperor, but the possibility of a strong and useful alliance between Visigoths and Romans ended when Theodoric invaded Roman Hispania. And then refused to help Avitus against the rebel Roman generals who deposed him. Origins and early career. Avitus was born in Clermont. In a noble family of the senatorial aristocracy of Gallic-Roman origin; his father was possibly Flavius Julius Agricola. He had at least two sons and a daughter: Agricola. 440 after 507, a vir inlustris. Under Emperor Julius Nepos. , and, clarissima femina who married the praetorian prefect of Gaul. He was also related to Magnus Felix. Agricola’s daughter, also named Papianilla (490530), married her relative Parthenius (485548), a Patron. In 542 and perhaps a great-grandson of Felix Ennodius. Avitus followed a course of study typical for a young man of his rank: he studied law. Before 421 he was sent to the powerful patricius Flavius Constantius. This embassy was successful. A relative of his, Theodorus, was hostage at the court of the King of Visigoths. In 425/426 Avitus went and met him, thus meeting the King, who let Avitus enter his own court. Here, around 439, Avitus met the son of Theodoric, Theodoric II. Who later became King. Avitus inspired the young Theodoric to study Latin poets. He then started a military career: he served under the magister militum. In his campaign against the Juthungi. (430431) and also against the Burgundians. In 437, after being elevated to the rank of vir inlustris. Where he held a high office, probably magister militum. Per Gallias ; in that same year he defeated near Clermont a group of Hunnic raiders and obliged Theodoric to lift the siege of Narbonne. In 439 he became Praetorian prefect of Gaul. In that same year he renewed the friendship treaty with the Visigoths. Before the summer of 440, he retired to private life in his lands, called Avitacum , near Clermont. Here he lived until 451, when the Huns. Invaded the Western Roman Empire; Avitus used his own influence over Theodoric to convince him to an alliance between Visigoths and Romans. Theodoric and Aetius defeated Attila in the Battle of Châlons. Although Theodoric was killed there. Rise to the throne. In the late spring of 455, Avitus was recalled to service by emperor Petronius Maximus. And was elevated to the rank of magister militum. Probably praesentalis ; Maximus sent Avitus in an embassy to the court of Theodoric II. Who had succeeded to his father, at Toulouse. This embassy probably confirmed the new King and his people the condition of foederati. Of the Empire and asked for their support to the new Emperor. While Avitus was at Theodoric’s court, news came of the death of Petronius Maximus (May 22) and of the sack of Rome. Theodoric acclaimed Avitus Emperor in Toulouse, on July 9. The new Emperor was acclaimed by the Gallic chiefs gathered in Viernum , near Arelate. And later, around August 5, before Avitus reached Rome, he received the recognition of the Roman Senate. Avitus stayed in Gaul for three months, to consolidate his power in the region that was the center of his support, and later went to Italy with a Gallic army, probably reinforced with a Gothic force. He probably travelled to Noricum. To restore the imperial authority in that province, and then passed through Ravenna. Where he left a Gothic force under the new patricius. On September 21, finally, he entered Rome. The effective power of Avitus depended on the support of all the major players in the Western Roman Empire in the mid-5th century. The new Emperor needed the support of both the civil institutions, the Roman senate. And the Eastern Roman Emperor Marcian. As well as that of the army and its commanders the generals Majorian. On January 1, 456, Avitus took the consulate, as traditionally the Emperors always held the consulate in the first year upon assuming the purple. However, his consulate sine collega (without a second Consul) was not recognised by the Eastern court, which nominated two consuls, Iohannes. The fact that the two courts did not agree on a couple of consuls but each nominated its own means that, despite Avitus’ actions to receive the recognition of the Eastern Emperor (Hydatius writes Chronicle , 166, that Avitus sent some ambassadors to Marcian to discuss the separation of their spheres of influences, and later adds that the two Emperors ruled in agreement Chronicle , 169), the relationship between the two halves was non optimal. The problem posed by the Vandal incursions was so big that Marcian had already tried to obtain the interruption of the raids in the Italian coasts, with no success. Avitus reiterated this initiative, recalling the treaty subscribed by Gaiseric. In 442 and entrusting the defence of the Empire to the Roman army and its allies. The Vandal raids restarted after the winter truce in March 456, despite a further embassy by Marcian. With the destruction of Capua. And the Romans defeated the Vandals twice, once in a land battle near Agrigento. And another in a naval battle off Corsica. During Avitus’ reign, the Visigoths. Nominally under Roman authorisation but actually for their own interests. In 455 Avitus had sent an ambassador, comes Fronto, to the Suebi. And then to Theodoric II. To ask them formally to recognise Roman rule. When the Suebi invaded the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Visigoths attacked and defeated them in the Battle of the Urbicus River. (October 5, 456), occupying the province as foederati. Of the Empire, at least nominally. In the meantime, the resentment of the Italic population against Avitus grew. The Gallic-Roman Emperor, in fact, had given to members of the Gallic-Roman aristocracy many key offices of the public administration. Furthermore the population of Rome, devastated by the Vandal sack. Suffered a scarcity of food due to the Vandal naval supremacy that controlled the naval routes, a scarcity aggravated by the foreign troops which had arrived with Avitus. All these events caused the Emperor to grow unpopular. Counting on the popular discontent, on the disbandment of the imperial guard, and on the prestige gained through their victories, Ricimer. And the comes domesticorum. Rebelled against Avitus; the Emperor was obliged to leave Rome in early autumn and to move north. Ricimer had the Roman Senate depose Avitus and ordered the murder of the magister militum. In the in Classis Palace, on September 17 456. Avitus decided to react. First he chose Messianus, one of his collaborators in his embassy to the Visigoths ordered by Petronius Maximus. As the new magister militum ; then he probably went to Gaul (Hydatius says to Arelate) to collect all the available forces, probably the Visigoth guard he had just disbanded; finally he led his forces against the troops of Ricimer, near Piacenza. The Emperor and his army entered the city and attacked the huge army led by Ricimer, but after a great massacre of his men, including Messianus, Avitus fled (October 17 or 18). Ricimer and Majorian decided to spare the life of the defeated Emperor; they deposed Avitus and obliged him to become Bishop of Piacenza. The events that led to Avitus’ death, in 457, are still obscure. One major reason of danger for Avitus was the fact that in some areas of the Western Empire he was still considered the lawful Emperor: for example, the contemporary historian Hydatius. Who lived in Spain, considered the year 457 the third of Avitus’ reign; furthermore Sidonius Apollinaris. Tells about a failed coup d’etat in Gaul, organised by one Marcellus and probably aimed at bringing Avitus back on the throne. Avitus was informed that the Roman Senate. Had condemned him to death, and tried to flee to Gaul, officially travelling there to bring donations to the basilica of Saint Julian in Alvernia. According to Gregory of Tours. Avitus died during the journey; according to other sources, he was killed by Majorian and Ricimer, who had him strangled or starved to death. He was buried at Brioude. Next to Saint Julian’s tomb. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59645″ is in sale since Tuesday, February 28, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Avitus
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman

Mar 1 2017

AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59644

AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59644

AVITUS very rare Original 455AD Rome Victory Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59644

Authentic Ancient Coin of. July 455- October 456 A. Bronze AE4 11mm (1.35 grams) Struck circa 455-456 A. Reference: RIC 2413 DNAVITVSPFAVG – Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. VICTORIAAVGG Exe: S/RM – Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm. 385 – after 17 October 456 or in 457 was Western Roman Emperor. From July 8 or July 9, 455 to October 17, 456. A Gallic-Roman aristocrat, he was a senator and a high-ranking officer both in the civil and military administration, as well as Bishop of Piacenza. A representative of the Gallic-Roman aristocracy, he opposed the reduction of the Western Roman Empire to Italy alone, both politically and from the administrative point of view. For this reason, as Emperor he introduced several Gallic senators in the imperial administration; this policy, however, was opposed by both the senatorial aristocracy and by the people of Rome, which had suffered because of the Vandalic sack of the city in 455. Avitus had a good relationship with the Visigoths. In particular with their king Theodoric II. Who was a friend of his and who acclaimed Avitus Emperor, but the possibility of a strong and useful alliance between Visigoths and Romans ended when Theodoric invaded Roman Hispania. And then refused to help Avitus against the rebel Roman generals who deposed him. Origins and early career. Avitus was born in Clermont. In a noble family of the senatorial aristocracy of Gallic-Roman origin; his father was possibly Flavius Julius Agricola. He had at least two sons and a daughter: Agricola. 440 after 507, a vir inlustris. Under Emperor Julius Nepos. , and, clarissima femina who married the praetorian prefect of Gaul. He was also related to Magnus Felix. Agricola’s daughter, also named Papianilla (490530), married her relative Parthenius (485548), a Patron. In 542 and perhaps a great-grandson of Felix Ennodius. Avitus followed a course of study typical for a young man of his rank: he studied law. Before 421 he was sent to the powerful patricius Flavius Constantius. This embassy was successful. A relative of his, Theodorus, was hostage at the court of the King of Visigoths. In 425/426 Avitus went and met him, thus meeting the King, who let Avitus enter his own court. Here, around 439, Avitus met the son of Theodoric, Theodoric II. Who later became King. Avitus inspired the young Theodoric to study Latin poets. He then started a military career: he served under the magister militum. In his campaign against the Juthungi. (430431) and also against the Burgundians. In 437, after being elevated to the rank of vir inlustris. Where he held a high office, probably magister militum. Per Gallias ; in that same year he defeated near Clermont a group of Hunnic raiders and obliged Theodoric to lift the siege of Narbonne. In 439 he became Praetorian prefect of Gaul. In that same year he renewed the friendship treaty with the Visigoths. Before the summer of 440, he retired to private life in his lands, called Avitacum , near Clermont. Here he lived until 451, when the Huns. Invaded the Western Roman Empire; Avitus used his own influence over Theodoric to convince him to an alliance between Visigoths and Romans. Theodoric and Aetius defeated Attila in the Battle of Châlons. Although Theodoric was killed there. Rise to the throne. In the late spring of 455, Avitus was recalled to service by emperor Petronius Maximus. And was elevated to the rank of magister militum. Probably praesentalis ; Maximus sent Avitus in an embassy to the court of Theodoric II. Who had succeeded to his father, at Toulouse. This embassy probably confirmed the new King and his people the condition of foederati. Of the Empire and asked for their support to the new Emperor. While Avitus was at Theodoric’s court, news came of the death of Petronius Maximus (May 22) and of the sack of Rome. Theodoric acclaimed Avitus Emperor in Toulouse, on July 9. The new Emperor was acclaimed by the Gallic chiefs gathered in Viernum , near Arelate. And later, around August 5, before Avitus reached Rome, he received the recognition of the Roman Senate. Avitus stayed in Gaul for three months, to consolidate his power in the region that was the center of his support, and later went to Italy with a Gallic army, probably reinforced with a Gothic force. He probably travelled to Noricum. To restore the imperial authority in that province, and then passed through Ravenna. Where he left a Gothic force under the new patricius. On September 21, finally, he entered Rome. The effective power of Avitus depended on the support of all the major players in the Western Roman Empire in the mid-5th century. The new Emperor needed the support of both the civil institutions, the Roman senate. And the Eastern Roman Emperor Marcian. As well as that of the army and its commanders the generals Majorian. On January 1, 456, Avitus took the consulate, as traditionally the Emperors always held the consulate in the first year upon assuming the purple. However, his consulate sine collega (without a second Consul) was not recognised by the Eastern court, which nominated two consuls, Iohannes. The fact that the two courts did not agree on a couple of consuls but each nominated its own means that, despite Avitus’ actions to receive the recognition of the Eastern Emperor (Hydatius writes Chronicle , 166, that Avitus sent some ambassadors to Marcian to discuss the separation of their spheres of influences, and later adds that the two Emperors ruled in agreement Chronicle , 169), the relationship between the two halves was non optimal. The problem posed by the Vandal incursions was so big that Marcian had already tried to obtain the interruption of the raids in the Italian coasts, with no success. Avitus reiterated this initiative, recalling the treaty subscribed by Gaiseric. In 442 and entrusting the defence of the Empire to the Roman army and its allies. The Vandal raids restarted after the winter truce in March 456, despite a further embassy by Marcian. With the destruction of Capua. And the Romans defeated the Vandals twice, once in a land battle near Agrigento. And another in a naval battle off Corsica. During Avitus’ reign, the Visigoths. Nominally under Roman authorisation but actually for their own interests. In 455 Avitus had sent an ambassador, comes Fronto, to the Suebi. And then to Theodoric II. To ask them formally to recognise Roman rule. When the Suebi invaded the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis. The Visigoths attacked and defeated them in the Battle of the Urbicus River. (October 5, 456), occupying the province as foederati. Of the Empire, at least nominally. In the meantime, the resentment of the Italic population against Avitus grew. The Gallic-Roman Emperor, in fact, had given to members of the Gallic-Roman aristocracy many key offices of the public administration. Furthermore the population of Rome, devastated by the Vandal sack. Suffered a scarcity of food due to the Vandal naval supremacy that controlled the naval routes, a scarcity aggravated by the foreign troops which had arrived with Avitus. All these events caused the Emperor to grow unpopular. Counting on the popular discontent, on the disbandment of the imperial guard, and on the prestige gained through their victories, Ricimer. And the comes domesticorum. Rebelled against Avitus; the Emperor was obliged to leave Rome in early autumn and to move north. Ricimer had the Roman Senate depose Avitus and ordered the murder of the magister militum. In the in Classis Palace, on September 17 456. Avitus decided to react. First he chose Messianus, one of his collaborators in his embassy to the Visigoths ordered by Petronius Maximus. As the new magister militum ; then he probably went to Gaul (Hydatius says to Arelate) to collect all the available forces, probably the Visigoth guard he had just disbanded; finally he led his forces against the troops of Ricimer, near Piacenza. The Emperor and his army entered the city and attacked the huge army led by Ricimer, but after a great massacre of his men, including Messianus, Avitus fled (October 17 or 18). Ricimer and Majorian decided to spare the life of the defeated Emperor; they deposed Avitus and obliged him to become Bishop of Piacenza. The events that led to Avitus’ death, in 457, are still obscure. One major reason of danger for Avitus was the fact that in some areas of the Western Empire he was still considered the lawful Emperor: for example, the contemporary historian Hydatius. Who lived in Spain, considered the year 457 the third of Avitus’ reign; furthermore Sidonius Apollinaris. Tells about a failed coup d’etat in Gaul, organised by one Marcellus and probably aimed at bringing Avitus back on the throne. Avitus was informed that the Roman Senate. Had condemned him to death, and tried to flee to Gaul, officially travelling there to bring donations to the basilica of Saint Julian in Alvernia. According to Gregory of Tours. Avitus died during the journey; according to other sources, he was killed by Majorian and Ricimer, who had him strangled or starved to death. He was buried at Brioude. Next to Saint Julian’s tomb. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. 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The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Avitus
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman

Feb 13 2017

CLAUDIUS 42AD Rome Quadrans Modius Original Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59181

CLAUDIUS 42AD Rome Quadrans Modius Original Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59181

CLAUDIUS 42AD Rome Quadrans Modius Original Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59181

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Bronze Quadrans 16mm (3.00 grams) Rome mint: 42 A. Reference: RIC 90, BN 195, S 1865, C 72 TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, Modius. PON M TR P IMP PP COS II around large S C. MODIVS, a bushel measure– of wheat for instance, or any dry or solid commodity. It contained the third part of an amphora, and four of these measures per month was the ordinary allowance given to slaves. On Roman coins we see the modius represented with corn-ears, and sometimes a poppy hanging or rising from it– and having reference to distributions of wheat to the people, by various Emperors, such as Nerva, Vespasian, M. On a denarius of Nerva, with the legend COS IIII , there is a modius with six ears of corn. The modius is also the sign of the AEdileship on coins of the Papia and other families, and is represented full of wheat, between two ears of corn, as the symbol and attribute of Abundantia and of Annona. The coins of Nero, and from that Emperor down to Gallienus, furnish frequent examples of this figure as indicating the fruits of fertility, whether domestic or foreign; and the Imperial liberality and providence in procuring, and in bestowing them on the people. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. (1 August 10 BC 13 October AD 54) (Tiberius Claudius Drusus from birth to AD 4, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus from then until his accession) was the fourth Roman Emperor. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Ruling from 24 January AD 41 to his death in AD 54. He was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italia. He was reportedly afflicted with some type of disability, and his family had virtually excluded him from public office until his consulship. With his nephew Caligula. This infirmity may have saved him from the fate of many other Roman nobles during the purges of Tiberius. And Caligula’s reigns; potential enemies did not see him as a serious threat to them. His very survival led to his being declared emperor reportedly because the Praetorian Guard. Insisted after Caligula’s assassination, at which point he was the last adult male of his family. Despite his lack of political experience, Claudius proved to be an able administrator and a great builder of public works. His reign saw an expansion of the empire, including the conquest of Britain. He took a personal interest in the law, presided at public trials, and issued up to 20 edicts a day; however, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his rule, particularly by the nobility. Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position. This resulted in the deaths of many senators. Claudius also suffered setbacks in his personal life, one of which may have led to his murder. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Family and early life. Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC, in Lugdunum. On the day of the dedication of an altar to Augustus. His parents were Nero Claudius Drusus. And he had two older siblings named Germanicus. Antonia may have had two other children who died young, as well. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony. Caesar Augustus’ sister, and as such he was the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar. His paternal grandparents were Livia. Augustus’ third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the false appearance that Augustus was Claudius’ paternal grandfather. In 9 BC, Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, possibly from illness. Claudius was then left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius’ disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years. Livia was little kinder, and often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a “former mule-driver” to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power. However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In AD 7, Livy. Was hired to tutor him in history, with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus. He spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius’ oratory. Expectations about his future began to increase. Ironically, it was his work as a budding historian. That destroyed his early career. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars. That was either too truthful or too critical of Octavian. In either case, it was far too early for such an account, and may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony’s descendant. His mother and grandmother quickly put a stop to it, and this may have proved to them that Claudius was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line. But the damage was done, and his family pushed him to the background. Was erected to honor the imperial clan in AD 8, Claudius’ name now Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus after his elevation to paterfamilias. Of Claudii Nerones on the adoption of his brother was inscribed on the edgepast the deceased princes, Gaius. There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades later, and that he originally did not appear at all. Gratus proclaims Claudius emperor. Detail from A Roman Emperor 41AD , by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Oil on canvas, c. When Augustus died in AD 14, Claudius then 23 appealed to his uncle Tiberius. To allow him to begin the cursus honorum. Tiberius, the new emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius requested office once more and was snubbed. Since the new emperor was not any more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life. Despite the disdain of the imperial family, it seems that from very early on the general public respected Claudius. At Augustus’ death, the equites. Or knights, chose Claudius to head their delegation. When his house burned down, the Senate demanded it be rebuilt at public expense. They also requested that Claudius be allowed to debate in the senate. Tiberius turned down both motions, but the sentiment remained. During the period immediately after the death of Tiberius’ son, Drusus. Claudius was pushed by some quarters as a potential heir. This again suggests the political nature of his exclusion from public life. However, as this was also the period during which the power and terror of the Praetorian Sejanus. Was at its peak, Claudius chose to downplay this possibility. After the death of Tiberius the new emperor Caligula. The son of Claudius’ brother Germanicus. Recognized Claudius to be of some use. He appointed Claudius his co-consul in AD 37 in order to emphasize the memory of Caligula’s deceased father Germanicus. According to Cassius Dio. As well a possible surviving portrait, Claudius became very sickly and thin by the end of Caligula’s reign, most likely due to stress. On 24 January, AD 41, Caligula was assassinated by a broad-based conspiracy. Including Praetorian commander Cassius Chaerea. There is no evidence that Claudius had a direct hand in the assassination. Although it has been argued that he knew about the plot particularly since he left the scene of the crime shortly before his nephew was murdered. However, after the deaths of Caligula’s wife. And daughter, it became apparent that Cassius intended to go beyond the terms of the conspiracy and wipe out the imperial family. In the chaos following the murder, Claudius witnessed the German. Guard cut down several uninvolved noblemen, including many of his friends. He fled to the palace to hide. According to tradition, a Praetorian named Gratus found him hiding behind a curtain and suddenly declared him princeps. A section of the guard may have planned in advance to seek out Claudius, perhaps with his approval. They reassured him that they were not one of the battalions looking for revenge. He was spirited away to the Praetorian camp and put under their protection. The Senate quickly met and began debating a change of government, but this eventually devolved into an argument over which of them would be the new Princeps. When they heard of the Praetorians’ claim, they demanded that Claudius be delivered to them for approval, but he refused, sensing the danger that would come with complying. Some historians, particularly Josephus. Claim that Claudius was directed in his actions by the Judean. However, an earlier version of events by the same ancient author downplays Agrippa’s role so it is not known how large a hand he had in things. Eventually the Senate was forced to give in and, in return, Claudius pardoned nearly all the assassins. Claudius took several steps to legitimize his rule against potential usurpers, most of them emphasizing his place within the Julio-Claudian family. He adopted the name “Caesar” as a cognomen. The name still carried great weight with the populace. In order to do so, he dropped the cognomen “Nero” which he had adopted as paterfamilias of the Claudii Nerones when his brother Germanicus was adopted out. While he had never been adopted by Augustus or his successors, he was the grandson of Octavia, and so felt he had the right. He also adopted the name “Augustus” as the two previous emperors had done at their accessions. He kept the honorific “Germanicus” in order to display the connection with his heroic brother. He deified his paternal grandmother Livia in order to highlight her position as wife of the divine Augustus. Claudius frequently used the term “filius Drusi” (son of Drusus) in his titles, in order to remind the people of his legendary father and lay claim to his reputation. Because he was proclaimed emperor on the initiative of the Praetorian Guard instead of the Senate the first emperor thus proclaimed Claudius’ repute suffered at the hands of commentators such as Seneca. Moreover, he was the first Emperor who resorted to bribery. As a means to secure army loyalty. Tiberius and Augustus had both left gifts to the army and guard in their wills. And upon Caligula’s death the same would have been expected, even if no will existed. Claudius remained grateful to the guard, however, issuing coins with tributes to the praetorians in the early part of his reign. Expansion of the empire. Under Claudius, the empire underwent its first major expansion since the reign of Augustus. The provinces of Thrace. Under various circumstances during his term. The annexation of Mauretania. Begun under Caligula, was completed after the defeat of rebel forces, and the official division of the former client kingdom into two imperial provinces. The most important new expansion was the conquest of Britannia. In AD 43, Claudius sent Aulus Plautius. To Britain (Britannia) after an appeal from an ousted tribal ally. Britain was an attractive target for Rome because of its material wealth particularly mines and slaves. It was also a haven for Gallic. Rebels and the like, and so could not be left alone much longer. Claudius himself traveled to the island after the completion of initial offensives, bringing with him reinforcements and elephants. The latter must have made an impression on the Britons. When they were used in the capture of Camulodunum. He left after 16 days, but remained in the provinces for some time. The Senate granted him a triumph. For his efforts, as only members of the imperial family were allowed such honors. Claudius later lifted this restriction for some of his conquering generals. He was granted the honorific “Britannicus” but only accepted it on behalf of his son, never using the title himself. When the British general Caractacus. Was captured in AD 50, Claudius granted him clemency. Caractacus lived out his days on land provided by the Roman state, an unusual end for an enemy commander. Claudius conducted a census. In AD 48 that found 5,984,072 Roman citizens, an increase of around a million since the census conducted at Augustus’ death. He had helped increase this number through the foundation of Roman colonies that were granted blanket citizenship. These colonies were often made out of existing communities, especially those with elites who could rally the populace to the Roman cause. Several colonies were placed in new provinces or on the border of the empire in order to secure Roman holdings as quickly as possible. Judicial and legislative affairs. Claudius personally judged many of the legal cases tried during his reign. Ancient historians have many complaints about this, stating that his judgments were variable and sometimes did not follow the law. He was also easily swayed. Nevertheless, Claudius paid detailed attention to the operation of the judicial system. He extended the summer court session, as well as the winter term, by shortening the traditional breaks. Claudius also made a law requiring plaintiffs to remain in the city while their cases were pending, as defendants had previously been required to do. These measures had the effect of clearing out the docket. The minimum age for jurors was also raised to 25 in order to ensure a more experienced jury pool. Claudius also settled disputes in the provinces. He freed the island of Rhodes. From Roman rule for their good faith and exempted Troy. Early in his reign, the Greeks. Sent him two embassies at once after riots broke out between the two communities. This resulted in the famous “Letter to the Alexandrians”, which reaffirmed Jewish rights in the city but also forbade them to move in more families en masse. He then reaffirmed the rights and freedoms of all the Jews in the empire. An investigator of Claudius’ discovered that many old Roman citizens based in the modern city of Trento. Were not in fact citizens. The emperor issued a declaration that they would be considered to hold citizenship from then on, since to strip them of their status would cause major problems. However, in individual cases, Claudius punished false assumption of citizenship harshly, making it a capital offense. Numerous edicts were issued throughout Claudius’ reign. These were on a number of topics, everything from medical advice to moral judgments. Two famous medical examples are one promoting Yew. Juice as a cure for snakebite, and another promoting public flatulence for good health. One of the more famous edicts concerned the status of sick slaves. Masters had been abandoning ailing slaves at the temple of Aesculapius. To die, and then reclaiming them if they lived. Claudius ruled that slaves who recovered after such treatment would be free. Furthermore, masters who chose to kill slaves rather than take the risk were liable to be charged with murder. The Porta Maggiore in Rome. Claudius embarked on many public works throughout his reign, both in the capital and in the provinces. He built two aqueducts. And the Anio Novus. These entered the city in AD 52 and met at the famous Porta Maggiore. He also restored a third, the Aqua Virgo. He paid special attention to transportation. And the provinces he built roads and canals. Among these was a large canal leading from the Rhine. To the sea, as well as a road from Italy to Germany both begun by his father, Drusus. Closer to Rome, he built a navigable canal on the Tiber. His new port just north of Ostia. This port was constructed in a semicircle with two moles. And a lighthouse at its mouth. The construction also had the effect of reducing flooding in Rome. The other part of his solution was to insure the ships of grain merchants who were willing to risk traveling to Egypt in the off-season. He also granted their sailors special privileges, including citizenship and exemption from the Lex Papia-Poppaea. A law that regulated marriage. The last part of Claudius’ plan was to increase the amount of arable land in Italy. This was to be achieved by draining the Fucine lake. Which would have the added benefit of making the nearby river navigable year-round. A tunnel was dug through the lake bed, but the plan was a failure. The tunnel was crooked and not large enough to carry the water, which caused it to back up when opened. The resultant flood washed out a large gladiatorial exhibition held to commemorate the opening, causing Claudius to run for his life along with the other spectators. The draining of the lake was revisited many times in history, including by emperors Trajan. And Holy Roman Emperor. In the Middle Ages. It was finally achieved by the Prince Torlonia. In the 19th century, producing over 160,000 acres 650 km. Of new arable land. He expanded the Claudian tunnel to three times its original size. Claudius and the Senate. Because of the circumstances of his accession, Claudius took great pains to please the Senate. During regular sessions, the emperor sat among the Senate body, speaking in turn. When introducing a law, he sat on a bench between the consuls in his position as Holder of the Power of Tribune. The emperor could not officially serve as a Tribune of the Plebes as he was a Patrician. But it was a power taken by previous rulers. He refused to accept all his predecessors’ titles including Imperator. At the beginning of his reign, preferring to earn them in due course. He allowed the Senate to issue its own bronze coinage for the first time since Augustus. He also put the imperial provinces of Macedonia. Back under Senate control. Claudius set about remodeling the Senate into a more efficient, representative body. He chided the senators about their reluctance to debate bills introduced by himself, as noted in the fragments of a surviving speech. If you accept these proposals, Conscript Fathers, say so at once and simply, in accordance with your convictions. If you do not accept them, find alternatives, but do so here and now; or if you wish to take time for consideration, take it, provided you do not forget that you must be ready to pronounce your opinion whenever you may be summoned to meet. It ill befits the dignity of the Senate that the consul designate should repeat the phrases of the consuls word for word as his opinion, and that every one else should merely say’I approve’, and that then, after leaving, the assembly should announce’We debated’. In AD 47 he assumed the office of Censor. Which had been allowed to lapse for some time. He struck the names of many senators and equites who no longer met qualifications, but showed respect by allowing them to resign in advance. At the same time, he sought to admit eligible men from the provinces. Preserves his speech on the admittance of Gallic senators, in which he addresses the Senate with reverence but also with criticism for their disdain of these men. He also increased the number of Patricians. By adding new families to the dwindling number of noble lines. Here he followed the precedent of Lucius Junius Brutus. Nevertheless, many in the Senate remained hostile to Claudius, and many plots were made on his life. This hostility carried over into the historical accounts. As a result, Claudius was forced to reduce the Senate’s power for efficiency. The administration of Ostia was turned over to an imperial Procurator. After construction of the port. Administration of many of the empire’s financial concerns was turned over to imperial appointees and freedmen. This led to further resentment and suggestions that these same freedmen were ruling the emperor. Attempts were made during Claudius’ reign, resulting in the deaths of many senators. Was executed early in Claudius’ reign under questionable circumstances. Shortly after, a large rebellion was undertaken by the Senator Vinicianus and Scribonianus. The governor of Dalmatia. And gained quite a few senatorial supporters. It ultimately failed because of the reluctance of Scribonianus’ troops, and the suicide. Of the main conspirators. Many other senators tried different conspiracies and were condemned. Claudius’ son-in-law Pompeius Magnus. Was executed for his part in a conspiracy with his father Crassus Frugi. Another plot involved the consulars Lusiius Saturninus, Cornelius Lupus, and Pompeius Pedo. In AD 46, Asinius Gallus. The grandson of Asinius Pollio. And Statilius Corvinus were exiled for a plot hatched with several of Claudius’ own freedmen. Was executed without public trial for unknown reasons. The ancient sources say the charge was adultery. And that Claudius was tricked into issuing the punishment. However, Claudius singles out Asiaticus for special damnation in his speech on the Gauls, which dates over a year later, suggesting that the charge must have been much more serious. Asiaticus had been a claimant to the throne in the chaos following Caligula’s death and a co-consul with the Statilius Corvinus mentioned above. Most of these conspiracies took place before Claudius’ term as Censor. And may have induced him to review the Senatorial rolls. The conspiracy of Gaius Silius. In the year after his Censorship, AD 48, is detailed in the section discussing Claudius’ third wife, Messalina. Suetonius states that a total of 35 senators and 300 knights were executed for offenses during Claudius’ reign. Needless to say, the necessary responses to these conspiracies could not have helped Senate-emperor relations. The Secretariat and centralization of powers. Claudius was hardly the first emperor to use freedmen. To help with the day-to-day running of the empire. He was, however, forced to increase their role as the powers of the Princeps. Became more centralized and the burden larger. This was partly due to the ongoing hostility of the senate, as mentioned above, but also due to his respect for the senators. Claudius did not want free-born magistrates to have to serve under him, as if they were not peers. The secretariat was divided into bureaus, with each being placed under the leadership of one freedman. Was the secretary of correspondence. Became the secretary of the treasury. Became secretary of justice. There was a fourth bureau for miscellaneous issues, which was put under Polybius. Until his execution for treason. The freedmen could also officially speak for the emperor, as when Narcissus addressed the troops in Claudius’ stead before the conquest of Britain. Since these were important positions, the senators were aghast at their being placed in the hands of former slaves. This is exactly the accusation put forth by the ancient sources. However, these same sources admit that the freedmen were loyal to Claudius. He was similarly appreciative of them and gave them due credit for policies where he had used their advice. However, if they showed treasonous inclinations, the emperor did punish them with just force, as in the case of Polybius and Pallas’ brother, Felix. There is no evidence that the character of Claudius’ policies and edicts changed with the rise and fall of the various freedmen, suggesting that he was firmly in control throughout. Regardless of the extent of their political power, the freedmen did manage to amass wealth through their positions. Notes that several of them were richer than Crassus. The richest man of the Republican. Claudius, as the author of a treatise on Augustus’ religious reforms, felt himself in a good position to institute some of his own. He had strong opinions about the proper form for state religion. He refused the request of Alexandrian Greeks to dedicate a temple to his divinity, saying that only gods may choose new gods. He restored lost days to festivals and got rid of many extraneous celebrations added by Caligula. He reinstituted old observances and archaic language. Claudius was concerned with the spread of eastern mysteries within the city and searched for more Roman replacements. He emphasized the Eleusinian mysteries. Which had been practiced by so many during the Republic. He expelled foreign astrologers, and at the same time rehabilitated the old Roman soothsayers known as haruspices. He was especially hard on Druidism. Because of its incompatibility with the Roman state religion and its proselytizing. It is also reported that at one time he expelled the Jews from Rome, probably because the appearance of Christianity had caused unrest within the Jewish community. Claudius opposed proselytizing in any religion, even in those regions where he allowed natives to worship freely. The results of all these efforts were recognized even by Seneca, who has an ancient Latin god defend Claudius in his satire. Public games and entertainments. According to Suetonius, Claudius was extraordinarily fond of games. He is said to have risen with the crowd after gladiatorial matches and given unrestrained praise to the fighters. Claudius also presided over many new and original events. Soon after coming into power, Claudius instituted games to be held in honor of his father on the latter’s birthday.. Annual games were also held in honor of his accession, and took place at the Praetorian camp where Claudius had first been proclaimed emperor.. Claudius performed the Secular games. Marking the 800th anniversary of the founding of Rome. Augustus had performed the same games less than a century prior. Augustus’ excuse was that the interval for the games was 110 years, not 100, but his date actually did not qualify under either reasoning. Claudius also presented naval battles to mark the attempted draining of the Fucine lake, as well as many other public games and shows. At Ostia, in front of a crowd of spectators, Claudius fought a killer whale. Which was trapped in the harbor. The event was witnessed by Pliny the Elder. A killer whale was actually seen in the harbor of Ostia, locked in combat with the emperor Claudius. The emperor ordered that a large array of nets be stretched across the mouths of the harbor, and setting out in person with the Praetorian. Cohorts gave a show to the Roman people, soldiers showering lances from attacking ships, one of which I saw swamped by the beast’s waterspout and sunk. Claudius also restored and adorned many of the venues around Rome. The old wooden barriers of the Circus Maximus were replaced with ones made of gold-ornamented marble. A new section of the Circus was designated for seating the senators, who previously had sat among the general public. Claudius rebuilt Pompey’s Theater after it had been destroyed by fire, throwing special fights at the rededication which he observed from a special platform in the orchestra box. Death, deification, and reputation. The general consensus of ancient historians was that Claudius was murdered by poison possibly contained in mushrooms or on a feather and died in the early hours of 13 October, AD 54. Some claim Claudius was in Rome while others claim he was in Sinuessa. Some implicate either Halotus. His doctor, or the infamous poisoner Locusta. As the administrator of the fatal substance. Some say he died after prolonged suffering following a single dose at dinner, and some have him recovering only to be poisoned again. Nearly all implicate his final wife, Agrippina, as the instigator. Agrippina and Claudius had become more combative in the months leading up to his death. This carried on to the point where Claudius openly lamented his bad wives, and began to comment on Britannicus’ approaching manhood with an eye towards restoring his status within the imperial family. Agrippina had motive in ensuring the succession of Nero before Britannicus could gain power. In modern times, some authors have cast doubt on whether Claudius was murdered or merely succumbed to illness or old age. Some modern scholars claim the universality of the accusations in ancient texts lends credence to the crime. History in those days could not be objectively collected or written, so sometimes amounted to committing whispered gossip to parchment, often years after the events, when the writer was no longer in danger of arrest. Claudius’ ashes were interred in the Mausoleum of Augustus. On 24 October, after a funeral in the manner of Augustus. Claudius was deified by Nero and the Senate almost immediately. Those who regard this homage as cynical should note that, cynical or not, such a move would hardly have benefited those involved, had Claudius been “hated”, as some commentators, both modern and historic, characterize him. Many of Claudius’ less solid supporters quickly became Nero’s men. Claudius’ will had been changed shortly before his death to either recommend Nero and Britannicus jointly or perhaps just Britannicus, who would have been considered an adult man according to Roman law only in a few months. Agrippina had sent away Narcissus shortly before Claudius’ death, and now murdered the freedman. The last act of this secretary of letters was to burn all of Claudius’ correspondencemost likely so it could not be used against him and others in an already hostile new regime. Thus Claudius’ private words about his own policies and motives were lost to history. Just as Claudius has criticized his predecessors in official edicts (see below), Nero often criticized the deceased emperor and many of Claudius’ laws and edicts were disregarded under the reasoning that he was too stupid and senile to have meant them. This opinion of Claudius, that he was indeed an old idiot, remained the official one for the duration of Nero’s reign. Eventually Nero stopped referring to his deified adoptive father at all, and realigned with his birth family. Claudius’ temple was left unfinished after only some of the foundation had been laid down. Eventually the site was overtaken by Nero’s Golden House. Who had risen to prominence under Claudius, took a different tack. They were in a position where they needed to shore up their legitimacy, but also justify the fall of the Julio-Claudians. They reached back to Claudius in contrast with Nero, to show that they were good associated with good. Commemorative coins were issued of Claudius and his son Britannicuswho had been a friend of the emperor Titus. When Nero’s Golden House was burned, the Temple of Claudius was finally completed on Caelian Hill. However, as the Flavians became established, they needed to emphasize their own credentials more, and their references to Claudius ceased. Instead, he was put down with the other emperors of the fallen dynasty. The main ancient historians Tacitus. All wrote after the last of the Flavians had gone. All three were senators or equites. They took the side of the Senate in most conflicts with the princeps, invariably viewing him as being in the wrong. This resulted in biases, both conscious and unconscious. Suetonius lost access to the official archives shortly after beginning his work. He was forced to rely on second-hand accounts when it came to Claudius (with the exception of Augustus’ letters which had been gathered earlier) and does not quote the emperor. Suetonius painted Claudius as a ridiculous figure, belittling many of his acts and attributing the objectively good works to his retinue. Tacitus wrote a narrative for his fellow senators and fitted each of the emperors into a simple mold of his choosing. He wrote Claudius as a passive pawn and an idiotgoing so far as to hide his use of Claudius as a source and omit Claudius’ character from his works. Even his version of Claudius’ Lyons tablet speech is edited to be devoid of the emperor’s personality. Dio was less biased, but seems to have used Suetonius and Tacitus as sources. Thus the conception of Claudius as the weak fool, controlled by those he supposedly ruled, was preserved for the ages. As time passed, Claudius was mostly forgotten outside of the historians’ accounts. His books were lost first, as their antiquarian subjects became unfashionable. In the second century, Pertinax. Who shared his birthday, became emperor, overshadowing commemoration of Claudius. Marriages and personal life. Claudius’ love life was unusual for an upper-class Roman of his day. Mentions, of the first fifteen emperors, “Claudius was the only one whose taste in love was entirely correct”the implication being that he was the only one not to take men. Gibbon based this on Suetonius’ factual statement that He had a great passion for women, but had no interest in men. Suetonius and the other ancient authors used this against Claudius. They accused him of being dominated by these same women and wives, of being uxorious. And of being a womanizer. Claudius married four times. His first marriage, to Plautia Urgulanilla. Occurred after two failed betrothals The first was to his distant cousin Aemilia Lepida. But was broken for political reasons. The second was to Livia Medullina. Which ended with the bride’s sudden death on their wedding day. Urgulanilla was a relation of Livia’s confidant Urgulania. During their marriage she gave birth to a son, Claudius Drusus. Unfortunately, Drusus died of asphyxiation in his early teens, shortly after becoming engaged to the daughter of Sejanus. Claudius later divorced Urgulanilla for adultery and on suspicion of murdering her sister-in-law Apronia. When Urgulanilla gave birth after the divorce, Claudius repudiated the baby girl, Claudia, as the father was one of his own freedmen. Soon after (possibly in AD 28), Claudius married Aelia Paetina. A relation of Sejanus. They had a daughter, Claudia Antonia. He later divorced her after the marriage became a political liability although Leon (1948) suggests it may have been due to emotional and mental abuse by Aelia. In AD 38 or early 39, Claudius married Valeria Messalina. Who was his first cousin once removed and closely allied with Caligula’s circle. Shortly thereafter, she gave birth to a daughter Claudia Octavia. A son, first named Tiberius Claudius Germanicus, and later known as Britannicus. Was born just after Claudius’ accession. This marriage ended in tragedy. The ancient historians allege that Messalina was a nymphomaniac. Who was regularly unfaithful to Claudius Tacitus. States she went so far as to compete with a prostitute. To see who could have the most sexual partners in a night and manipulated his policies in order to amass wealth. In AD 48, Messalina married her lover Gaius Silius. In a public ceremony while Claudius was at Ostia. Sources disagree as to whether or not she divorced the emperor first, and whether the intention was to usurp the throne. Scramuzza, in his biography, suggests that Silius may have convinced Messalina that Claudius was doomed, and the union was her only hope of retaining rank and protecting her children. Suggests that Claudius’s ongoing term as Censor may have prevented him from noticing the affair before it reached such a critical point. Whatever the case, the result was the execution of Silius, Messalina, and most of her circle. Claudius made the Praetorians. Promise to kill him if he ever married again. Despite this declaration, Claudius did marry once more. The ancient sources tell that his freedmen pushed three candidates, Caligula’s former wife Lollia Paulina. Claudius’s divorced second wife Aelia, and Claudius’s niece Agrippina the younger. According to Suetonius, Agrippina won out through her feminine wiles. The truth is likely more political. Attempt by Silius probably made Claudius realize the weakness of his position as a member of the Claudian but not the Julian family. This weakness was compounded by the fact that he did not have an obvious adult heir, Britannicus being just a boy. Agrippina was one of the few remaining descendants of Augustus, and her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus later known as Nero. Was one of the last males of the imperial family. Future coup attempts could rally around the pair, and Agrippina was already showing such ambition. It has been suggested in recent times that the Senate may have pushed for the marriage to end the feud between the Julian and Claudian branches. This feud dated back to Agrippina’s mother’s. Actions against Tiberius after the death of her husband Germanicus, actions which Tiberius had gladly punished. In any case, Claudius accepted Agrippina, and later adopted the newly mature Nero as his son. Nero was made joint heir with the underage Britannicus, married to Octavia and heavily promoted. This was not as unusual as it seems to people acquainted with modern hereditary monarchies. Notes that Augustus had named his grandson Postumus Agrippa. And his stepson Tiberius joint heirs. Tiberius named his great-nephew Caligula joint heir with his grandson Tiberius Gemellus. Adoption of adults or near adults was an old tradition in Rome when a suitable natural adult heir was unavailable. This was the case during Britannicus’ minority. Oost suggests that Claudius had previously looked to adopt one of his sons-in-law to protect his own reign. Married to his daughter Antonia. Was only descended from Octavia and Antony on one side not close enough to the imperial family to prevent doubts (that didn’t stop others from making him the object of a coup attempt against Nero a few years later). Besides which, he was the half brother of Messalina. And at this time those wounds were still fresh. Was more popular with the general public as the grandson of Germanicus and the direct descendant of Augustus. Claudius’ affliction and personality. Describes the physical manifestations of Claudius’ affliction in relatively good detail. His knees were weak and gave way under him and his head shook. He stammered and his speech was confused. He slobbered and his nose ran when he was excited. States in his Apocolocyntosis. That Claudius’ voice belonged to no land animal, and that his hands were weak as well; however, he showed no physical deformity, as Suetonius notes that when calm and seated he was a tall, well-built figure of dignitas. When angered or stressed, his symptoms became worse. Historians agree that this condition improved upon his accession to the throne. Claudius himself claimed that he had exaggerated his ailments to save his own life. The modern diagnosis has changed several times in the past century. Prior to World War II. (or polio) was widely accepted as the cause. This is the diagnosis used in Robert Graves. First published in the 1930s. Polio does not explain many of the described symptoms, however, and a more recent theory implicates cerebral palsy. As the cause, as outlined by Ernestine Leon. Is also a likely candidate for Claudius’ symptoms. As a person, ancient historians described Claudius as generous and lowbrow, a man who sometimes lunched with the plebeians. They also paint him as bloodthirsty and cruel, overly fond of both gladiatorial. Combat and executions, and very quick to anger (though Claudius himself acknowledged the latter trait, and apologized publicly for his temper). To them he was also overly trusting, and easily manipulated by his wives and freedmen. But at the same time they portray him as paranoid and apathetic, dull and easily confused. The extant works of Claudius present a different view, painting a picture of an intelligent, scholarly, well-read, and conscientious administrator with an eye to detail and justice. Thus, Claudius becomes an enigma. Since the discovery of his Letter to the Alexandrians. In the last century, much work has been done to rehabilitate Claudius and determine where the truth lies. Scholarly works and their impact. Claudius wrote copiously throughout his life. States that during the reign of Tiberius which covers the peak of Claudius’ literary career it became impolitic to speak of republican Rome. The trend among the young historians was to either write about the new empire or obscure antiquarian subjects. Claudius was the rare scholar who covered both. Besides the history of Augustus’ reign that caused him so much grief, his major works included an Etruscan. History and eight volumes on Carthaginian. History, as well as an Etruscan Dictionary and a book on dice playing. Despite the general avoidance of the imperatorial era, he penned a defense of Cicero. Against the charges of Asinius Gallus. Modern historians have used this to determine both the nature of his politics and of the aborted chapters of his civil war history. He proposed a reform of the Latin alphabet. By the addition of three new letters. Two of which served the function of the modern letters W and Y. He officially instituted the change during his censorship, but they did not survive his reign. Claudius also tried to revive the old custom of putting dots between different words (Classical Latin was written with no spacing). Finally, he wrote an eight-volume autobiography that Suetonius describes as lacking in taste. Since Claudius (like most of the members of his dynasty) heavily criticized his predecessors and relatives in surviving speeches, it is not hard to imagine the nature of Suetonius’ charge. Unfortunately, none of the actual works survive. They do live on as sources for the surviving histories of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Suetonius quotes Claudius’ autobiography once, and must have used it as a source numerous times. Tacitus uses Claudius’ own arguments for the orthographical innovations mentioned above, and may have used him for some of the more antiquarian passages in his annals. Claudius is the source for numerous passages of Pliny’s. The influence of historical study on Claudius is obvious. In his speech on Gallic senators, he uses a version of the founding of Rome identical to that of Livy, his tutor in adolescence. The detail of his speech borders on the pedantic, a common mark of all his extant works, and he goes into long digressions on related matters. This indicates a deep knowledge of a variety of historical subjects that he could not help but share. Many of the public works instituted in his reign were based on plans first suggested by Julius Caesar. Levick believes this emulation of Caesar may have spread to all aspects of his policies. His censorship seems to have been based on those of his ancestors, particularly Appius Claudius Caecus. And he used the office to put into place many policies based on those of Republican times. This is when many of his religious reforms took effect and his building efforts greatly increased during his tenure. In fact, his assumption of the office of Censor may have been motivated by a desire to see his academic labors bear fruit. For example, he believed (as most Romans) that his ancestor Appius Claudius Caecus had used the censorship to introduce the letter “R”. And so used his own term to introduce his new letters. In literature and film. Probably the most famous fictional representation of the Emperor Claudius were the books I, Claudius. And Claudius the God. (released in 1934 and 1935) by Robert Graves. Both written in the first-person. To give the reader the impression that they are Claudius’ autobiography. Graves employed a fictive artifice to suggest that they were recently discovered, genuine translations of Claudius’ writings. Claudius’ extant letters, speeches, and sayings were incorporated into the text (mostly in the second book, Claudius the God) in order to add authenticity. In 1937 director Josef von Sternberg. Made an unsuccessful attempt to film I, Claudius. Unfortunately, the lead actress Merle Oberon. Suffered a near-fatal accident and the movie was never finished. The surviving reels were finally shown in the documentary The Epic That Never Was in 1965, revealing some of Laughton’s most accomplished acting. The motion picture rights have been obtained by Scott Rudin. With a theatrical release planned for 2010. Graves’s two books were also the basis for a thirteen-part British television adaptation. Produced by the BBC. The series starred Derek Jacobi. As Claudius and Patrick Stewart. As Sejanus, and was broadcast in 1976 on BBC2. It was a substantial critical success, and won several BAFTA. The series was later broadcast in the United States. The DVD release of the television series contains the “The Epic that Never Was” documentary. Claudius has been portrayed in film on several other occasions, including in the 1979 motion picture Caligula. The role being performed by Giancarlo Badessi. In which the character was depicted as an idiot, in complete contrast to Robert Graves. Portrait of Claudius as a cunning and deeply intelligent man. In the parody Gore Vidal’s Caligula. Which advertises itself as a remake of the original film, Claudius is portrayed by Glenn Shadix. On television, the actor Freddie Jones. Became famous for his role as Claudius in the 1968 British television. Series The Caesars while the 1985 made-for-television miniseries. Features actor Richard Kiley. There is also a reference to Claudius’ suppression of one of the coups against him in the movie Gladiator. Though the incident is entirely fictional. In literature, Claudius and his contemporaries appear in the historical novel The Roman by Mika Waltari. Canadian-born science fiction writer A. Reimagined Robert Graves’ Claudius story in his two novels Empire of the Atom and The Wizard of Linn. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. 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For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “CLAUDIUS 42AD Rome Quadrans Modius Original Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i59181″ is in sale since Sunday, February 12, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Denomination: Quadrans
  • Ruler: Claudius