Dec 17 2017

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Septimius Severus, 193-211 AD, Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD, AR 20mm. Holding wreath and branch. RIC 125a and 503a. Septimius Severus (/svrs/; Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorumthe customary succession of officesunder the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors. After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. Niger was defeated in 194 at the Battle of Issus in Cilicia. Later that year Severus waged a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province. Severus defeated Albinus three years later at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul. After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. Furthermore, he enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian’s Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In 208 he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210. The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under his reign, encompassing an area of 2 million square miles(5.18 million square kilometers). Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta. With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Thursday, December 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: Beautiful Iridescent Tone. High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Septimius Severus
  • Date: 198-202 AD

Dec 14 2017

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin HANDS NGC i63346

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin HANDS NGC i63346

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin HANDS NGC i63346

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin HANDS NGC i63346

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin HANDS NGC i63346

Item: i63346 Authentic Ancient Coin of. April 22 July 29, 238 A. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (4.46 grams) Rome mint; April-July 238 A. Reference: RIC 11b Certification: NGC Ancients. Ch XF Strike: 5/5 Surface: 3/5 Fine Style 4372831-008 IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. PATRES SENATVS, Clasped hands. Pupienus Latin: Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus ; born c. 165/170 – 29 July 238, also known as Pupienus Maximus , was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, and thus knowledge of the emperor is limited. In most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred by his cognomen “Maximus” rather than by his second nomen (family name) Pupienus. Origins and early career. The Historia Augusta , whose testimony is not to be trusted unreservedly, paints Pupienus as an example of advancement through the cursus honorum due to military success. It claims he was the son of a blacksmith, was adopted by one Pescennia Marcellina (otherwise unknown), and who started his career as a Centurio primus pilus before becoming a Tribunus Militum, and then a Praetor. He was in fact part of the aristocracy, albeit a minor one, and possibly quite recently. Hailing from the Etruscan city of Volterra, it has been speculated that Pupienus was the son of Marcus Pupienus Maximus, a Senator who was the first member of his family to enter the Senate, and wife Clodia Pulchra. Pupienus’s career was impressive, serving a number of important posts during the reign of the Severan dynasty throughout the late 2nd and early 3rd centuries. This included assignment as Proconsul of the senatorial propraetorial provinces of Bithynia et Pontus, Achaea, and Gallia Narbonensis. He was later assigned as imperial legate to one of the German provinces, most probably after his first suffect consulship, circa 207 AD. During his time as governor, he was quite popular and scored military victories over the Sarmatians and German tribes. In 234, during the last years of Severus Alexander’s reign, he was installed as Consul for the second time. In that same year he was also appointed Urban Prefect of Rome and gained a reputation for severity, to the extent that he became unpopular with the Roman mob. When Gordian I and his son were proclaimed Emperors in Africa, the Senate appointed a committee of twenty men, including the elderly Senator Pupienus, to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus until the arrival of the Gordians. On the news of the Gordians’ defeat and deaths, however, the Senate met in closed session in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and voted for two members of the committee to be installed as co-emperors – Pupienus and Balbinus. Unlike the situation in 161 with Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, both emperors were elected as pontifices maximi , chief priests of the official cults. According to Edward Gibbon (drawing on the narratives of Herodian and the Historia Augusta), the choice was sensible, as. The mind of Maximus [Pupienus] was formed in a rougher mould [than that of Balbinus]. By his valour and abilities he had raised himself from the meanest origin to the first employments of the state and army. His victories over the Sarmatians and the Germans, the austerity of his life, and the rigid impartiality of his justice whilst he was prefect of the city, commanded the esteem of a people whose affections were engaged in favour of the more amiable Balbinus. The two colleagues had both been consul… And, since the one was sixty and the other seventy-four years old, they had both attained the full maturity of age and experience. However, factions within the Senate who had hoped to profit from the accession of the Gordians manipulated the people and the Praetorian Guard to agitate for the elevation of Gordian III as their imperial colleague. Balbinus, in the meantime, had failed to keep public order in the capital. The sources suggest that Balbinus suspected Pupienus of using his newly acquired German bodyguard to supplant him, and they were soon living in different parts of the Imperial palace. This meant that they were at the mercy of disaffected elements in the Praetorians, who resented serving under Senate-appointed emperors, and now plotted to kill them. Pupienus, becoming aware of the threat, begged Balbinus to call for the German bodyguard. Balbinus, believing that this news was part of a plot by Pupienus to have him assassinated, refused, and the two began to argue just as the Praetorians burst into the room. Both emperors were seized and dragged back to the Praetorian barracks where they were tortured and brutally hacked to death in the bath house. Pupienus had at least three children. His eldest son, Tiberius Clodius Pupienus Pulcher Maximus, was a Consul Suffectus c. 235, and patron of the town of Tibur outside Rome. His youngest son, Marcus Pupienus Africanus Maximus, was Consul Ordinarius in 236 as colleague of the Emperor Maximinus Thrax. This run of consulships in the family, across the reigns of Severus Alexander and Maximinus Thrax, show that the family was influential and in high favour. Pupienus also had a daughter, named Pupiena Sextia Paulina Cethegilla, wife of Marcus Ulpius Eubiotus Leurus. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the Guide on How to Use My Store. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. The item “PUPIENUS 238AD Rome RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Roman Coin HANDS NGC i63346″ is in sale since Monday, August 07, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Pupienus
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Culture: Roman
  • Material: Silver
  • Grade: Ch XF
  • Certification Number: 4372831-008
  • Denomination: Antoninianus
  • Type: Antoninianus
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins

Dec 9 2017

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MINER VICTRIX, Minerva standing left, holding crowning Victory and spear; trophy to right. 3.39g, 18mm, 1h. 4 April 188 8 April 217, formally. Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus. From AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Septimius Severus. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus’ death in 211. Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta. With whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla’s reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth. Started the legend of Caracalla’s role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla’s memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla’s apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. Caracalla’s reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution. , also known as the Edict of Caracalla , which granted Roman citizenship. To nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla’s adopted praenomen. Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla. Which became the second largest baths in Rome, for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus. A sort of double denarius, and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Wednesday, December 06, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Dominican republic, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Date: 198 AD
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable

Dec 9 2017

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Marcus Aurelius as Caesar. Rare Denarius circa 140-144 AD. This coin is a great find and highly sought after. It will make a great addition to ones collection. Marcus Aurelius as Caesar, Rare Denarius circa 140-144 AD, Rome mint, (3.14 g). Obv: AVRELIVS CAE_SAR AVG PII F COS, Bare head right / Rev: PIETAS AVG, Emblems of priesthood: knife, sprinkler, ewer, lituus, and simpulum. (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 17 March 180 AD) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus’ death in 169. Marcus Aurelius was the last of the so-called Five Good Emperors. He was a practitioner of Stoicism, and his untitled writing, commonly known as the Meditations, is the most significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. Marcus Aurelius was father to Commodus on of Romes most prolific rulers under Nero and Julius Ceaser. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East: Aurelius’ general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164 AD. In central Europe, Aurelius fought the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians with success during the Marcomannic Wars, although the threat of the Germanic tribes began to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately. Aurelius’ Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180 AD, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty, describing how to find and preserve equanimity in the midst of conflict by following nature as a source of guidance and inspiration. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Marcus Aurelius. Rare Denarius. Father to Commodus. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Tuesday, December 05, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Composition: Silver
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Date: 140-144 AD
  • Ruler: Marcus Aurelius

Dec 6 2017

Rare Licinius I Ancient Roman Ae Follis Coin 020206

Rare Licinius I Ancient Roman Ae Follis Coin 020206

ANCIENT ROMAN AE SILVERED FOLLIS COIN. Bronze, 3.18 grams, 18.94 mm. Obverse: IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, laureate head right. Reverse: DN LICINI AVGVSTI, around VOT XX within wreath. Mintmark RS in exergue. RIC VII Rome 233 (Rated R1); cf Sear 3801. Licinius I (AD 308 – AD 324). Valerius Licinianus Licinius was of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the Emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia. On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the eastern empire with Maximinus Daia. In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan); they had a son, Licinius the Younger, in 315. In the following month, on April 30, Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at the Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. Then, Licinius established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West. In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine prevailed at the Battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314) and again two years later, when Licinius named Valerius Valens co-emperor, in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius had his co-emperor Valens killed. Licinius’ fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine I’s fleet in 323. In 324, Constantine, tempted by the “advanced age and unpopular vices” of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army of 170,000 men at the Battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius in the Battle of the Hellespont by Crispus, Constantines eldest son and Caesar, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the Battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in Licinius’ final submission. While Licinius’ co-emperor Sextus Martinianus was killed, Licinius himself was spared due to the pleas of his wife, Constantine’s sister, and interned at Thessalonica. The next year, Constantine had him killed, accusing him of conspiring to raise troops among the barbarians. GB 795 7410 88; Margin scheme applies. Export licences may be required for some items. Under British law an export permit is required for all coins and antiquities over 50 years old found in UK soil. If required we make your application free of charge. Although this results in a delay, this export document ensures that your item is exported legally, and is an additional guarantee that your item is 100% authentic as described. Items are sent to you on 15 days approval. Belgravia developments (UK) Ltd. T/a TimeLine Originals; Company reg. Mary’s Lane, Upminster Essex, England, RM14 3PH. The item “RARE LICINIUS I ANCIENT ROMAN AE FOLLIS COIN 020206″ is in sale since Monday, May 16, 2011. This item is in the category “Coins\Coins\Ancient\Roman\Roman Imperial (235-476AD)”. The seller is “timelineoriginals” and is located in Upminster. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Civilisation: Roman
  • Period: Roman Imperial (235 – 476 AD)
  • Metal: Bronze
  • Roman Period: Roman Imperial (235 – 476 AD)

Dec 4 2017

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

See pictures to read the latin letters they are readable. Please note that some of th pictures are under the 10x magnifying glass which foucus on one side only of the view. I will accept your good offer just try. The item “Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare” is in sale since Tuesday, November 21, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “legrandteka” and is located in Lutherville-Timonium, Maryland. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Gold

Dec 2 2017

Gallienus son of Valerian I 266AD VERY RARE Ancient Roman Coin Neptune i42008

Gallienus son of Valerian I 266AD VERY RARE Ancient Roman Coin Neptune i42008

Gallienus son of Valerian I 266AD VERY RARE Ancient Roman Coin Neptune i42008

Item: i42008 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Gallienus – Roman Emperor : 253-268 A. Silvered Bronze Antoninianus 20mm (3.50 grams) Antioch mint circa 266-267 A. Reference: RCV (2005) 10328; RIC 603; Göbl 1638a. GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate and draped bust right P M TR P XV P P, Neptune standing left, right foot on small prow, right forearm resting on knee, holding a tall trident behind him. VIIC dot in ex. Hippocamps(mid-3rd century AD, Musée archéologique de Sousse). Ancient Rome Religion in. (head covered) sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter. List of Roman deities. Glossary of ancient Roman religion. Religion in ancient Greece. Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism. God of freshwater and the sea. He is the counterpart of the Greek god. Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of. Pluto, each of them presiding over the realms of Heaven, our earthly world and the Underworld, respectively. Depictions of Neptune in Roman. Mosaics, especially those of. North Africa, are influenced by. Neptune was likely associated with fresh water springs before the sea. Like Poseidon, Neptune was worshipped by the Romans also as a god of horses, under the name. Is unclear and disputed. Derived the name from. Covering (opertio), with a more or less explicit allusion to the. Nuptiae , marriage of Heaven and Earth. Among modern scholars P. Kretschmer proposed a derivation from. Bloch supposed it might be an adjectival form in -no from nuptu-, meaning “he who is moist”. Dumézil though remarked words deriving from root nep- are not attested in IE languages other than. He proposed an etymology that brings together Neptunus with Vedic and Avestan theonyms. And Old Irish theonym. Nechtan , all meaning descendant of the waters. By using the comparative approach the Indo-Iranian, Avestan and Irish figures would show common features with the Roman historicised legends about Neptune. Dumézil thence proposed to derive the nouns from IE root nepot-, descendant, sister’s son. More recently, in his lectures delivered on various occasions in the late years of the last century, German scholar H. Petersmann proposed an etymology from IE rootstem nebh- related to clouds and fogs, plus suffix -tu denoting an abstract verbal noun, and adjectival suffix -no which refers to the domain of activity of a person or his prerogatives. IE root nebh-, having the original meaning of damp, wet, has given Sanskrit. The concept would be close to that expressed in the name of Greek god , derived from IE root h. Wórso-, to water, irrigate and h. This etymology would be more in accord with Varro’s. A different etymology grounded in the legendary history of Latium and Etruria was proposed by. Müller-Deeke: Etruscan Nethunus, Nethuns would be an adjectival form of toponym Nepe(t). (presently Nepi), town of the. The district was traditionally connected to the cult of the god. Halesus, the eponymous hero of. Falerii, were believed to be his own sons. Messapus led the Falisci and others to war in the. Have been famed since antiquity for the excellent quality of the water of their springs, scattered in meadows. Mosaic of Neptune (Museo archeologico nazionale, Palermo). The theology of Neptune may only be reconstructed to some degree as since very early times he was identified with Greek god. Poseidon: his presence in the. Of 399 BC is a testimony to the fact. Such an identification may well be grounded in the strict relationship between the Latin and Greek theologies of the two deities. It has been argued that Indo-European people, having no direct knowledge of the sea as they originated from inland areas, reused the theology of a deity originally either. Or wielding power over inland freshwaters as the god of the sea. This feature has been preserved particularly well in the case of Neptune who was definitely a god of springs, lakes and rivers before becoming also a god of the sea, as is testified by the numerous findings of inscriptions mentioning him in the proximity of such locations. Servius the grammarian also explicitly states Neptune is in charge of all the rivers, springs and waters. He also is the lord of horses because he worked with Athena to make the chariot. He may find a parallel in Irish god. Nechtan, master of the well from which all the rivers of the world flow out and flow back to. Poseidon on the other hand underwent the process of becoming the main god of the sea at a much earlier time, as is shown in the. In the earlier times it was the god. Who was thanked for naval victories, but Neptune supplanted him in this role by at least the first century BC when. Called himself son of Neptune. For a time he was paired with. Salacia, the goddess of the salt water. Neptune was also considered the legendary progenitor god of a Latin stock, the. Faliscans, who called themselves. In this respect he was the equivalent of. Salacia would represent the virile force of Neptune. Of Neptune on July 23, at the height of summer. The date and the construction of tree-branch shelters. Suggest a primitive role for Neptune as god of water sources in the summer’s drought and heat. Of Neptunus on July 23, two days after the. Of July 19 and 21 and two days before the. Had already remarked that festivals falling in a range of three days are complementary. Elaborated that these festivals in some way were all related to the importance of water during the period of summer heat (canicula) and drought, when river and spring waters are at their lowest. Founding his analysis on the works of. Dumézil argues that while the. Were devoted to the dressing of woods, clearing the undergrown bushes by cutting on the 19, then by uprooting and burning on the 21. The Neptunalia were devoted to works of conservation and draining of superficial waters, thus corresponding to the Lucaria of 19, that required only work above the ground. Of July 25, sacred to. Goddess of springs and wells, were devoted to those waters which had to be captured by drilling, i. Required the work of man, thereby corresponding to the. Of 21, which equally entailed human action upon the soil. The Furrinalia are explained by Dumézil on the grounds of the hydraulic works prescribed by Palladius on this day, i. The drilling of wells to detect and capture underground water: the visible and the hidden waters are thus dealt with on separate, albeit next, occasions: the Neptunalia and Furrinalia. This complementarity between Neptunalia and Furrinalia corresponds to that between the first and second Lucaria, forming in fact two complementary couplets. In recorded times the Neptunalia were spent in outings under branch huts (umbrae, casae frondeae), in a wood between the Tiber and the. Via Salaria, drinking springwater and wine to escape the heat. It looks the Neptunalia were a time of general, free and unrestrained merrymaking, during which men and women mixed without the usual Roman traditional social constraints. This character of the festival as well as the fact that Neptune was offered the sacrifice of a bull would point to an agricultural fertility context. In Rome Neptune had only a temple. It stood near the. Circus Flaminius, the Roman racetrack, in the southern part of the Campus Martius. It already existed in 206 BC. It appears on a coin struck by Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus around 40 BC doubtless because of a restoration carried out by this personage. It contained a famous sculpture of a marine group by. The Basilica Neptuni, was built on the. In honour of the naval. This building substituted the older temple, which in its turn substituted a more ancient altar. Chichester Inscription which reads (in English): To Neptune and. Minerva, for the welfare of the Divine House, by the authority of. Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, Great King in Britain, ¹ the college of artificers and those therein erected this temple from their own resources… Ens, son of Pudentinus, donated the site. Neptune is one of the only three Roman gods to whom it was appropriate to sacrifice bulls, the other two being. The wrong offering would require a. Piaculum, if due to inadvertency or necessity. The type of the offering implies a stricter connection between the deity and the worldly realm. During the war with. In 393 BC the level of. Rose to an unusual height even in the absence of rain. This prodigy was believed to be relevant on the siege of. Because a haruspex from Veii recited some lines of a prophecy that illustrated the relationship between the level of its waters and either the safety or the fall of the town to the Romans. It foretold that as long as the waters of the lake remain high Veii would be impregnable to the Romans. If the waters of the lake were scattered in an inland direction on the other hand Veii would fall; but if they were to overflow through the usual streams or channels toward the sea this fact would be unfavourable to the Romans as well. Dumézil ascribed this story to the Roman custom of projecting religious legendary heritage onto history, considering it as a festival myth, aimed at giving relevance to an exceptional event which would have happened during the Neptunalia. This legend would show the scope of the powers hidden in waters and the religious importance of their control by man: Veientans too knowing the fact had been digging channels for a long time as recent archaeological finds confirm. There is a temporal coincidence between the conjuration of the prodigy and the works of derivation recommended by Palladius and Columella at the time of the. Canicula , when the waters are at their lowest. Are entities who pair or accompany a god. They represent the fundamental aspects or the powers of the god with whom they are associated. In Roman religion they are often female. In later times under Hellenising influence they came to be considered as separate deities and consorts of the god. However this misconception might have been widespread in earlier folk belief. In the view of Dumézil. Salacia and Venilia represent the overpowering and the tranquil aspects of water, both natural and domesticated: Salacia would impersonate the gushing, overbearing waters and Venilia the still or quietly flowing waters. Duméail’s interpretation has though been varied as he also stated that the jolt implied by Salacia’s name, the attitude to be. Lustful, must underline a feature characteristic of the god. Salacia and Venilia have been discussed by scholars both ancient and modern. Varro connects the first to. Salum , sea, and the second to. Festus writes of Salacia that she is the deity that generates the motion of the sea. While Venilia would cause the waves to come to the shore Salacia would cause their retreating towards the high sea. The issue has been discussed in many passages by Christian doctor. He devotes one full chapter of his. To mocking the inconsistencies inherent in the theological definition of the two entitites: since Salacia would denote the nether part of the sea, he wonders how could it be possible that she be also the retreating waves, as waves are a phenomenon of the surface of the sea. Elsewhere he writes that Venilia would be the “hope that comes”, one of the aspects or powers of the all encompassing Jupiter understood as. Servius in his commentary to the. Also writes about Salacia and Venilia in various passages, e. V 724: ” (Venus) dicitur et Salacia, quae proprie meretricum dea appellata est a veteribus “: “(Venus) is also called Salacia, who precisely was named goddess of mercenary women by the ancient”. Elsewhere he writes that Salacia and Venilia are indeed the same entity. Among modern scholars Dumézil with his followers Bloch and Schilling centre their interpretation of Neptune on the more direct, concrete, limited value and functions of water. Accordingly Salacia would represent the forceful and violent aspect of gushing and overflowing water, Venilia the tranquil, gentle aspect of still or slowly flowing water. Preller, Fowler, Petersmann and Takács attribute to the theology of Neptune broader significance as a god of universal worldly fertility, particularly relevant to agriculture and human reproduction. Thence they interpret Salacia as personifying lust and Venilia as related to. Venia , the attitude of ingraciating, attraction, connected with love and desire for reproduction. Remarked a significant aspect of Venilia mentioning that she was recorded in the. Also as a deity of longing, desire. He thinks this fact would allow to explain the theonym in the same way as that of Venus. Other data seem to point in the same direction: Salacia would be the parallel of. As the mother of Achilles, while Venilia would be the mother of. Iuturna, whom she mothered with. According to another source Venilia would be the partner of. Janus, with whom she mothered the nymph. These mythical data underline the reproductive function envisaged in the figures of Neptune’s paredrae, particularly that of Venilia in childbirth and motherhood. Fertility deity and divine ancestor. With the Seasons in each corner and agricultural scenes and flora (La Chebba, Tunisia, late 2nd century, Bardo National Museum). Petersmann has proposed a rather different interpretation of the theology of Neptune. Developing his understanding of the theonym as rooted in IE nebh, he argues that the god would be an ancient deity of the cloudy and rainy sky in company with and in opposition to. Zeus/Jupiter, god of the clear bright sky. Caelus, he would be the father of all living beings on Earth through the fertilising power of rainwater. Of Neptune and Earth would be reflected in literarature, e. The virile potency of Neptune would be represented by. In its original sense of salacious, lustful, desiring sexual intercourse, covering. Salacia would then represent the god’s desire for intercourse with Earth, his virile generating potency manifesting itself in rainfall. While Salacia would denote the overcast sky, the other character of the god would be reflected by his other paredra. Venilia , representing the clear sky dotted with clouds of good weather. The theonym Venilia would be rooted in a not attested adjective venilis, from IE root ven(h) meaning to love, desire, realised in Sanskrit. Vánati, vanóti , he loves, Old Island. Reminiscences of this double aspect of Neptune would be found inCatullus. In Petersmann’s conjecture, besides Zeus/Jupiter, rooted in IE dei(h) to shine, who originally represented the bright daylight of fine weather sky, the ancient Indo-Europeans venerated a god of heavenly damp or wet as the generator of life. This fact would be testified by Hittite theonyms nepia (D)IKURa or nepia (D)Tarhunna “the lord of sky wet”, that was revered as the sovereign of Earth and men. Even though over time this function was transferred to Zeus/Jupiter who became also the sovereign of weather, reminiscences of the old function survived in literature: e. V 13-14 reading: Heu, quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi? / quidve, pater Neptune, paras? “: “Whow, why so many clouds surrounded the sky? What are you preparing, father Neptune? The indispensability of water for its fertilizing quality and its strict connexion to reproduction is universal knowledge. Takács too points to the implicit sexual and fertility significance of both Salacia and Venilia on the grounds of the context of the cults of Neptune, of Varro’s interpretation of Salacia as. Eager for sexual intercourse. And of the connexion of Venilia with a nymph or. Müller-Deeke and Deeke had already interpreted the theology of Neptune as that of a divine ancestor of a Latin stock, namely the Faliscans, as the father of their founder heroes Messapus and Halesus. Sharing this same approach Fowler considered Salacia the personification of the virile potency that generated a Latin people, parallel with Mars, Saturn, Janus and even Jupiter among other Latins. Poseidon was connected to the horse since the earliest times, well before any connection of him with the sea was attested, and may even have originally been conceived under equine form. Such a feature is a reflection of his own chtonic, violent, brutal nature as earth-quaker, as well as of the link of the horse with springs, i. Underground water, and the psychopompous character inherent in this animal. There is no such direct connexion in Rome. Neptune does not show any direct equine character or linkage. On the other hand Roman god. Was associated with horses: his underground altar was located in the valley of the. At the foot of the. Palatine, the place of horse races. On the day of his summer festival (August 21), the. Aestiva , it was customary to bring horses and mules in procession crowned with flowers and then hold equine races in the Circus. It appears these games had a rustic and archaic character: they marked the end of the yearly agricultural cycle, when harvest was completed. According to tradition this occasion was chosen to enact the abduction of the Sabine (and Latin) women. The episode might bear a reflection of the traditional sexual licence of such occasions. On that day the. Sacrificed on the underground altar of Consus. The fact the two festivals of Consus were followed after an equal interval of four days by the two festivals of. On August 25 and. On December 19 testifies to the strict relationship between the two deities as both pertaining to agricultural plenty, or in Dumezilian terminology to the third function. In Dumézil’s view this fact shows the radically different symbolic value of the horse in the theology of Poseidon and of Consus. V 7 states that according to Roman tradititon Consus was the god who had advised Romulus on the abduction of the Sabines because of his quality of god of hidden counsels and quotes an inscription that was on the southern. Of the circus corroborating his assertion. Conso consilio Marte duello Lares + covillo potentes : Consus is powerful in counsel, Mars in war, the Lares in meeting. Von Blumenthal and G. Radke have proposed to read. Consilio , though this correction is not generally accepted: the inscription is not extant and it was visible only on the days of the sacrifices to Consus, so some scholars argue it may have been misread. Perhaps under the influence of Poseidon Consus, whose festival entailed horse races, was reinterpreted as. And for his underground altar also identified with Poseidon. Moreover the etymology of. Posis lord, husband and. De grain or Earth, may have contributed to the identification of Consus with Neptune. The archaic and arcane character of his cult, which required the unearthing of the altar, are signs of the great antiquity of this deity and of his chtonic character. He was certainly a deity of agrarian plenty and of fertility. On the basis of Augustine De Civitate Dei. IV 8 about the role of Tutilina in assuring the safety of stored grain Dumézil interprets its name as derived from verb. To hide, store, as a verbal noun in -u parallel to. Janus, meaning god of stored grains. Martianus Capella places Neptune and Consus together in region X of Heaven: it might be that he followed an already old. Of Consus or he might be reflecting an Etruscan idea of a chthonic Neptune apparent in the recommendation of the. De Haruspicum Responso about the need of expiations to Neptune for the prodigy of the cracking sounds perceived underground in the. Etruscans were particularly fond of horse races. Is the Etruscan name of the god. In the past it has been believed that the Roman theonym derived from Etruscan but more recently this view has been rejected. Nethuns was certainly an important god for the Etruscans. His name is to be found on two cases of the. Piacenza Liver, namely case 7 on the outer rim and case 28 on the gall-bladder, (plus once in case 22 along with Tinia). This last location tallies with Pliny the Elder’s testimony that the gall-bladder is sacred to Neptune. Theonym Nethuns recurs eight times on columns VIII, IX and XI of the. (flere, flerchva Nethunsl), requiring offerings of wine. On a mirror from Tuscania E. 76 Nethuns is represented while talking to. (the goddess of Dawn). Nethuns is on the left hand side, sitting, holding a double ended trident in his right hand and with his left arm raised in the attitude of giving instructions, Uil is standing at the centre of the picture, holding in his right hand. Aplu’s bow, and Thesan is on the right, with her right hand on Uil’s shoulder: both gods look intent in listening Nethuns’s words. The identification of Uil with Aplu (and his association with Nethuns) is further underlined by the anguiped demon holding two dolphins of the exergue below. The scene highlights the identities and association of Nethuns and Aplu (here identified as Uil) as main deities of the worldly realm and the life cycle. Thesan and Uil-Aplu, who has been identified with uri (Soranus Pater, the underwold Sun god) make clear the transient character of worldly life. The association of Nethuns and Uil-Aplu is consistent with one version of the theory of the Etruscan Penates (see section below). Martianus Capella’s depiction of Heaven Neptune is located in region X along with the. Omnium Cunctalis (of everybody). The presence of the Lar Omnium Cunctalis might be connected with the theology of Neptune as a god of fertility, human included, while Neverita is a theonym derived from an archaic form of. Nereid, before the fall of the digamma. For the relationship of Neptune with Consus see the above paragraph. Martianus’s placing of Neptune is fraught with questions: according to the order of the main three gods he should be located in region II, (Jupiter is indeed in region I and Pluto in region III). However in region II are to be found two deities related to Neptune, namely. Supposes that while Jupiter is present in each of the first three regions, in each one under different aspects related to the character of the region itself, Neptune should have been originally located in the second, as is testified by the presence of Fons and Lymphae, and Pluto in the third. The reason of the displacement of Neptune to region X remains unclear, but might point to a second appearance of the triads in the third quarter, which is paralleled by the location of. In case 7 of the Liver. It is however consistent with the collocation in the third quadrant of the deities directly related to the human world. Bloch remarks the possible chtonic character and stricter link of Nethuns with Poseidon to which would hint a series of circumstances, particularly the fact that he was among the four gods (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Tellus in order) the haruspices indicated as needing placation for the prodigy related in. A cracking sound perceived as coming from the underground in the. Neptune and the Etruscan Penates. Provides important information about the theology of Neptune: he writes that according to. Neptune was considered one of the Etruscan. Apollo, the two deities being credited with bestowing on. In another place of his work, book VI, Nigidius wrote that, according to the. Etrusca Disciplina, his were one among the four. Penates: of Iupiter, of Neptune, of the underworld and of mortal men. According to another tradition related by a. Also based on the same source, the Etruscan Penates would be. Pales, this last one being the male Etruscan god (ministrum Iovis et vilicum , domestic and peasant of Jupiter). The French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research divers (headed by Michel L’Hour) discovered a lifesize marble statue of Neptune, in the. Arles; it is dated to the early fourth century. The statue is one of a hundred. That the team excavated between September and October 2007. Etruscan representations of the god are rare but significative. The oldest is perhaps the carved carnelian scarab from Vulci of the 4th century BC: Nethuns kicks a rock and creates a spring. (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, Cabinet des Medailles). Another Etruscan gem from the collection of Luynes, inscribed. Nethunus depicts the god making a horse spring out of the earth with a blow of his trident. A bronze mirror of the late 4th century in the Vatican Museums Museo Gregoriano Etrusco: C. Vaticano 1.5a depicts the god with. Danaus, whom he prevents being assaulted by a satyr and to whom he will teach the art of creating springs. Nearby are a lion head pouring water from its open mouth and a container with handles. A bronze mirror from Tuscania dated to 350 BC also in the Vatican Museums Museo Gregoriano Etrusco E. Nethuns is talking to Usil and Thesan. In the lower exergue is an anguiped demon who holds a dolphin in each hand (identification with Aplu-Apollo is clear also because Uil holds a bow). Nethuns holds a double-ended trident, suggesting he might be one of the gods who can wield lightningbolts. The Renaissance brought with it a revival in pagan art, and many pagan gods were depicted in the same classical models used in Greek and Roman times. However, with Neptune few such models existed, allowing the artists of the Renaissance to depict Neptune however they chose. The results included a face and actions that seemed more mortal, as well as associations with Hercules. The overall effect was to change Neptune’s image to a less deified state. Bartolomeo Ammannati, Fountain of Neptune(15631565). Giovan Battista Tiepolo, Neptune Offering Gifts toVenice. Juan Pascual de Mena, Fuente de Neptuno, Madrid. Constantino Brumidi, detail of. The Apotheosis of Washington. “King Neptune” plays a central role in the long-standing tradition of the “Line-crossing ceremony”. Still current in many navies, coast guards, and merchant fleets. When ships cross the equator, “Pollywogs” (sailors who have not done such a crossing before) receive “subpoenas”. And often various dignitaries, who are all represented by the highest-ranking seamen. Some Pollywogs may be “interrogated” by King Nepture and his entourage. At the end of the ceremony which in the past often included considerable hazing they are initiated as. And receive a certificate to that effect. In Rick Riordan’s The Son of Neptune, Percy Jackson is referred to the “Son of Neptune” at Camp Jupiter although he is really the son of the Greek counterpart, Poseidon. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. 218 268 was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. The exact birth date of Gallienus is unknown. The Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218. He was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana , who may have been of senatorial rank, possibly the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus , and his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria , which may have been his birthplace; it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mother’s family, the Egnatii. Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne. She was the mother of three princes: Valerian II , who died in 258; Saloninus , who was named co-emperor but was murdered in 260 by the army of general Postumus; and Marinianus , who was killed in 268, shortly after his father was assassinated. When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and Augustus. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a century earlier, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. Division of the empire had become necessary due to its sheer size and the numerous threats it faced, and it facilitated negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate directly with the emperor. Early reign and the revolt of Ingenuus. Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine area (Germania Inferior , Germania Superior , Raetia , and Noricum), though he almost certainly visited the Danube area and Illyricum during 253 to 258. According to Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he was particularly energetic and successful in preventing invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, despite the weakness caused by Valerian’s march on Italy against Aemilianus in 253. According to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there, and a victory in Roman Dacia might also be dated to that period. Even the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time. In 255 or 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. During his Danube sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II Caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I; the boy probably joined Gallienus on campaign at that time, and when Gallienus moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained behind on the Danube as the personification of Imperial authority. Sometime between 258 and 260 (the exact date is unclear), while Valerian was distracted with the ongoing invasion of Shapur in the East, and Gallienus was preoccupied with his problems in the West, Ingenuus , governor of at least one of the Pannonian provinces, took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II had apparently died on the Danube, most likely in 258. Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus , and Postumus. In any case, Gallienus reacted with great speed. He left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne , under the supervision of Albanus (or Silvanus) and the military leadership of Postumus. He then hastily crossed the Balkans , taking with him the new cavalry corps (comitatus) under the command of Aureolus and defeated Ingenuus at Mursa or Sirmium. The victory must be attributed mainly to the cavalry and its brilliant commander. Ingenuus was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium. Invasion of the Alamanni. A major invasion by the Alemanni and other Germanic tribes occurred between 258 and 260 (it is hard to fix the precise date of these events), probably due to the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting Gallienus in the campaign against Ingenuus. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul , some reaching as far as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco (modern Tarragona). The Alamanni invaded, probably through Agri Decumates (an area between the upper Rhine and the upper Danube), likely followed by the Juthungi. After devastating Germania Superior and Raetia (parts of southern France and Switzerland), they entered Italy, the first invasion of the Italian peninsula, aside from its most remote northern regions, since Hannibal 500 years before. When invaders reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an improvised army assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops (probably prtorian guards) and the strongest of the civilian population. On their retreat through northern Italy, they were intercepted and defeated in the battle of Mediolanum (near present day Milan) by Gallienus’ army, which had advanced from Gaul, or from the Balkans after dealing with the Franks. The battle of Mediolanum was decisive, and the Alamanni didn’t bother the empire for the next ten years. The Juthungi managed to cross the Alps with their valuables and captives from Italy. An historian in the 19th century suggested that the initiative of the Senate gave rise to jealousy and suspicion by Gallienus, thus contributing to his exclusion of senators from military commands. The revolt of Regalianus. Around the same time, Regalianus , a military commander of Illyricum , was proclaimed Emperor. The reasons for this are unclear, and the Historia Augusta (almost the sole resource for these events) does not provide a credible story. It is possible the seizure can be attributed to the discontent of the civilian and military provincials, who felt the defense of the province was being neglected. Regalianus held power for some six months and issued coins bearing his image. After some success against the Sarmatians , his revolt was put down by the invasion of Roxolani into Pannonia , and Regalianus himself was killed when the invaders took the city of Sirmium. Capture of Valerian, revolt of Macrianus. In the East, Valerian was confronted with serious troubles. A band of Scythians set a naval raid against Pontus , in the northern part of modern Turkey. After ravaging the province, they moved south into Cappadocia. Valerian led troops to intercept them but failed, perhaps because of a plague that gravely weakened his army, as well as the contemporary invasion of northern Mesopotamia by Shapur I , ruler of the Sassanid Empire. In 259 or 260, the Roman army was defeated in the Battle of Edessa , and Valerian was taken prisoner. Shapur’s army raided Cilicia and Cappadocia (in present day Turkey), sacking, as Shapur’s inscriptions claim, 36 cities. It took a rally by an officer Callistus (Balista), a fiscal official named Fulvius Macrianus , the remains of the Eastern Roman legions, and Odenathus and his Palmyrene horsemen to turn the tide against Shapur. The Persians were driven back, but Macrianus proclaimed his two sons Quietus and Macrianus (sometimes misspelled Macrinus) as emperors. Coins struck for them in major cities of the East indicate acknowledgement of the usurpation. The two Macriani left Quietus, Ballista, and, presumably, Odenathus to deal with the Persians while they invaded Europe with an army of 30,000 men, according to the Historia Augusta. At first they met no opposition. The Pannonian legions joined the invaders, being resentful of the absence of Gallienus. He sent his successful commander Aureolus against the rebels, however, and the decisive battle was fought in the spring or early summer of 261, most likely in Illyricum, although Zonaras locates it in Pannonia. In any case, the army of the usurpers surrendered, and their two leaders were killed. In the aftermath of the battle, the rebellion of Postumus had already started, so Gallienus had no time to deal with the rest of the usurpers, namely Balista and Quietus. Odenathus received the title of dux Romanorum and besieged the usurpers, who were based at Emesa. Eventually, the people of Emesa killed Quietus, and Odenathus arrested and executed Balista about November 261. The revolt of Postumus. After the defeat at Edessa, Gallienus lost control over the provinces of Britain, Spain, parts of Germania, and a large part of Gaul when another general, Postumus , declared his own realm (usually known today as the Gallic Empire). The revolt partially coincided with that of Macrianus in the East. Gallienus had installed his son Saloninus and his guardian, Silvanus , in Cologne in 258. Postumus, a general in command of troops on the banks of the Rhine, defeated some raiders and took possession of their spoils. Instead of returning it to the original owners, he preferred to distribute it amongst his soldiers. When news of this reached Silvanus, he demanded the spoils be sent to him. Postumus made a show of submission, but his soldiers mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor. Under his command, they besieged Cologne, and after some weeks the defenders of the city opened the gates and handed Saloninus and Silvanus to Postumus, who had them killed. The dating of these events is not accurate, but they apparently occurred just before the end of 260. Postumus claimed the consulship for himself and one of his associates, Honoratianus, but according to D. Potter, he never tried to unseat Gallienus or invade Italy. Upon receiving news of the murder of his son, Gallienus began gathering forces to face Postumus. The invasion of the Macriani forced him to dispatch Aureolus with a large force to oppose them, however, leaving him with insufficient troops to battle Postumus. After some initial defeats, the army of Aureolus, having defeated the Macriani, rejoined him, and Postumus was expelled. Aureolus was entrusted with the pursuit and deliberately allowed Postumus to escape and gather new forces. During the siege, Gallenus was severely wounded by an arrow and had to leave the field. The standstill persisted until the death of Gallienus, and the Gallic Empire remained independent until 274. The revolt of Aemilianus. In spring of 262, the city was wrenched by civil unrest as a result of a new revolt. The rebel this time was the prefect of Egypt, Lucius Mussius Aemilianus , who had already given support to the revolt of the Macriani. The correspondence of bishop Dionysius of Alexandria provides a colourful commentary on the sombre background of invasion, civil war, plague, and famine that characterized this age. Knowing he could not afford to lose control of the vital Egyptian granaries, Gallienus sent his general Theodotus against Aemilianus, probably by a naval expedition. The decisive battle probably took place near Thebes, and the result was a clear defeat of Aemilianus. In the aftermath, Gallienus became Consul three more times in 262, 264, and 266. Herulian invasions, revolt of Aureolus, conspiracy and death. In the years 267269, Goths and other barbarians invaded the empire in great numbers. Sources are extremely confused on the dating of these invasions, the participants, and their targets. Modern historians are not even able to discern with certainty whether there were two or more of these invasions or a single prolonged one. It seems that, at first, a major naval expedition was led by the Heruli starting from north of the Black Sea and leading in the ravaging of many cities of Greece (among them, Athens and Sparta). Then another, even more numerous army of invaders started a second naval invasion of the empire. The Romans defeated the barbarians on sea first. Gallienus’ army then won a battle in Thrace , and the Emperor pursued the invaders. According to some historians, he was the leader of the army who won the great Battle of Naissus , while the majority believes that the victory must be attributed to his successor, Claudius II. In 268, at some time before or soon after the battle of Naissus, the authority of Gallienus was challenged by Aureolus , commander of the cavalry stationed in Mediolanum (Milan), who was supposed to keep an eye on Postumus. Instead, he acted as deputy to Postumus until the very last days of his revolt, when he seems to have claimed the throne for himself. The decisive battle took place at what is now Pontirolo Nuovo near Milan; Aureolus was clearly defeated and driven back to Milan. Gallienus laid siege to the city but was murdered during the siege. There are differing accounts of the murder, but the sources agree that most of Gallienus’ officials wanted him dead. According to the Historia Augusta , an unreliable source compiled long after the events it describes, a conspiracy was led by the commander of the guard Aurelius Heraclianus and Marcianus. Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the word that the forces of Aureolus were leaving the city, and Gallienus left his tent without his bodyguard, only to be struck down by Cecropius. One version has Claudius selected as Emperor by the conspirators, another chosen by Gallienus on his death bed; the Historia Augusta was concerned to substantiate the descent of the Constantinian dynasty from Claudius, and this may explain its accounts, which do not involve Claudius in the murder. The other sources Zosimus i. 40 and Zonaras xii. 25 report that the conspiracy was organized by Heraclianus, Claudius, and Aurelian. According to Aurelius Victor and Zonaras, on hearing the news that Gallienus was dead, the Senate in Rome ordered the execution of his family (including his brother Valerianus and son Marinianus) and their supporters, just before receiving a message from Claudius to spare their lives and deify his predecessor. Arch of Gallienus in Rome, 262 dedicated to, rather than built by, Gallienus. Gallienus was not treated favorably by ancient historians, partly due to the secession of Gaul and Palmyra and his inability to win them back. According to modern scholar Pat Southern, some historians now see him in a more positive light. Gallienus produced some useful reforms. He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses , that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. This reform arguably created a precedent for the future emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. The biographer Aurelius Victor reports that Gallienus forbade senators from becoming military commanders. This policy undermined senatorial power, as more reliable equestrian commanders rose to prominence. In Southern’s view, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the Dominate , along with Septimius Severus , Diocletian, and Constantine I. By portraying himself with the attributes of the gods on his coinage, Gallienus began the final separation of the Emperor from his subjects. A late bust of Gallienus (see above) depicts him with a largely blank face, gazing heavenward, as seen on the famous stone head of Constantine I. One of the last rulers of Rome to be theoretically called “Princeps”, or First Citizen, Gallienus’ shrewd self-promotion assisted in paving the way for those who would be addressed with the words “Dominus et Deus” (Lord and God). Antoninianus issued to celebrate. LEG II ITAL VII P VII F. Italica Legio II seven times faithful and loyal. LEG III ITAL VI P VI F. Italica Legio III six times faithful and loyal. LEG VII MAC VI P VI F. Macedonica Legio VII six times faithful and loyal. LEG VII CLA VI P VI F. Claudia Legio VII six. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “Gallienus son of Valerian I 266AD VERY RARE Ancient Roman Coin Neptune i42008″ is in sale since Tuesday, August 12, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Gallienus

Dec 2 2017

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. Septimius Severus, 193-211 AD, Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD, AR 20mm. Holding wreath and branch. RIC 125a and 503a. Septimius Severus (/svrs/; Latin: Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211. Severus was born in Leptis Magna in the Roman province of Africa. As a young man he advanced through the cursus honorumthe customary succession of officesunder the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Severus seized power after the death of Emperor Pertinax in 193 during the Year of the Five Emperors. After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus, Severus fought his rival claimants, the generals Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus. Niger was defeated in 194 at the Battle of Issus in Cilicia. Later that year Severus waged a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province. Severus defeated Albinus three years later at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul. After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. Furthermore, he enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian’s Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In 208 he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210. The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under his reign, encompassing an area of 2 million square miles(5.18 million square kilometers). Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta. With the succession of his sons, Severus founded the Severan dynasty, the last dynasty of the empire before the Crisis of the Third Century. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Septimius Severus. Rare Denarius circa 198-202 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Tuesday, November 28, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Grade: Beautiful Iridescent Tone. High Grade
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ruler: Septimius Severus
  • Date: 198-202 AD

Nov 28 2017

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after! It is a must have for every collection. IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / MINER VICTRIX, Minerva standing left, holding crowning Victory and spear; trophy to right. 3.39g, 18mm, 1h. 4 April 188 8 April 217, formally. Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus. From AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Septimius Severus. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus’ death in 211. Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta. With whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla’s reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth. Started the legend of Caracalla’s role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla’s memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla’s apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. Caracalla’s reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution. , also known as the Edict of Caracalla , which granted Roman citizenship. To nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla’s adopted praenomen. Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla. Which became the second largest baths in Rome, for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus. A sort of double denarius, and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Caracalla. Rare Denarius circa 198 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Sunday, November 26, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, Sweden, Indonesia, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Singapore, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Dominican republic, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, El salvador, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Composition: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Date: 198 AD
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable

Nov 24 2017

Treasure Hunter Discovers Rare 2 000 Year Old Roman Coins