Nov 8 2017

Hadrian 134AD HUGE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin Fortuna Luck Wealth i30802

Hadrian 134AD HUGE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin Fortuna Luck Wealth i30802

Hadrian 134AD HUGE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin Fortuna Luck Wealth i30802

Item: i30802 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Hadrian – Roman Emperor: 117-138 A. Bronze Sestertius 30mm (20.91 grams) Rome mint: 134-138 A. Reference: RIC 759; C 763 HADRIANVSAVGCOSIIIPP – Laureate, draped bust right. FORTVNAAVG – Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia. Equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche was the goddess of fortune and personification of luck in Roman religion. She might bring good luck or bad: she could be represented as veiled and blind, as in modern depictions of Justice , and came to represent life’s capriciousness. She was also a goddess of fate : as Atrox Fortuna , she claimed the young lives of the princeps Augustus’ grandsons Gaius and Lucius , prospective heirs to the Empire. Her father was said to be Jupiter and like him, she could also be bountiful. As Annonaria she protected grain supplies. June 11 was sacred to her: on June 24 she was given cult at the festival of Fors Fortuna. Fortuna’s Roman cult was variously attributed to Servius Tullius whose exceptional good fortune suggested their sexual intimacy and to Ancus Marcius. The two earliest temples mentioned in Roman Calendars were outside the city, on the right bank of the Tiber (in Italian Trastevere). The first temple dedicated to Fors was attributed to the Etruscan Servius Tullius, while the second is known to have been built in 293 BC as the fulfilment of a Roman promise made during later Etruscan wars. The date of dedication of her temples was 24 June, or Midsummers Day, when celebrants from Rome annually floated to the temples downstream from the city. After undisclosed rituals they then rowed back, garlanded and inebriated. Also Fortuna had a temple at the Forum Boarium. Here Fortuna was twinned with the cult of Mater Matuta (the goddesses shared a festival on 11 June), and the paired temples have been revealed in the excavation beside the church of Sant’Omobono : the cults are indeed archaic in date. Fortuna Primigenia of Praeneste was adopted by Romans at the end of 3rd BC in an important cult of Fortuna Publica Populi Romani (the Official Good Luck of the Roman People) on the Quirinalis outside the Porta Collina. No temple at Rome, however, rivalled the magnificence of the Praenestine sanctuary. Fortuna lightly balances the orb of sovereignty between thumb and finger in a Dutch painting of ca 1530 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg). Fortuna’s identity as personification of chance events was closely tied to virtus (strength of character). Public officials who lacked virtues invited ill-fortune on themselves and Rome: Sallust uses the infamous Catiline as illustration “Truly, when in the place of work, idleness, in place of the spirit of measure and equity , caprice and pride invade, fortune is changed just as with morality”. An oracle at the Temple of Fortuna Primigena in Praeneste used a form of divination in which a small boy picked out one of various futures that were written on oak rods. Cults to Fortuna in her many forms are attested throughout the Roman world. Dedications have been found to Fortuna Dubia (doubtful fortune), Fortuna Brevis (fickle or wayward fortune) and Fortuna Mala (bad fortune). She is found in a variety of domestic and personal contexts. During the early Empire, an amulet from the House of Menander in Pompeii links her to the Egyptian goddess Isis , as Isis-Fortuna. She is functionally related to the God Bonus Eventus. Who is often represented as her counterpart: both appear on amulets and intaglio engraved gems across the Roman world. Her name seems to derive from Vortumna (she who revolves the year). The earliest reference to the Wheel of Fortune , emblematic of the endless changes in life between prosperity and disaster, is from 55 BC. In Seneca’s tragedy Agamemnon , a chorus addresses Fortuna in terms that would remain almost proverbial, and in a high heroic ranting mode that Renaissance writers would emulate. O Fortune, who dost bestow the thrones high boon with mocking hand, in dangerous and doubtful state thou settest the too exalted. Never have sceptres obtained calm peace or certain tenure; care on care weighs them down, and ever do fresh storms vex their souls. Great kingdoms sink of their own weight, and Fortune gives way neath the burden of herself. Sails swollen with favouring breezes fear blasts too strongly theirs; the tower which rears its head to the very clouds is beaten by rainy Auster…. Whatever Fortune has raised on high, she lifts but to bring low. Modest estate has longer life; then happy he whoeer, content with the common lot, with safe breeze hugs the shore, and, fearing to trust his skiff to the wider sea, with unambitious oar keeps close to land. Ovid’s description is typical of Roman representations: in a letter from exile. He reflects ruefully on the goddess who admits by her unsteady wheel her own fickleness; she always has its apex beneath her swaying foot. Fortuna did not disappear from the popular imagination with the ascendancy of Christianity by any means. Saint Augustine took a stand against her continuing presence, in the City of God : How, therefore, is she good, who without discernment comes to both the good and to the bad? Let the bad worship her… In the 6th century, the Consolation of Philosophy , by statesman and philosopher Boethius , written while he faced execution, reflected the Christian theology of casus , that the apparently random and often ruinous turns of Fortune’s Wheel are in fact both inevitable and providential, that even the most coincidental events are part of God’s hidden plan which one should not resist or try to change. Fortuna, then, was a servant of God. And events, individual decisions, the influence of the stars were all merely vehicles of Divine Will. In succeeding generations Boethius’ Consolation was required reading for scholars and students. Fortune crept back in to popular acceptance, with a new iconographic trait, “two-faced Fortune”, Fortuna bifrons ; such depictions continue into the 15th century. Albrecht Dürer’s engraving of Fortuna , ca 1502. The ubiquitous image of the Wheel of Fortune found throughout the Middle Ages and beyond was a direct legacy of the second book of Boethius’s Consolation. The Wheel appears in many renditions from tiny miniatures in manuscripts to huge stained glass windows in cathedrals, such as at Amiens. Lady Fortune is usually represented as larger than life to underscore her importance. The wheel characteristically has four shelves, or stages of life, with four human figures, usually labeled on the left regnabo (I shall reign), on the top regno (I reign) and is usually crowned, descending on the right regnavi (I have reigned) and the lowly figure on the bottom is marked sum sine regno (I have no kingdom). Medieval representations of Fortune emphasize her duality and instability, such as two faces side by side like Janus ; one face smiling the other frowning; half the face white the other black; she may be blindfolded but without scales, blind to justice. The cornucopia is where plenty flows from, the Helmsman’s rudder steers fate, the globe symbolizes chance (who gets good or bad luck), and the wheel symbolizes that luck, good or bad, never lasts. Fortune would have many influences in cultural works throughout the Middle Ages. In Le Roman de la Rose , Fortune frustrates the hopes of a lover who has been helped by a personified character “Reason”. In Dante’s Inferno vii. 67-96 Virgil explains the nature of Fortune, both a devil and a ministering angel, subservient to God. Boccaccio’s De Casibus Virorum Illustrium (“The Fortunes of Famous Men”), used by John Lydgate to compose his Fall of Princes , tells of many where the turn of Fortune’s wheel brought those most high to disaster, and Boccaccio essay De remedii dell’una e dell’altra Fortuna , depends upon Boethius for the double nature of Fortuna. Fortune makes her appearance in Carmina Burana (see image). The Christianized Lady Fortune is not autonomous: illustrations for Boccaccio’s Remedii show Fortuna enthroned in a triumphal car with reins that lead to heaven. And appears in chapter 25 of Machiavelli’s The Prince , in which he says Fortune only rules one half of men’s fate, the other half being of their own will. Machiavelli reminds the reader that Fortune is a woman, that she favours a strong, or even violent hand, and that she favours the more aggressive and bold young man than a timid elder. Even Shakespeare was no stranger to Lady Fortune. When in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes. I all alone beweep my outcast state… Pars Fortuna in Astrology. In Astrology the term Pars Fortuna represents a mathematical point in the zodiac derived by the longitudinal positions of the Sun , Moon and Ascendant (Rising sign) in the birth chart of an individual. It represents an especially beneficial point in the horoscopic chart. In Arabic Astrology , this point is called Arabian Parts. The procedure followed for fixing ones Pars Fortuna in ancient and traditional astrology depended on the time of birth, viz. During daylight or night time (whether the Sun was above or below the horizon). In modern western astrology the day time formula only was used for many years, but with more knowledge of ancient astrology, the two calculation methods are now often used. The formula for calculating the day time Part of Fortune (PF) is (using the 360 degree positions for each point). PF = Ascendant + Moon – Sun. The formula for the night-time Part of Fortune is PF = Ascendant + Sun – Moon. Each calculation method results in a different zodiac position for the Part of Fortune. Al Biruni (973 1048), an 11th-century mathematician, astronomer and scholar, who was the greatest proponent of this system of prediction, listed a total of 97 Arabic Parts, which were widely used for astrological consultations. Paul Vachier has prepared an Arabic Parts Calculator for all the Arabic Parts. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus , and Divus Hadrianus after his apotheosis , known as Hadrian in English ; 24 January 76 10 July 138) was emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia , Hadrian was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica or, less probably, in Rome , from a well-established family which had originated in Picenum in Italy and had subsequently settled in Italica , Hispania Baetica (the republican Hispania Ulterior), near the present day location of Seville, Spain. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian’s father. Trajan never officially designated a successor, but, according to his wife, Pompeia Plotina , Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan’s wife was well-disposed toward Hadrian: Hadrian may well have owed his succession to her. Hadrian’s presumed indebtedness to Plotina was widely regarded as the reason for Hadrian’s succession. However, there is evidence that he accomplished his succession on his own governing and leadership merits while Trajan was still alive. For example, between the years AD 100108 Trajan gave several public examples of his personal favour towards Hadrian, such as betrothing him to his grandniece, Vibia Sabina , designating him quaestor Imperatoris , comes Augusti , giving him Nerva’s diamond “as hope of succession”, proposing him for consul suffectus , and other gifts and distinctions. The young Hadrian was Trajan’s only direct male family/marriage/bloodline. The support of Plotina and of L. Licinius Sura (died in AD 108) were nonetheless extremely important for Hadrian, already in this early epoch. Although it was an accepted part of Hadrian’s personal history that Hadrian was born in Italica located in the province called Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula , comprising modern Spain and Portugal), his biography in Augustan History states that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian, but Hispanian for many generations. However, this may be a ruse to make Hadrian look like a person from Rome instead of a person hailing from the provinces. His father was the Hispano-Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer , who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome. Hadrians forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri , an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan. His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman Senatorial family. Hadrians elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina , married with the triple consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus , his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino. His parents died in 86 when Hadrian was ten, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajans Praetorian Prefect). Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus (“Greekling”). Hadrian visited Italica when (or never left it until) he was 14, when he was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. His first military service was as a tribune of the Adiutrix Legio II. Later, he was to be transferred to the Minervia Legio I in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen. His career before becoming emperor follows: decemvir stlitibus iudicandis – sevir turmae equitum Romanorum – praefectus Urbi feriarum Latinarum – tribunus militum legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis (95, in Pannonia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis V Macedonicae (96, in Moesia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis XXII Primigeniae Piae Fidelis (97, in Germania Superior) – quaestor (101) – ab actis senatus – tribunus plebis (105) – praetor (106) – legatus legionis I Minerviae Piae Fidelis (106, in Germania Inferior) – legatus Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae Inferioris (107) – consul suffectus (108) – septemvir epulonum (before 112) – sodalis Augustalis (before 112) – archon Athenis (112/13) – legatus Syriae (117). Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the Macedonica V) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian’s military skill is not well attested; however, his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent. Hadrian joined Trajan’s expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajans staff. Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command. Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan’s heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Since the document was signed by Plotina, it has been suggested that Trajan may have already been dead. The Roman empire in 125 AD, under the rule of Hadrian. Castel Sant’Angelo , the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum. This famous statue of Hadrian in Greek dress was revealed in 2008 to have been forged in the Victorian era by cobbling together a head of Hadrian and an unknown body. For years the statue had been used by historians as proof of Hadrian’s love of Hellenic culture. Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus , was instantly dismissed. The Senate’s endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight Hadrian’s legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate and the Syrian armies. Hadrian did not at first go to Rome he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian’s former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he “discovered” a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial they were hunted down and killed out of hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initiative. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan’s men. Hadrian and the military. Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian’s reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan’s conquests in Mesopotamia , considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. The peace policy was strengthened by the erection of permanent fortifications along the empire’s borders limites , sl. The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian’s Wall in Great Britain , and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications , forts, outposts and watchtowers , the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, even threat. Cultural pursuits and patronage. Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian’s Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d’Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d’Este. In Rome , the Pantheon , originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome’s ancient buildings and was highly influential to many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus , famed architect of the Forum of Trajan , dismissed his designs. When Trajan , predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems. ” “Pumpkins refers to Hadrian’s drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this later story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward. Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer whether Marius Maximus or someone else on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography. Hadrian was a passionate hunter, already from the time of his youth according to one source. In northwest Asia, he founded and dedicated a city to commemorate a she-bear he killed. It is documented that in Egypt he and his beloved Antinous killed a lion. In Rome, eight reliefs featuring Hadrian in different stages of hunting on a building that began as a monument celebrating a kill. Another of Hadrian’s contributions to “popular” culture was the beard, which symbolised his philhellenism. Except for Nero (also a great lover of Greek culture), all Roman emperors before Hadrian were clean shaven. Most of the emperors after Hadrian would be portrayed with beards. Their beards, however, were not worn out of an appreciation for Greek culture but because the beard had, thanks to Hadrian, become fashionable. Hadrian had a face covered in warts and scars, and this may have partially motivated Hadrian’s beard growth. Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus , Heliodorus and Favorinus , but was generally considered an Epicurean , as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts , baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him “the Empire’s first servant”, and British historian Edward Gibbon admired his “vast and active genius”, as well as his “equity and moderation”. In 1776, he stated that Hadrian’s epoch was part of the “happiest era of human history”. While visiting Greece in 126, Hadrian attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion , failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes. Hadrian had a close relationship, widely reported to have been romantic, with a Greek youth, Antinous , whom he met in Bithynia in 124 when the boy was thirteen or fourteen. While touring Egypt in 130, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis , and had Antinous deified – an unprecedented honour for one not of the ruling family. Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber , in Rome , a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant’Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus. According to Cassius Dio a gigantic equestrian statue was erected to Hadrian after his death. It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small. The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero , once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii , to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad. Hadrian’s visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian’s will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt , this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship. At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class. Hadrian’s first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire’s very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed to Britannia. Hadrian’s Wall (Vallum Hadriani), a fortification in Northern England (viewed from Vercovicium). Hadrian’s Gate , in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 CE. Prior to Hadrian’s arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia , spanning roughly two years (119121). It was here where in 122 he initiated the building of Hadrian’s Wall (the exact Latin name of which is unknown). The purpose of the wall is academically debated. In 1893, Haverfield stated categorically that the Wall was a means of military defence. This prevailing, early 20th century view was challenged by Collingwood. Since then, other points of view have been put forwards; the wall has been seen as a marker to the limits of Romanitas , as a monument to Hadrian to gain glory in lieu of military campaigns, as work to keep the Army busy and prevent mutiny and waste through boredom, or to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future small scale invasions and unwanted immigration from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland). Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes , built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction; nevertheless, the Western third of the wall, from modern-day Carlisle to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone. This problem also led to the narrowing of the width of the wall, from the original 12 feet to 7, saving masonry. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian’s will to improve and develop within the Empire , rather than waging wars and conquering. Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled. By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania. In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels. However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt. When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates , he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king Osroes I. He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea. He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia , the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous , a young boy who was destined to become the emperor’s beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous’s drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14. It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite. After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably more than a mere whim lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city’s construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble. Temple of Zeus in Athens. The Pantheonn was rebuilt by Hadrian. The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians’ request he conducted a revision of their constitution among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name. During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their “restorer”. He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian’s lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous’s home in Bithynia. By March 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building the Temple of Olympian Zeus it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct. On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade. Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon. Also completed by then was Hadrian’s villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian. Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day. Greece, Asia and Egypt. In September 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries. This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece. Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time Hadrian set off for Ephesus. In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile , Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated. The emperor was grief stricken. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinopolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died Cassius Dio, LIX. 11; Historia Augusta , Hadrian. Antinous also Antinoüs or Antinoös ; Ancient Greek. 111 before 30 October 130 was a Bithynian Greek youth and a favourite of the Roman emperor Hadrian. He was deified after his death, although his exact status in the Roman pantheon was uncertain. Thorsten Opper in Hadrian: Empire and Conflict notes: Hardly anything is known of Antinous’ life, and the fact that our sources get more detailed the later they are does not inspire confidence. At an irreducible minimum he was born to a Greek family in Bithynion – Claudiopolis , in the Roman province of Bithynia in what is now north-west Turkey , and joined the entourage of the emperor Hadrian at a young age, although nothing certain is known of how, when, or where he and Hadrian met. He is frequently described and depicted as a beautiful boy and youth. The relationship is believed to have been sexual. Antinous drowned in the Nile in October 130. The death was presented as an accident, “but it was believed at the time that Antinous had been sacrificed or had sacrificed himself, ” and Hadrian wept for him like a woman. Hadrian went through the process of deifying him soon afterwards, a process previously exclusively reserved for imperial family members rather than friends or lovers of non-Roman origin. Commemoration: the cult of Antinous. The grief of the emperor knew no bounds, causing the most extravagant veneration to be paid to Antinous’ memory. Cities were founded in his name, medals struck with his likeness, and cities throughout the east commissioned godlike images of the dead youth for their shrines and sanctuaries. Following the example of Alexander (who sought divine honours for his beloved general, Hephaestion , when he died) Hadrian had Antinous proclaimed a god. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia , and Athens , festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinopolis or Antinoe was founded on the site of Hir-wer where he died Dio Cassius lix. One of Hadrian’s attempts at extravagant remembrance failed, when the proposal to create a constellation of Antinous being lifted to heaven by an eagle (the constellation Aquila) failed of adoption. After deification , Antinous was associated with and depicted as the Ancient Egyptian god Osiris , associated with the rebirth of the Nile. Antinous was also depicted as the Roman Bacchus , a god related to fertility, cutting vine leaves. Antinous’s was the only non-imperial head ever to appear on the coinage. The “Lansdowne Antinous” was found at Hadrian’s Villa in 1769 (Fitzwilliam Museum , Cambridge). Worship, or at least acknowledgment, of the idealized Antinous was widespread, although mainly outside the city of Rome. As a result, Antinous is one of the best-preserved faces from the ancient world. Many busts, gems and coins represent Antinous as the ideal type of youthful beauty, often with the attributes of some special god. They include a colossal bust in the Vatican , a bust in the Louvre (the Antinous Mondragone), a bas-relief from the Villa Albani , a statue in the Capitoline museum (the so-called Capitoline Antinous , now accepted to be a portrayal of Hermes), another in Berlin , another in the Lateran and one in the Fitzwilliam Museum ; and many more may be seen in museums across Europe. There are also statues in many archaeological museums in Greece including the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, the archaeological museums of Patras, Chalkis and Delphi. Although these may well be idealised images, they demonstrate what all contemporary writers described as Antinous’s extraordinary beauty. Although many of the sculptures are instantly recognizable, some offer significant variation in terms of the suppleness and sensuality of the pose and features versus the rigidity and typical masculinity. In 1998 the remains of the monumental tomb of Antinous, or a temple to him, were discovered at Hadrian’s Villa. Obelisk of Antinous on the Pincio Hill in Rome. (Obelisco Pinciano, Piazzale del Pincio, Roma) Made of Aswan pink granite 9.24 m. High, mounted on a modern plinth and surmounted by an ornamental star: overall height 17.26 m. Commissioned by Hadrian and probably erected at the Antinoeion of his villa in Tivoli. Moved to Rome by Elagabalus (218-222) to decorate the spina of the Circus Varianus. Broken into three pieces, probably in the 6th century, it was found in the 16th century near the Porta Maggiore. Moved to the Palazzo Barberini , then moved to the Vatican by Pope Clement XIV ; finally erected on the Pincian by Pope Pius VII in 1822. The four sides of the obelisk are covered with reliefs and with hieroglyphs which, it cannot be doubted, Hadrian composed. The reference to Hadrians wife Sabina being alive shows that it dates from between Antinous death in 130 and Sabinas in 136/7. Hadrians movements subsequent to the founding of Antinopolis on October 30, 130 are obscure. See also: Bar Kokhba revolt. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem , in Judaea , left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 6673. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus , the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple , which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision , which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence “barbaric”. These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain , and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian’s report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation “I and the legions are well”. However, Hadrian’s army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio , during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar , a fortified city 10 km. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian only allowed the Jews to bury their dead after a period of six days. According to the Babylonian Talmud , after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism , which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph “may his bones be crushed” (or , the Aramaic equivalent), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple. Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation or the end of the Second Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of Venus and Roma on the former site of Nero’s Golden House. About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession. In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the “four consulars” executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia , Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138. Following the death of Aelius Caesar, Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrians close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesars daughter Ceionia Fabia). Hadrians precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part. It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius who was Annius Veruss uncle who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus’ daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative. The ancient sources present Hadrian’s last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness. The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian’s brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus’ grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death. Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would “long for death but be unable to die”. The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions. Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62. The cause of death is believed to have been heart failure. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta record details of his failing health, and a study published in 1980 drew attention to classical sculptures of Hadrian that show he had diagonal earlobe creases a characteristic associated with coronary heart disease. Hadrian was buried first at Puteoli , near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius , his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius , who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius. The sestertius , or sesterce , pl. Sestertii was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. Helmed Roma head right, IIS behind Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear frame below. The name sestertius (originally semis-tertius) means “2 ½”, the coin’s original value in asses , and is a combination of semis “half” and tertius “third”, that is, “the third half” (0 ½ being the first half and 1 ½ the second half) or “half the third” (two units plus half the third unit, or half way between the second unit and the third). Parallel constructions exist in Danish with halvanden (1 ½), halvtredje (2 ½) and halvfjerde (3 ½). The form sesterce , derived from French , was once used in preference to the Latin form, but is now considered old-fashioned. It is abbreviated as (originally IIS). Example of a detailed portrait of Hadrian 117 to 138. The sestertius was introduced c. 211 BC as a small silver coin valued at one-quarter of a denarius (and thus one hundredth of an aureus). A silver denarius was supposed to weigh about 4.5 grams, valued at ten grams, with the silver sestertius valued at two and one-half grams. In practice, the coins were usually underweight. When the denarius was retariffed to sixteen asses (due to the gradual reduction in the size of bronze denominations), the sestertius was accordingly revalued to four asses, still equal to one quarter of a denarius. It was produced sporadically, far less often than the denarius, through 44 BC. Hostilian under Trajan Decius 250 AD. In or about 23 BC, with the coinage reform of Augustus , the denomination of sestertius was introduced as the large brass denomination. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1/100 Aureus. The sestertius was produced as the largest brass denomination until the late 3rd century AD. Most were struck in the mint of Rome but from AD 64 during the reign of Nero (AD 5468) and Vespasian (AD 6979), the mint of Lyon (Lugdunum), supplemented production. Lyon sestertii can be recognised by a small globe, or legend stop, beneath the bust. The brass sestertius typically weighs in the region of 25 to 28 grammes, is around 3234 mm in diameter and about 4 mm thick. The distinction between bronze and brass was important to the Romans. Their name for brass was orichalcum , a word sometimes also spelled aurichalcum (echoing the word for a gold coin, aureus), meaning’gold-copper’, because of its shiny, gold-like appearance when the coins were newly struck (see, for example Pliny the Elder in his Natural History Book 34.4). Orichalcum was considered, by weight, to be worth about double that of bronze. This is why the half-sestertius, the dupondius , was around the same size and weight as the bronze as, but was worth two asses. Sestertii continued to be struck until the late 3rd century, although there was a marked deterioration in the quality of the metal used and the striking even though portraiture remained strong. Later emperors increasingly relied on melting down older sestertii, a process which led to the zinc component being gradually lost as it burned off in the high temperatures needed to melt copper (Zinc melts at 419 °C, Copper at 1085 °C). The shortfall was made up with bronze and even lead. Later sestertii tend to be darker in appearance as a result and are made from more crudely prepared blanks (see the Hostilian coin on this page). The gradual impact of inflation caused by debasement of the silver currency meant that the purchasing power of the sestertius and smaller denominations like the dupondius and as was steadily reduced. In the 1st century AD, everyday small change was dominated by the dupondius and as, but in the 2nd century, as inflation bit, the sestertius became the dominant small change. In the 3rd century silver coinage contained less and less silver, and more and more copper or bronze. By the 260s and 270s the main unit was the double-denarius, the antoninianus , but by then these small coins were almost all bronze. Although these coins were theoretically worth eight sestertii, the average sestertius was worth far more in plain terms of the metal they contained. Some of the last sestertii were struck by Aurelian (270275 AD). During the end of its issue, when sestertii were reduced in size and quality, the double sestertius was issued first by Trajan Decius (249251 AD) and later in large quantity by the ruler of a breakaway regime in the West called Postumus (259268 AD), who often used worn old sestertii to overstrike his image and legends on. The double sestertius was distinguished from the sestertius by the radiate crown worn by the emperor, a device used to distinguish the dupondius from the as and the antoninianus from the denarius. Eventually, the inevitable happened. Many sestertii were withdrawn by the state and by forgers, to melt down to make the debased antoninianus, which made inflation worse. In the coinage reforms of the 4th century, the sestertius played no part and passed into history. Sestertius of Hadrian , dupondius of Antoninus Pius , and as of Marcus Aurelius. As a unit of account. The sestertius was also used as a standard unit of account, represented on inscriptions with the monogram HS. Large values were recorded in terms of sestertium milia , thousands of sestertii, with the milia often omitted and implied. The hyper-wealthy general and politician of the late Roman Republic, Crassus (who fought in the war to defeat Spartacus), was said by Pliny the Elder to have had’estates worth 200 million sesterces’. A loaf of bread cost roughly half a sestertius, and a sextarius (0.5 liter) of wine anywhere from less than half to more than 1 sestertius. One modius (6.67 kg) of wheat in 79 AD Pompeii cost 7 sestertii, of rye 3 sestertii, a bucket 2 sestertii, a tunic 15 sestertii, a donkey 500 sestertii. A writing tablet from Londinium (Roman London), dated to c. 75125 AD, records the sale of a Gallic slave girl called Fortunata for 600 denarii, equal to 2,400 sestertii, to a man called Vegetus. It is difficult to make any comparisons with modern coinage or prices, but for most of the 1st century AD the ordinary legionary was paid 900 sestertii per annum, rising to 1,200 under Domitian (81-96 AD), the equivalent of 3.3 sestertii per day. Half of this was deducted for living costs, leaving the soldier (if he was lucky enough actually to get paid) with about 1.65 sestertii per day. A sestertius of Nero , struck at Rome in 64 AD. The reverse depicts the emperor on horseback with a companion. The legend reads DECVRSIO,’a military exercise’. Sestertii are highly valued by numismatists , since their large size gave caelatores (engravers) a large area in which to produce detailed portraits and reverse types. The most celebrated are those produced for Nero (54-68 AD) between the years 64 and 68 AD, created by some of the most accomplished coin engravers in history. The brutally realistic portraits of this emperor, and the elegant reverse designs, greatly impressed and influenced the artists of the Renaissance. The series issued by Hadrian (117-138 AD), recording his travels around the Roman Empire, brilliantly depicts the Empire at its height, and included the first representation on a coin of the figure of Britannia ; it was revived by Charles II , and was a feature of United Kingdom coinage until the 2008 redesign. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “Hadrian 134AD HUGE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin Fortuna Luck Wealth i30802″ is in sale since Monday, December 03, 2012. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Hadrian

Oct 31 2017

GORDIAN III 240AD Sestertius Big Ancient Rare Roman Coin SOL SUN Rare i55111

GORDIAN III 240AD Sestertius Big Ancient Rare Roman Coin SOL SUN Rare i55111

GORDIAN III 240AD Sestertius Big Ancient Rare Roman Coin SOL SUN Rare i55111

Item: i55111 Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of. Gordian III – Roman Emperor : 238-244 A. Bronze Sestertius 31mm (23.37 grams) Rome mint: 240-244 A. RIC IV 297a; Pink III, pg. 27; Banti 20; Hunter 123; Cohen 43 IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. AETERNITATI AVG, S C across field, Sol standing facing, head left, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand. Royal/Imperial symbols of power. Ruling dynasties often exploit pomp and ceremony with the use of regalia : crowns , robes , orb (globe) and sceptres , some of which are reflections of formerly practical objects. The use of language mechanisms also support this differentiation with subjects talking of “the crown” and/or of “the throne ” rather than referring directly to personal names and items. Roman Imperial repoussé silver disc of Sol Invictus (3rd century), found at Pessinus (British Museum). Sol Invictus (“Unconquered Sun”) was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor Aurelian made it an official cult alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a refoundation of the ancient Latin cult of Sol. A revival of the cult of Elagabalus or completely new. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 AD and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them. It is commonly claimed that the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti , or “Birthday of the Unconquered Sun”, but this view is challenged. Invictus (“Unconquered, Invincible”) was an epithet for several deities of classical Roman religion , including the supreme deity Jupiter , the war god Mars , Hercules , Apollo and Silvanus. Invictus was in use from the 3rd century BC, and was well-established as a cult title when applied to Mithras from the 2nd century onwards. It has a clear association. With solar deities and solar monism; as such, it became the preferred epithet of Rome’s traditional Sol and the novel, short-lived Roman state cult to Elagabalus , an Emesan solar deity who headed Rome’s official pantheon under his namesake emperor. The earliest dated use of Sol invictus is in a dedication from Rome, AD 158. Another, stylistically dated to the 2nd century AD, is inscribed on a Roman phalera : “inventori lucis soli invicto augusto” (to the contriver of light, sol invictus augustus). Here “augustus” is most likely a further epithet of Sol as “august” (an elevated being, divine or close to divinity), though the association of Sol with the Imperial house would have been unmistakable and was already established in iconography and stoic monism. These are the earliest attested examples of Sol as invictus , but in AD 102 a certain Anicetus restored a shrine of Sol; Hijmans 2009, 486, n. 22 is tempted “to link Anicetus’ predilection for Sol with his name, the Latinized form of the Greek word , which means invictus “. The first sun god consistently termed invictus was the provincial Syrian god Elagabalus. According to the Historia Augusta , the teenaged Severan heir adopted the name of his deity and brought his cult image from Emesa to Rome. Once installed as emperor, he neglected Rome’s traditional State deities and promoted his own as Rome’s most powerful deity. This ended with his murder in 222. The Historia Augusta refers to the deity Elagabalus as “also called Jupiter and Sol” (fuit autem Heliogabali vel Iovis vel Solis). This has been seen as an abortive attempt to impose the Syrian sun god on Rome. But because it is now clear that the Roman cult of Sol remained firmly established in Rome throughout the Roman period, this Syrian Sol Elagabalus has become no more relevant to our understanding of the Roman Sol than, for example, the Syrian Jupiter Dolichenus is for our understanding of the Roman Jupiter. The Roman gens Aurelian was associated with the cult of Sol. After his victories in the East, the Emperor Aurelian thoroughly reformed the Roman cult of Sol, elevating the sun-god to one of the premier divinities of the Empire. Where previously priests of Sol had been simply sacerdotes and tended to belong to lower ranks of Roman society, they were now pontifices and members of the new college of pontifices instituted by Aurelian. Every pontifex of Sol was a member of the senatorial elite, indicating that the priesthood of Sol was now highly prestigious. Almost all these senators held other priesthoods as well, however, and some of these other priesthoods take precedence in the inscriptions in which they are listed, suggesting that they were considered more prestigious than the priesthood of Sol. Aurelian also built a new temple for Sol, bringing the total number of temples for the god in Rome to (at least) four. He also instituted games in honor of the sun god, held every four years from AD 274 onwards. The identity of Aurelian’s Sol Invictus has long been a subject of scholarly debate. Based on the Historia Augusta , some scholars have argued that it was based on Sol Elagablus (or Elagabla) of Emesa. Others, basing their argument on Zosimus , suggest that it was based on the Helios , the solar god of Palmyra on the grounds that Aurelian placed and consecrated a cult statue of Helios looted from Palmyra in the temple of Sol Invictus. Professor Gary Forsythe discusses these arguments and add a third more recent one based on the work of Steven Hijmans. Hijmans argues that Aurelian’s solar deity was simply the traditional Greco-Roman Sol Invictus. Emperors portrayed Sol Invictus on their official coinage, with a wide range of legends, only a few of which incorporated the epithet invictus , such as the legend. Claiming the Unconquered Sun as a companion to the Emperor, used with particular frequency by Constantine. Statuettes of Sol Invictus, carried by the standard-bearers, appear in three places in reliefs on the Arch of Constantine. Constantine’s official coinage continues to bear images of Sol until 325/6. A solidus of Constantine as well as a gold medallion from his reign depict the Emperor’s bust in profile twinned (“jugate”) with Sol Invictus, with the legend. Constantine decreed (March 7, 321) dies Solis day of the sun, ” Sunday “as the Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]. On the venerable day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. In the country however persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits because it often happens that another day is not suitable for grain-sowing or vine planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations the bounty of heaven should be lost. Constantine’s triumphal arch was carefully positioned to align with the colossal statue of Sol by the Colosseum , so that Sol formed the dominant backdrop when seen from the direction of the main approach towards the arch. Sol and the other Roman Emperors. Deals with coin-evidence of Imperial connection to the Solar cult. Sol is depicted sporadically on imperial coins in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, then more frequently from Septimius Severus onwards until AD 325/6. Sol invictus appears on coin legends from AD 261, well before the reign of Aurelian. Connections between the imperial radiate crown and the cult of Sol are postulated. Augustus was posthumously depicted with radiate crown, as were living emperors from Nero (after AD 65) to Constantine. Some modern scholarship interprets the imperial radiate crown as a divine, solar association rather than an overt symbol of Sol; Bergmann calls it a pseudo-object designed to disguise the divine and solar connotations that would otherwise be politically controversial. But there is broad agreement that coin-images showing the imperial radiate crown are stylistically distinct from those of the solar crown of rays; the imperial radiate crown is depicted as a real object rather than as symbolic light. Hijmans argues that the Imperial radiate crown represents the honorary wreath awarded to Augustus , perhaps posthumously, to commemorate his victory at the battle of Actium ; he points out that henceforth, living emperors were depicted with radiate crowns, but state divi were not. To Hijmans this implies the radiate crown of living emperors as a link to Augustus. His successors automatically inherited (or sometimes acquired) the same offices and honours due to Octavian as “saviour of the Republic” through his victory at Actium, piously attributed to Apollo-Helios. Wreaths awarded to victors at the Actian Games were radiate. Sol Invictus and Christianity and Judaism. Mosaic of Christ as Sol or Apollo-Helios in Mausoleum M in the pre-4th-century necropolis beneath. Peter’s in the Vatican , which many interpret as representing Christ. The Philocalian calendar of AD 354 gives a festival of “Natalis Invicti” on 25 December. There is limited evidence that this festival was celebrated before the mid-4th century. The idea that Christians chose to celebrate the birth of Jesus on 25 December because this was the date of an already existing festival of the Sol Invictus was expressed in an annotation to a manuscript of a work by 12th-century Syrian bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi. The scribe who added it wrote: It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day. This idea became popular especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. And is still widely accepted. In the judgement of the Church of England Liturgical Commission, this view has been seriously challenged. By a view based on an old tradition, according to which the date of Christmas was fixed at nine months after 25 March, the date of the vernal equinox, on which the Annunciation was celebrated. The Jewish calendar date of 14 Nisan was believed to be that of the beginning of creation, as well as of the Exodus and so of Passover, and Christians held that the new creation, both the death of Jesus and the beginning of his human life, occurred on the same date, which some put at 25 March in the Julian calendar. It was a traditional Jewish belief that great men lived a whole number of years, without fractions, so that Jesus was considered to have been conceived on 25 March, as he died on 25 March, which was calculated to have coincided with 14 Nisan. Sextus Julius Africanus c. 240 gave 25 March as the day of creation and of the conception of Jesus. The tractate De solstitia et aequinoctia conceptionis et nativitatis Domini nostri Iesu Christi et Iohannis Baptistae falsely attributed to John Chrysostom also argued that Jesus was conceived and crucified on the same day of the year and calculated this as 25 March. A passage of the Commentary on the prophet Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome , written in about 204, has also been appealed to. Among those who have put forward this view are Louis Duchesne, Thomas J. Neil Alexander, and Hugh Wybrew. Not all scholars who view the celebration of the birth of Jesus on 25 December as motivated by the choice of the winter solstice rather than calculated on the basis of the belief that he was conceived and died on 25 March agree that it constituted a deliberate Christianization of a festival of the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun. Michael Alan Anderson writes. Both the sun and Christ were said to be born anew on December 25. But while the solar associations with the birth of Christ created powerful metaphors, the surviving evidence does not support such a direct association with the Roman solar festivals. The earliest documentary evidence for the feast of Christmas makes no mention of the coincidence with the winter solstice. Thomas Talley has shown that, although the Emperor Aurelian’s dedication of a temple to the sun god in the Campus Martius C. 274 probably took place on the’Birthday of the Invincible Sun’ on December 25, the cult of the sun in pagan Rome ironically did not celebrate the winter solstice nor any of the other quarter-tense days, as one might expect. The origins of Christmas, then, may not be expressly rooted in the Roman festival. The same point is made by Hijmans: It is cosmic symbolism… Which inspired the Church leadership in Rome to elect the southern solstice, December 25, as the birthday of Christ… While they were aware that pagans called this day the’birthday’ of Sol Invictus, this did not concern them and it did not play any role in their choice of date for Christmas. ” He also states that, “while the winter solstice on or around December 25 was well established in the Roman imperial calendar, there is no evidence that a religious celebration of Sol on that day antedated the celebration of Christmas. The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought also remarks on the uncertainty about the order of precedence between the celebrations of the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun and the birthday of Jesus: This’calculations’ hypothesis potentially establishes 25 December as a Christian festival before Aurelian’s decree, which, when promulgated, might have provided for the Christian feast both opportunity and challenge. Roll also calls “most extreme” the unproven hypothesis that “would call Christmas point-blank a’christianization’ of Natalis Solis Invicti, a direct conscious appropriation of the pre-Christian feast, arbitrarily placed on the same calendar date, assimilating and adapting some of its cosmic symbolism and abruptly usurping any lingering habitual loyalty that newly-converted Christians might feel to the feasts of the state gods”. The comparison of Christ with the astronomical Sun is common in ancient Christian writings. In the 5th century, Pope Leo I (the Great) spoke in several sermons on the Feast of the Nativity of how the celebration of Christ’s birth coincided with increase of the sun’s position in the sky. An example is: But this Nativity which is to be adored in heaven and on earth is suggested to us by no day more than this when, with the early light still shedding its rays on nature, there is borne in upon our senses the brightness of this wondrous mystery. Mosaic in the Beth Alpha synagogue, with the sun in the centre, surrounded by the twelve zodiac constellations and with the four seasons associated inaccurately with the constellations. A study of Augustine of Hippo remarks that his exhortation in a Christmas sermon, “Let us celebrate this day as a feast not for the sake of this sun, which is beheld by believers as much as by ourselves, but for the sake of him who created the sun”, shows that he was aware of the coincidence of the celebration of Christmas and the Birthday of the Unconquered Sun, although this pagan festival was celebrated at only a few places and was originally a peculiarity of the Roman city calendar. It adds: He also believes, however, that there is a reliable tradition which gives 25 December as the actual date of the birth of our Lord. By “the sun of righteousness” in Malachi 4:2 “the fathers , from Justin downward, and nearly all the earlier commentators understand Christ , who is supposed to be described as the rising sun”. The New Testament itself contains a hymn fragment: Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. Clement of Alexandria wrote of “the Sun of the Resurrection, he who was born before the dawn, whose beams give light”. Christians adopted the image of the Sun (Helios or Sol Invictus) to represent Christ. In this portrayal he is a beardless figure with a flowing cloak in a chariot drawn by four white horses, as in the mosaic in Mausoleum M discovered under Saint Peter’s Basilica and in an early-4th-century catacomb fresco. Clement of Alexandria had spoken of Christ driving his chariot in this way across the sky. The nimbus of the figure under Saint Peter’s Basilica is described by some as rayed. As in traditional pre-Christian representations, but another has said: “Only the cross-shaped nimbus makes the Christian significance apparent” (emphasis added). Yet another has interpreted the figure as a representation of the sun with no explicit religious reference whatever, pagan or Christian. The traditional image of the sun is used also in Jewish art. A mosaic floor in Hamat Tiberias presents David as Helios surrounded by a ring with the signs of the zodiac. As well as in Hamat Tiberias, figures of Helios or Sol Invictus also appear in several of the very few surviving schemes of decoration surviving from Late Antique synagogues , including Beth Alpha , Husefah (Husefa) and Naaran , all now in Israel. He is shown in floor mosaics, with the usual radiate halo, and sometimes in a quadriga , in the central roundel of a circular representation of the zodiac or the seasons. These combinations may have represented to an agricultural Jewish community the perpetuation of the annual cycle of the universe or… The central part of a calendar. Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius. , known in English as Gordian III , was Roman Emperor from 238 to 244. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and his father was an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known on his early life before becoming Roman Emperor. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238. Following the murder of emperor Alexander Severus in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), the capital of the Roman province Germania Inferior , Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed emperor, despite strong opposition of the Roman senate and the majority of the population. In response to what was considered in Rome as a rebellion, Gordian’s grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors in the Africa Province. Their revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus’ oppression. Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular men and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordian’s fate, so that the Senate decided to take the teenager Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus as his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions , namely the Parthica II who assassinated Maximinus. But their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and even an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor. Due to Gordian’s age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was dealt quickly. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina , daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian guard and father in law of the emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman empire. In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube , and the Sassanid kingdom across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia , the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a huge army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy’s territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the emperor’s security, were at risk. Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab , stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefect and the campaign proceeded. In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away, upstream of the Euphrates. Although ancient sources often described Philip, who succeeded Gordian as emperor, as having murdered Gordian at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah), the cause of Gordian’s death is unknown. Gordian’s youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of another usurper, granted him the everlasting esteem of the Romans. Despite the opposition of the new emperor, Gordian was deified by the Senate after his death, in order to appease the population and avoid riots. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “GORDIAN III 240AD Sestertius Big Ancient Rare Roman Coin SOL SUN Rare i55111″ is in sale since Sunday, April 17, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Gordian III

Jul 20 2017

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

Authentic ancient Roman bronze coin of Faustina Senior (wife of Antoninus Pius) 138 AD-161 AD. On the obverse side: Head of. On the reverse side: Aeternitas (personification of stability and eternity) standing holding a phoenix on a globe and raising skirt. This rare coin has some corrosion and beautiful dark green patina, it is good condition. Measures 33mm in length. Reference: Van Meter 18/1, RIC 1105. All my artifacts are ancient as described, and guaranteed authentic. Don’t forget to check out my other auctions for more great deals on Ancient Jewelry. The item “RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius” is in sale since Wednesday, July 19, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “fn7″ and is located in Hot Springs, Montana. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Sestertius
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins

Jun 29 2017

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome SESTERTIUS Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin EX Seaby 1934

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome SESTERTIUS Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin EX Seaby 1934

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome SESTERTIUS Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin EX Seaby 1934

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome SESTERTIUS Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin EX Seaby 1934

PUPIENUS 238AD Rome SESTERTIUS Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin EX Seaby 1934

Pupienus – Roman Emperor: April 22 – July 29, 238 A. Sestertius (23.08 grams) Rome mint, April-June 238 A. Reference: RIC 16; BMC 28; C 21; S 8498 Provenance: Seaby List M228, July 1934 (17530). IMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. P M TR P COS II P P, Emperor, togate, standing left, holding branch and parazonium, S C in field. When Gordian I and his son were proclaimed emperors in Africa, the Senate appointed a committee of twenty men, including the elderly senator Pupienus, to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus until the arrival of the Gordians. On the news of the Gordians’ defeat and deaths at Carthage, however, the Senate met in closed session in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and voted for two members of the committee to be installed as co-emperors – Balbinus and Pupienus. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Pupienus Latin: Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus ; born c. 165/170 – 29 July 238, also known as Pupienus Maximus , was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors. The sources for this period are scant, and thus knowledge of the emperor is limited. In most contemporary texts Pupienus is referred by his agnomen “Maximus” rather than by his cognomen (family name) Pupienus. The item “PUPIENUS 238AD Rome SESTERTIUS Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin EX Seaby 1934″ is in sale since Tuesday, June 27, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Provenance: ex Seaby 1934

Jun 29 2017

Galba A. D. 68-9 Sestertius. Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Pedigre Ex Baldwin 1937

Galba A. D. 68-9 Sestertius. Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Pedigre Ex Baldwin 1937

Galba A. D. 68-9 Sestertius. Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Pedigre Ex Baldwin 1937

Galba A. D. 68-9 Sestertius. Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Pedigre Ex Baldwin 1937

Galba A. D. 68-9 Sestertius. Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Pedigre Ex Baldwin 1937

[6548] Galba – Roman Emperor: June 10th 68 A. January 15th 69 A. Sestertius (26.51 grams) Rome mint, August-September 68 A. Reference: RIC 358; BMC p. 321; C 189 Provenance: Bt Baldwin March 1937 IMP SER GALBA AVG TR P, Laureate and draped bust right Roma standing left holding Victory and spear, S C in field, ROMA in lower field. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Galba (Latin: Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus ; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January 69), pron. Was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. He was the first emperor of the Year of the Four Emperors and the last emperor born in the First Century BC. Origins and family life. He was born as Servius Sulpicius Galba near Terracina, “on the left as you go towards Fundi” in the words of Suetonius. Through his paternal grandfather (“more eminent for his learning than for his rank – for he did not advance beyond the grade of praetor” and who “published a voluminous and painstaking history”, and, according to Suetonius, predicted his rise to power), he was descended from Servius Sulpicius Galba. Galba’s father attained the consulship, and although he was short, hunchbacked and only an indifferent speaker, was an industrious pleader at the bar. His mother was Mummia Achaica, the granddaughter of Lutatius Catulus cos. 78 and great-granddaughter of Lucius Mummius Achaicus. They only had one other child, an elder son called Gaius who left Rome after squandering the greater part of his estate, and committed suicide because Tiberius dishonored him by preventing him from taking part in the allotment of the provinces in his year. His father married a second wife, Livia Ocellina, a distant kinswoman of the empress Livia. She later adopted Galba, so he took her names, remaining Lucius Livius Ocella Sulpicius Galba until becoming emperor. His was a noble family, and he was a man of great wealth, but was unconnected by birth and only very, very remotely by adoption with any of the first six Caesars. In his early years he was regarded as a youth of remarkable abilities, and it is said that both Augustus and Tiberius prophesied his future eminence Tacitus, Annals , vi. Galba 4; Dio 57.19.4. His wife, Aemilia Lepida, however, was connected by the marriages of some of her relatives to some of the Julii-Claudii. They had two sons, probably Gaius and Servius (most likely Livius Ocella Galba), who died during their father’s life. The elder son was born circa 25 AD. Hardly anything is known about his life as he died young. He was engaged to his step-sister Antonia Postuma, but they never wed, which leads modern historians to believe that he died during this time. Their engagement is dated to 48, and that is generally believed to be his time of death. The date of birth of the younger son occurred later than 25 but before 30. This Galba outlived his older brother. He was a quaestor in 58, but he was never seen in politics after that. His time of death is generally believed to be around 60 AD. Galba Minor was never married and had no children. In addition, Suetonius’s description of Galba was that “In sexual matters he was more inclined to males, and then none but the hard bodied and those past their prime”. This seems to be the only case in Roman history where a named individual male is stated to prefer adult males. He became Praetor in 20, and consul in 33; he earned a reputation in the provinces of Gaul, Germania, Africa and Hispania for his military capability, strictness and impartiality. For the first half of Nero’s reign he lived in retirement, until 61, when the emperor bestowed on him the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. In the spring of 68, Galba was informed of Nero’s intention to put him to death, and of the insurrection of Julius Vindex in Gaul. He was at first inclined to follow the example of Vindex, but the defeat at Vesontio (Besançon) and suicide of the latter renewed Galba’s hesitation. It was said that the courtier Calvia Crispinilla was behind his defection from Nero. The news that Nymphidius Sabinus, the Praetorian Prefect, had given him his favour revived Galba’s spirits. Until now, he had only dared to call himself the legate of the senate and Roman people; after Nero’s suicide, he assumed the title of Caesar , and marched straight for Rome. Following Nero’s death, Nymphidius Sabinus sought to seize power prior to the arrival of Galba, but he could not win the loyalty of the Praetorian guard and was killed. Upon Galba’s approach to the city in October, he was met by soldiers presenting demands; Galba replied by killing many of them. Galba’s primary concern during his brief reign was restoring state finances, and to this end he undertook a number of unpopular measures, the most dangerous was his refusal to pay the praetorians the reward promised in his name. Galba scorned the notion that soldiers should be “bribed” for their loyalty. He also sentenced many to death without trial, and rarely accepted requests for citizenship. He further disgusted the populace by his meanness and dislike of pomp and display. Advanced age destroyed his energy, and he was entirely in the hands of favourites. Three of these – Titus Vinius, who became Galba’s colleague as consul, Cornelius Laco, the commander of the Praetorian Guard, and Galba’s freedman Icelus Marcianus – were said to virtually control the emperor. The three were called “The Three Pedagogues” because of their influence on Galba. All this made the new emperor gravely unpopular. During the later period of his provincial administration, Galba was indolent and apathetic, but this was due either to a desire not to attract Nero’s notice or to the growing infirmities of age. Tacitus says all pronounced him worthy of the empire, until he became emperor (” omnium consens cpax imperi nisi imperasset “). Military mutiny on the frontier. On 1 January 69, two legions in Germania Superior refused to swear loyalty to Galba. They toppled his statues, demanding that a new emperor be chosen. On the following day, the soldiers of Germania Inferior also rebelled and took the decision of who should be the next emperor into their own hands, proclaiming the governor of the province, Vitellius, as Emperor. This outbreak of revolt made Galba aware of his own unpopularity and of the general discontent. In order to check the rising storm, he adopted as his heir and successor L. The populace regarded the choice of successor as a sign of fear and the Praetorians were indignant, because the usual donative was not forthcoming. Salvius Otho, who was expecting to be adopted, was alienated by the choice of Piso. While Otho had governed Lusitania and was one of Galba’s earliest supporters, he was disappointed at the selection of Piso and entered into communication with the discontented Praetorians, who hailed him as their emperor on 15 January 69. Galba at once set out to meet the rebels, though he was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter. According to Suetonius, Galba prior to his death had put on a linen corset-although remarking that it had little protection against so many swords. He was met by a troop of Otho’s cavalry and was killed near Lacus Curtius. One guard, centurion Sempronius Densus, died defending him. Piso was killed shortly afterwards. According to Plutarch, during Galba’s last moments he offered his neck, and said, Strike, if it be for the good of the Romans! After his death, Galba’s head was brought to Otho, who gave it to his camp followers who paraded and mocked it-the camp followers’ mocking was their angry response to a remark by Galba that his strength was unimpaired. The head was then bought by a freedman so he could throw it on the place where his former master had been executed on Galba’s orders. Galba’s steward buried both head and trunk in a tomb by the Aurelian Road. The item “Galba A. D. 68-9 Sestertius. Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Pedigre Ex Baldwin 1937″ is in sale since Tuesday, June 27, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Provenance: ex Baldwin 1937

Jun 28 2017

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin

[6547] Nero – Roman Emperor: 54-68 A. Sestertius (22.31 grams) Lugdunum, 65 A. NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, Laureate bust right with globe at point. Ceres, goddess of agriculture and grain crops, is closely connected to Annona, the divine personification of the grain supply to the city of Rome. With a vast population, the maintenance of a regular supply of food, water, wine and oil to the people of first-century Rome was of paramount importance. Since not enough food could be grown in Rome’s immediate environs, huge amounts of grain had to be imported, mostly by sea, from all over the empire. This coin was part of the imperial propaganda, reminding citizens, lest they take it for granted, of their good fortune to be living in such a well-run and generous state. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. Nero – 54-68 A. Caesar, 50-54 (Under Claudius). Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ;15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius’ death. During his reign, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and enhancing the cultural life of the Empire. He ordered theaters built and promoted athletic games. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain. Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the Empire and began the First Roman-Jewish War. In 64, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, which many Romans believed Nero himself had started in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68 (the first Roman emperor to do so) His death ended the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero’s rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance. He is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. He is infamously known as the Emperor who “fiddled while Rome burned” and as an early persecutor of Christians. He was known for having captured Christians to burn them in his garden at night for a source of light. This view is based on the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Nero’s reign. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light. Some sources, though, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, especially in the East. Some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero’s tyrannical acts. The item “NERO 65AD Sestertius ex SIR ARTHUR EVANS Collection Authentic Ancient Roman Coin” is in sale since Tuesday, June 27, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Provenance: ex Sir Arthur Evans Collection

Jun 26 2017

CRISPINA Commodus Wife Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin CONCORDIA i58014

CRISPINA Commodus Wife Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin CONCORDIA i58014

CRISPINA Commodus Wife Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin CONCORDIA i58014

Item: i58014 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Crispina – Roman Empress: 177-183 A. Bronze Sestertius 30mm (24.86 grams) Rome mint, under Commodus, circa 178-182 A. Reference: RIC 665; Cohen 6; Sear 6004; MIR 18, 4-6a; Banti 5; BMCRE 407 (Commodus) CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. CONCORDIA S-C, Concord seated left with patera and cornucopiae. In ancient Roman religion , Concordia is the goddess who embodies agreement in marriage and society. Her Greek equivalent is usually regarded as Harmonia , with musical harmony a metaphor for an ideal of social concord or entente in the political discourse of the Republican era. She was thus often associated with Pax (“Peace”) in representing a stable society. As such, she is more closely related to the Greek concept of homonoia (likemindedness), which was also represented by a goddess. Concordia Augusta was cultivated in the context of Imperial cult. Dedicatory inscriptions to her, on behalf of emperors and members of the imperial family, were common. In art, Concordia was depicted sitting, wearing a long cloak and holding onto a patera (sacrificial bowl), a cornucopia (symbol of prosperity), or a caduceus (symbol of peace). She was often shown in between two other figures, such as standing between two members of the Imperial family shaking hands. She was associated with a pair of female deities, such as Pax and Salus , or Securitas and Fortuna. Paired “Security and Luck” could also be represented by Hercules and Mercury. The oldest Temple of Concord , built in 367 BC by Marcus Furius Camillus , stood on the Roman Forum. Other temples and shrines in Rome dedicated to Concordia were largely geographically related to the main temple, and included (in date order). A bronze shrine (aedicula) of Concord erected by the aedile Gnaeus Flavius in 304 BC “in Graecostasis ” and “in area Volcani” (placing it on the Graecostasis, close to the main temple of Concord). It must have been destroyed when the main temple was enlarged by Opimius in 121 BC. One built on the arx (probably on the east side, overlooked the main temple of Concord below). It was probably vowed by the praetor Lucius Manlius in 218 BC after quelling a mutiny among his troops in Cisalpine Gaul. With building work commencing in 217 and dedication occurring on 5 February 216. A temple to Concordia Nova, marking the end Julius Caesar had brought to civil war. It was voted by the senate in 44 BC. But was possibly never built. A temple built by Livia according to Ovid’s Fasti VI. 637-638 (“te quoque magnifica, Concordia, dedicat aede Livia quam caro praestitit ipsa viro” – the only literary reference to this temple). The description of the Porticus Liviae follows immediately, and it is probable therefore that the temple was close to or within the porticus, but the small rectangular structure marked on the Marble Plan frg. 10 can hardly have been a temple deserving of the epithet “magnifica” (HJ 316). In Pompeii , the high priestess Eumachia dedicated a building to Concordia Augusta. Harmonians and some Discordians equate Concordia with Aneris. Her opposite is thus Discordia, or the Greek Eris. Crispina – Augusta: 177-182/3 A. Bruttia Crispina 164-183 A. Was the Empress of Rome and wife of Roman Emperor Commodus. Crispinas mother is unknown and her father was twice consul Gaius Bruttius Praesens. Crispinas paternal grandparents were consul and senator Caius Bruttius Praesens and rich heiress Laberia Hostilia Crispina , who was the daughter of another twice consul, Manius Laberius Maximus. Crispina’s brother was future consul Lucius Bruttius Quintius Crispinus. Her fathers family originally came from Volceii, Lucania , Italy and were closely associated with the Roman Emperors Trajan , Hadrian , Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. Crispina was born and raised in Rome or Volceii. Crispina married Commodus, in the summer of 178 (probably July). The actual ceremony was modest but it was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux. Like many marriages of young members of the upper orders, it was an arranged marriage: Crispina’s father and Marcus Aurelius (Commodus father) had arranged for it to occur. Commodus disliked Crispina, presumably due to her character – she was a beautiful woman, but said to be vain and haughty. She received the title of Augusta. On the basis of a misreading of SHA Commodus 5.9 and Dio 73.4.6 her fall is sometimes wrongly associated with the conspiracy of Lucilla in 181 or 182. Her name continues to appear in inscriptions until as late as 191 (CIL 8.2366). Her eventual exile and death may instead have been associated with the fall of Marcus Aurelius Cleander or her inability to help Commodus ensure the dynastic succession. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store” for on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “CRISPINA Commodus Wife Sestertius Authentic Ancient Roman Coin CONCORDIA i58014″ is in sale since Monday, November 28, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Crispina

Jun 20 2017

VESPASIAN 71AD Rome Sestertius JUDAEA CAPTA Ancient Roman Coin NGC Certified

VESPASIAN 71AD Rome Sestertius JUDAEA CAPTA Ancient Roman Coin NGC Certified

VESPASIAN 71AD Rome Sestertius JUDAEA CAPTA Ancient Roman Coin NGC Certified

VESPASIAN 71AD Rome Sestertius JUDAEA CAPTA Ancient Roman Coin NGC Certified

VESPASIAN 71AD Rome Sestertius JUDAEA CAPTA Ancient Roman Coin NGC Certified

AE Sestertius (25.53 gms), Rome Mint, A. NGC VF, Strike: 4/5 Surface: 3/5. “IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III” Laureate head of Vespasian facing right; Reverse: “IVDAEA CAPTA” Vespasian at left standing facing right, holding spear and parazonium, foot on helmet, palm tree at center, Judaea at right seated on cuirass weeping facing right, “S C” below. A pleasing range of green patina, ranging from deep forest green to lime around the bust. Provided with certificate of authenticity. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. The item “VESPASIAN 71AD Rome Sestertius JUDAEA CAPTA Ancient Roman Coin NGC Certified” is in sale since Monday, August 15, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Certification: NGC VF , 4/5, 3/5
  • Ruler: Vespasian

Jun 20 2017

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius

Authentic ancient Roman bronze coin of Faustina Senior (wife of Antoninus Pius) 138 AD-161 AD. On the obverse side: Head of. On the reverse side: Aeternitas (personification of stability and eternity) standing holding a phoenix on a globe and raising skirt. This rare coin has some corrosion and beautiful dark green patina, it is good condition. Measures 33mm in length. Reference: Van Meter 18/1, RIC 1105. All my artifacts are ancient as described, and guaranteed authentic. Don’t forget to check out my other auctions for more great deals on Ancient Jewelry. The item “RARE & MASSIVE Ancient ROMAN COIN of FAUSTINA SENIOR aeternitas huge sestertius” is in sale since Monday, June 19, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “fn7″ and is located in Hot Springs, Montana. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Sestertius
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins

Jun 19 2017

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin

This is a Vespasian Jewish War Judaea Capta Roman Coin/Token, Cant find a lot of info on this, other than title. The Coin weighs 9.7 grams, diameter 28.83mm, and width 2.2mm. Unknown metal, scared to clean or scratch not to hurt if it has greater Value. Feel free to contact me with questions or if you have information on this. The item “VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin” is in sale since Sunday, June 11, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “w.green” and is located in Richmond, Virginia. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Ruler: Vespasian