Oct 12 2017

Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Pegasus winged Horse i42109

Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Pegasus winged Horse i42109

Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Pegasus winged Horse i42109

Item: i42109 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Gallienus – Roman Emperor : 253-268 A. Joint Rule with Valerian I 253-260 A. Bronze Antoninianus 20mm (3.57 grams) Mediolanum mint: 260-268 A. Reference: RIC 283k, C 979 GALLIENVS AVG – Radiate head right. SOLI CONS AVG. Rearing right, A in exergue. Pegasus is one of the best known mythological creatures in Greek mythology. He is a winged divine stallion usually depicted as pure white in colour. He was sired by Poseidon , in his role as horse-god, and foaled by the Gorgon Medusa. He was the brother of Chrysaor , born at a single birthing when his mother was decapitated by Perseus. Greco-Roman poets write about his ascent to heaven after his birth and his obeisance to Zeus , king of the gods, who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from Olympus. Friend of the Muses, Pegasus is the creator of Hippocrene , the fountain on Mt. He was captured by the Greek hero Bellerophon near the fountain Peirene with the help of Athena and Poseidon. Pegasus allows the hero to ride him to defeat a monster, the Chimera, before realizing many other exploits. His rider, however, falls off his back trying to reach Mount Olympus. Zeus transformed him into the constellation Pegasus and placed him up in the sky. Hypotheses have been proposed regarding its relationship with the Muses , the gods Athena , Poseidon , Zeus , Apollo , and the hero Perseus. The symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Symbol of wisdom and especially of fame from the Middle Ages until the Renaissance, he became one symbol of the poetry and the creator of sources in which the poets come to draw inspiration, particularly in the 19th century. Pegasus is the subject of a very rich iconography, especially through the ancient Greek pottery and paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance. Personification of the water, solar myth, or shaman mount, Carl Jung and his followers have seen in Pegasus a profound symbolic esoteric in relation to the spiritual energy that allows to access to the realm of the gods on Mount Olympus. In the 20th and 21st century, he appeared in movies, in fantasy, in video games and in role play, where by extension, the term “pegasus” is often used to refer to any winged horse. Pegasus, as the horse of Muses, was put on the roof of Pozna Opera House (Max Littmann , 1910). The poet Hesiod presents a folk etymology if the name Pegasus as derived from pg “spring, well”: the pegai of Okeanos , where he was born. A proposed etymology of the name is Luwian pihassas , meaning “lightning”, and Pihassassi , a local Luwian-Hittite name in southern Cilicia of a weather god represented with thunder and lightning. The proponents of this etymology adduce Pegasus’ role, reported as early as Hesiod , as bringer of thunderbolts to Zeus. It was first suggested in 1952 and remains widely accepted, but Robin Lane Fox (2009) has criticized it as implausible. According to legend, everywhere the winged horse struck his hoof to the earth, an inspiring spring burst forth. One of these springs was upon the Muses’ Mount Helicon , the Hippocrene (“horse spring”). Opened, Antoninus Liberalis suggested. At the behest of Poseidon to prevent the mountain swelling with rapture at the song of the Muses; another was at Troezen. Hesiod relates how Pegasus was peacefully drinking from a spring when the hero Bellerophon captured him. Hesiod also says Pegasus carried thunderbolts for Zeus. There are several versions of the birth of the winged stallion and his brother Chrysaor in the far distant place at the edge of Earth, Hesiod’s springs of Oceanus, which encircles the inhabited earth, where Perseus found Medusa. One is that they sprang from the blood issuing from Medusa’s neck as Perseus was beheading her. Similar to the manner in which Athena was born from the head of Zeus. In another version, when Perseus beheaded Medusa, they were born of the Earth, fed by the Gorgon’s blood. A variation of this story holds that they were formed from the mingling of Medusa’s blood, Pain and sea foam, implying that Poseidon had involvement in their making. The last version bears resemblance to the birth of Aphrodite , daughter of Zeus. Pegasus aided the hero Bellerophon in his fight against both the Chimera and the Amazons. There are varying tales as to how Bellerophon found Pegasus; the most common says that the hero was told by Polyeidos to sleep in the temple of Athena , where the goddess visited him in the night and presented him with a golden bridle. The next morning, still clutching the bridle, he found Pegasus drinking at the Pierian spring and caught Pegasus, and eventually tamed him. Parthian era bronze plate depicting Pegasus (“Pegaz” in Persian), excavated in Masjed Soleyman , Khzestn , Iran. Michaud’s Biographie universelle relates that when Pegasus was born, he flew to where thunder and lightning is released. Then, according to certain versions of the myth, Athena tamed him and gave him to Perseus, who flew to Ethiopia to help Andromeda. In fact Pegasus is a late addition to the story of Perseus, who flew on his own with the sandals loaned him by Hermes. Pegasus and Athena left Bellerophon to forge some sweet goods and continued to Olympus where he was stabled with Zeus’ other steeds, and was given the task of carrying Zeus’ thunderbolts. Because of his faithful service to Zeus, he was honored with transformation into a constellation. On the day of his catasterism , when Zeus transformed him into a constellation, a single feather fell to the earth near the city of Tarsus. The emblem of the World War II, British Airborne Forces, Bellerophon riding the flying horse Pegasus. During World War II , the silhouetted image of Bellerophon the warrior, mounted on the winged Pegasus, was adopted by the United Kingdom’s newly-raised parachute troops in 1941 as their upper sleeve insignia. The image clearly symbolized a warrior arriving at a battle by air, the same tactics used by paratroopers. The square upper-sleeve insignia comprised Bellerophon/Pegasus in light blue on a maroon background. The insignia was designed by famous English novelist Daphne du Maurier , who was married to the commander of the 1st Airborne Division (and later the expanded British Airborne Forces), General Frederick “Boy” Browning. According to The British Army Website, the insignia was designed by Major Edward Seago in May, 1942. The maroon background on the insignia was later used again by the Airborne Forces when they adopted the famous maroon beret in Summer 1942. The beret was the origin of the German nickname for British airborne troops, The Red Devils. Today’s Parachute Regiment carries on the maroon beret tradition. During the airborne phase of the Normandy invasion on the night of 56 June 1944, British 6th Airborne Division captured all its key objectives in advance of the seaborne assault, including the capture and holding at all costs of a vital bridge over the Caen Canal , near Ouistreham. In memory of their tenacity, the bridge has been known ever since as Pegasus Bridge. The winged horse that has provided an instantly recognizable corporate logo or emblem of inspiration. Is an evil man who wants to steal the Exodyssian pecies. The South American country of Ecuador launched its first a satellite, named “Pegaso” (Pegaus in Spanish) on April 26, 2013. Pegasus Seiya , the central character in the anime series Saint Seiya , (Knights of the Zodiac) takes his name “Pegasus” from the Pegasus Bronze Cloth he uses to produce his armor. Pegasus Airlines Turkish: Pegasus Hava Tamacl A.. is a low-cost airline headquartered in the Kurtk√∂y area of Pendik, Istanbul , Turkey. Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. 218 268 was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces. The exact birth date of Gallienus is unknown. The Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218. He was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana , who may have been of senatorial rank, possibly the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus , and his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria , which may have been his birthplace; it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mother’s family, the Egnatii. Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne. She was the mother of three princes: Valerian II , who died in 258; Saloninus , who was named co-emperor but was murdered in 260 by the army of general Postumus; and Marinianus , who was killed in 268, shortly after his father was assassinated. When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and Augustus. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a century earlier, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. Division of the empire had become necessary due to its sheer size and the numerous threats it faced, and it facilitated negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate directly with the emperor. Early reign and the revolt of Ingenuus. Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine area (Germania Inferior , Germania Superior , Raetia , and Noricum), though he almost certainly visited the Danube area and Illyricum during 253 to 258. According to Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he was particularly energetic and successful in preventing invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, despite the weakness caused by Valerian’s march on Italy against Aemilianus in 253. According to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there, and a victory in Roman Dacia might also be dated to that period. Even the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time. In 255 or 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. During his Danube sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II Caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I; the boy probably joined Gallienus on campaign at that time, and when Gallienus moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained behind on the Danube as the personification of Imperial authority. Sometime between 258 and 260 (the exact date is unclear), while Valerian was distracted with the ongoing invasion of Shapur in the East, and Gallienus was preoccupied with his problems in the West, Ingenuus , governor of at least one of the Pannonian provinces, took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II had apparently died on the Danube, most likely in 258. Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus , and Postumus. In any case, Gallienus reacted with great speed. He left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne , under the supervision of Albanus (or Silvanus) and the military leadership of Postumus. He then hastily crossed the Balkans , taking with him the new cavalry corps (comitatus) under the command of Aureolus and defeated Ingenuus at Mursa or Sirmium. The victory must be attributed mainly to the cavalry and its brilliant commander. Ingenuus was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium. Invasion of the Alamanni. A major invasion by the Alemanni and other Germanic tribes occurred between 258 and 260 (it is hard to fix the precise date of these events), probably due to the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting Gallienus in the campaign against Ingenuus. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul , some reaching as far as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco (modern Tarragona). The Alamanni invaded, probably through Agri Decumates (an area between the upper Rhine and the upper Danube), likely followed by the Juthungi. After devastating Germania Superior and Raetia (parts of southern France and Switzerland), they entered Italy, the first invasion of the Italian peninsula, aside from its most remote northern regions, since Hannibal 500 years before. When invaders reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an improvised army assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops (probably prtorian guards) and the strongest of the civilian population. On their retreat through northern Italy, they were intercepted and defeated in the battle of Mediolanum (near present day Milan) by Gallienus’ army, which had advanced from Gaul, or from the Balkans after dealing with the Franks. The battle of Mediolanum was decisive, and the Alamanni didn’t bother the empire for the next ten years. The Juthungi managed to cross the Alps with their valuables and captives from Italy. An historian in the 19th century suggested that the initiative of the Senate gave rise to jealousy and suspicion by Gallienus, thus contributing to his exclusion of senators from military commands. The revolt of Regalianus. Around the same time, Regalianus , a military commander of Illyricum , was proclaimed Emperor. The reasons for this are unclear, and the Historia Augusta (almost the sole resource for these events) does not provide a credible story. It is possible the seizure can be attributed to the discontent of the civilian and military provincials, who felt the defense of the province was being neglected. Regalianus held power for some six months and issued coins bearing his image. After some success against the Sarmatians , his revolt was put down by the invasion of Roxolani into Pannonia , and Regalianus himself was killed when the invaders took the city of Sirmium. Capture of Valerian, revolt of Macrianus. In the East, Valerian was confronted with serious troubles. A band of Scythians set a naval raid against Pontus , in the northern part of modern Turkey. After ravaging the province, they moved south into Cappadocia. Valerian led troops to intercept them but failed, perhaps because of a plague that gravely weakened his army, as well as the contemporary invasion of northern Mesopotamia by Shapur I , ruler of the Sassanid Empire. In 259 or 260, the Roman army was defeated in the Battle of Edessa , and Valerian was taken prisoner. Shapur’s army raided Cilicia and Cappadocia (in present day Turkey), sacking, as Shapur’s inscriptions claim, 36 cities. It took a rally by an officer Callistus (Balista), a fiscal official named Fulvius Macrianus , the remains of the Eastern Roman legions, and Odenathus and his Palmyrene horsemen to turn the tide against Shapur. The Persians were driven back, but Macrianus proclaimed his two sons Quietus and Macrianus (sometimes misspelled Macrinus) as emperors. Coins struck for them in major cities of the East indicate acknowledgement of the usurpation. The two Macriani left Quietus, Ballista, and, presumably, Odenathus to deal with the Persians while they invaded Europe with an army of 30,000 men, according to the Historia Augusta. At first they met no opposition. The Pannonian legions joined the invaders, being resentful of the absence of Gallienus. He sent his successful commander Aureolus against the rebels, however, and the decisive battle was fought in the spring or early summer of 261, most likely in Illyricum, although Zonaras locates it in Pannonia. In any case, the army of the usurpers surrendered, and their two leaders were killed. In the aftermath of the battle, the rebellion of Postumus had already started, so Gallienus had no time to deal with the rest of the usurpers, namely Balista and Quietus. Odenathus received the title of dux Romanorum and besieged the usurpers, who were based at Emesa. Eventually, the people of Emesa killed Quietus, and Odenathus arrested and executed Balista about November 261. The revolt of Postumus. After the defeat at Edessa, Gallienus lost control over the provinces of Britain, Spain, parts of Germania, and a large part of Gaul when another general, Postumus , declared his own realm (usually known today as the Gallic Empire). The revolt partially coincided with that of Macrianus in the East. Gallienus had installed his son Saloninus and his guardian, Silvanus , in Cologne in 258. Postumus, a general in command of troops on the banks of the Rhine, defeated some raiders and took possession of their spoils. Instead of returning it to the original owners, he preferred to distribute it amongst his soldiers. When news of this reached Silvanus, he demanded the spoils be sent to him. Postumus made a show of submission, but his soldiers mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor. Under his command, they besieged Cologne, and after some weeks the defenders of the city opened the gates and handed Saloninus and Silvanus to Postumus, who had them killed. The dating of these events is not accurate, but they apparently occurred just before the end of 260. Postumus claimed the consulship for himself and one of his associates, Honoratianus, but according to D. Potter, he never tried to unseat Gallienus or invade Italy. Upon receiving news of the murder of his son, Gallienus began gathering forces to face Postumus. The invasion of the Macriani forced him to dispatch Aureolus with a large force to oppose them, however, leaving him with insufficient troops to battle Postumus. After some initial defeats, the army of Aureolus, having defeated the Macriani, rejoined him, and Postumus was expelled. Aureolus was entrusted with the pursuit and deliberately allowed Postumus to escape and gather new forces. During the siege, Gallenus was severely wounded by an arrow and had to leave the field. The standstill persisted until the death of Gallienus, and the Gallic Empire remained independent until 274. The revolt of Aemilianus. In spring of 262, the city was wrenched by civil unrest as a result of a new revolt. The rebel this time was the prefect of Egypt, Lucius Mussius Aemilianus , who had already given support to the revolt of the Macriani. The correspondence of bishop Dionysius of Alexandria provides a colourful commentary on the sombre background of invasion, civil war, plague, and famine that characterized this age. Knowing he could not afford to lose control of the vital Egyptian granaries, Gallienus sent his general Theodotus against Aemilianus, probably by a naval expedition. The decisive battle probably took place near Thebes, and the result was a clear defeat of Aemilianus. In the aftermath, Gallienus became Consul three more times in 262, 264, and 266. Herulian invasions, revolt of Aureolus, conspiracy and death. In the years 267269, Goths and other barbarians invaded the empire in great numbers. Sources are extremely confused on the dating of these invasions, the participants, and their targets. Modern historians are not even able to discern with certainty whether there were two or more of these invasions or a single prolonged one. It seems that, at first, a major naval expedition was led by the Heruli starting from north of the Black Sea and leading in the ravaging of many cities of Greece (among them, Athens and Sparta). Then another, even more numerous army of invaders started a second naval invasion of the empire. The Romans defeated the barbarians on sea first. Gallienus’ army then won a battle in Thrace , and the Emperor pursued the invaders. According to some historians, he was the leader of the army who won the great Battle of Naissus , while the majority believes that the victory must be attributed to his successor, Claudius II. In 268, at some time before or soon after the battle of Naissus, the authority of Gallienus was challenged by Aureolus , commander of the cavalry stationed in Mediolanum (Milan), who was supposed to keep an eye on Postumus. Instead, he acted as deputy to Postumus until the very last days of his revolt, when he seems to have claimed the throne for himself. The decisive battle took place at what is now Pontirolo Nuovo near Milan; Aureolus was clearly defeated and driven back to Milan. Gallienus laid siege to the city but was murdered during the siege. There are differing accounts of the murder, but the sources agree that most of Gallienus’ officials wanted him dead. According to the Historia Augusta , an unreliable source compiled long after the events it describes, a conspiracy was led by the commander of the guard Aurelius Heraclianus and Marcianus. Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the word that the forces of Aureolus were leaving the city, and Gallienus left his tent without his bodyguard, only to be struck down by Cecropius. One version has Claudius selected as Emperor by the conspirators, another chosen by Gallienus on his death bed; the Historia Augusta was concerned to substantiate the descent of the Constantinian dynasty from Claudius, and this may explain its accounts, which do not involve Claudius in the murder. The other sources Zosimus i. 40 and Zonaras xii. 25 report that the conspiracy was organized by Heraclianus, Claudius, and Aurelian. According to Aurelius Victor and Zonaras, on hearing the news that Gallienus was dead, the Senate in Rome ordered the execution of his family (including his brother Valerianus and son Marinianus) and their supporters, just before receiving a message from Claudius to spare their lives and deify his predecessor. Arch of Gallienus in Rome, 262 dedicated to, rather than built by, Gallienus. Gallienus was not treated favorably by ancient historians, partly due to the secession of Gaul and Palmyra and his inability to win them back. According to modern scholar Pat Southern, some historians now see him in a more positive light. Gallienus produced some useful reforms. He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses , that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. This reform arguably created a precedent for the future emperors Diocletian and Constantine I. The biographer Aurelius Victor reports that Gallienus forbade senators from becoming military commanders. This policy undermined senatorial power, as more reliable equestrian commanders rose to prominence. In Southern’s view, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the Dominate , along with Septimius Severus , Diocletian, and Constantine I. By portraying himself with the attributes of the gods on his coinage, Gallienus began the final separation of the Emperor from his subjects. A late bust of Gallienus (see above) depicts him with a largely blank face, gazing heavenward, as seen on the famous stone head of Constantine I. One of the last rulers of Rome to be theoretically called “Princeps”, or First Citizen, Gallienus’ shrewd self-promotion assisted in paving the way for those who would be addressed with the words “Dominus et Deus” (Lord and God). Antoninianus issued to celebrate. LEG II ITAL VII P VII F. Italica Legio II seven times faithful and loyal. LEG III ITAL VI P VI F. Italica Legio III six times faithful and loyal. LEG VII MAC VI P VI F. Macedonica Legio VII six times faithful and loyal. LEG VII CLA VI P VI F. Claudia Legio VII six. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Pegasus winged Horse i42109″ is in sale since Wednesday, August 13, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Gallienus

Mar 15 2017

Divus VALERIAN II on Eagle CONSECRATIO Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC i60084

Divus VALERIAN II on Eagle CONSECRATIO Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC i60084

Divus VALERIAN II on Eagle CONSECRATIO Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC i60084

Divus VALERIAN II on Eagle CONSECRATIO Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC i60084

Divus VALERIAN II on Eagle CONSECRATIO Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC i60084

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Issue Silver Antoninianus 21mm (3.94 grams) Cologne mint: 258-259 A. Reference: RIC 9, S 3071; Cohen 5; Cunetio 740; Gobl 911e Certification: NGC Ancients. Ch VF 4375823-242 DIVO VALERIANO CAES, Radiate, draped bust right. CONSACRATIO, Valerian II seated left, waving goodbye and holding scepter on back of eagle flying right, bearing him to heaven. Consecration Ceremony in Ancient Rome. The ceremony of consecration was very solemn and imposing. After the body had been clothed in the habiliments of death, it was placed on a bed of ivory; young men, chosen from the equestrian order, bore it on their shoulders to the pile. The Rogus, or Funeral Pile, is described by Dion, as a structure in the form of a turret, with three stories, of ivory and gold, and ornamented with statues. Herodian describes it as a mass of quadrangular shape, filled at the bottom with combustibles, on which again a second tier was placed of similar form and appearance, but narrower and furnished with openings; to this a third and a fourth were added, each gradually diminishing in size, till the whole resembled a watch-tower. The corpse being then introduced into the second layer or story, it was surrounded with aromatics and precious balms. The usual ceremonies being completed, a torch was applied, and the mass was consumed. After this apotheosis, the deceased emperor or empress had temples, altars, and priests dedicated to his or her honour, and the same worship was paid to the defunct, as paganism rendered to its gods and goddesses; whilst the Augusti, or Augustae, were thenceforth called DIVI and DIVAE. The form of the rogus, described as above by ancient writers, is brought to our view, with remarkable clearness, on numerous coins. This is a Julia Maesa, discovered at Rome; respecting which its then possessor, Viscount Ennius, a renowned antiquary, wrote to Garampi, papal nuncio at Vienna, that it is so well executed, and in such high preservation, that in the second layer of the funeral pile, the corpse of the empress is seen recumbent on a bed; a minute particular, never before distinguished in the monetal representation of these funeral structures. Publius Licinius Cornelius Valerianus (died 257 or 258), also known as Valerian II. Was the eldest son of Roman Emperor. Who was of Greek. Origin and grandson of the Emperor Valerian. Who was of a noble and traditional senatorial family. Shortly after his acclamation as Emperor (Augustus) Valerian made Gallienus his co-Emperor and his grandson, Valerian, Caesar, in 256. For a discussion of the dynastic politics that motivated this process, see the related article on Saloninus. The young Caesar was then established in Sirmium. To represent the Licinius family in the government of the troubled Illyrian provinces while Gallienus transferred his attentions to Germany to deal with barbarian incursions into Gaul. Because of his youth (he was probably no more than fifteen at the time), Valerian was put under the guardianship of Ingenuus. Who seems to have held an extraordinary command as governor of the Illyrian provinces, i. Upper and Lower Pannonia. And Upper and Lower Moesia. It is reported that Salonina was not happy with this arrangement. Although she could not publicly dispute the decisions of Valerian, the pater patriae which had been formally agreed by her husband, Gallienus, she suspected Ingenuus’s motives and asked an officer called Valentinus, otherwise unknown, to keep an eye on him. Despite this precaution, Valerian died in late 257-early 258 in circumstances sufficiently suspicious for Gallienus to attempt to demote Ingenuus. It was this action that sparked the attempted usurpation of the Empire by Ingenuus, who had widespread support among the Illyrian garrisons and the provincial establishment. As in case of his brother, Saloninus, who was later made Caesar in Gaul, the little we know of Valerian’s short reign in Illyria is indicative of the chaotic situation that prevailed on the northern frontiers of the Empire under Valerian and Gallienus. It seems to show that the mere presence of a member of the Imperial House in a troubled region was not sufficient to assuage local fears of being neglected by the distant Emperor. The local Caesar had to wield undisputed authority in his region and command the resources and the experience to deal with the internal and external threats to its security. Seem to have understood this when they set up Constantius Chlorus. As Caesars in Gaul and Illyria respectively some thirty-five years later. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “Divus VALERIAN II on Eagle CONSECRATIO Ancient Silver Roman Coin NGC i60084″ is in sale since Wednesday, March 15, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Valerian II
  • Composition: Silver
  • Certification: NGC
  • Culture: Roman
  • Material: Silver
  • Grade: Ch VF
  • Certification Number: 4375823-242
  • Denomination: Antoninianus
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman

Incoming search terms:

  • divus man consecratio

Feb 15 2017

VALERIAN I 255AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin SOL Whip Sun i58970

VALERIAN I 255AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin SOL Whip Sun i58970

VALERIAN I 255AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin SOL Whip Sun i58970

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 22mm (2.37 grams) Rome mint circa 255-257 A. Reference: RIC 106; Cohen 140; Sear5 9950 (whip) IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped bust right ORIENS AVGG, Sol standing left, right hand raised, left hand holding whip. (“Unconquered Sun”) was the official sun god. Of the later Roman Empire. And a patron of soldiers. In 274 the Roman emperor. Made it an official cult. Alongside the traditional Roman cults. Scholars disagree whether the new deity was a refoundation of the ancient Latin. A revival of the cult of Elagabalus. The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine. The last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dates to 387 AD and there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine. Found it necessary to preach against them. It is commonly claimed that the date of 25 December for Christmas. Was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti , or “Birthday of the Unconquered Sun”, but this view is challenged. Grandfather of Valerian II. Publius Licinius Valerianus c. 200 – after 260, commonly known in English. As Valerian or Valerian I , was the Roman Emperor. From 253 to 260. Unlike the majority of the pretenders during the Crisis of the Third Centuryy. Valerian was of a noble and traditional senatorial. Details of his early life are elusive, but for his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana. Who gave him two sons: later emperor Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus. In 238 he was princeps senatus. Negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as emperor. In 251, when Decius. Revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor. By the Senate, though he declined to accept the post. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine. And retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus. Who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus. Valerian’s first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus his colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch. Had fallen into the hands of a Sassanid. Was occupied by Shapur I. Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian. To Roman control but in the following year, the Goths. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa. But an outbreak of plague. Killed a critical number of legionaries. Weakening the Roman position in Edessa which was then besieged by the Persians. At the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated in the Battle of Edessa. And he arranged a meeting with Shapur to negotiate a peace settlement. The ceasefire was betrayed by Shapur who seized him and held him prisoner for the remainder of his life. Valerian’s capture was a humiliating defeat for the Romans. In The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Describes Valerian’s fate. The voice of history, which is often little more than the organ of hatred or flattery, reproaches Sapor with a proud abuse of the rights of conquest. We are told that Valerian, in chains, but invested with the Imperial purple, was exposed to the multitude, a constant spectacle of fallen greatness; and that whenever the Persian monarch mounted on horseback, he placed his foot on the neck of a Roman emperor. Notwithstanding all the remonstrances of his allies, who repeatedly advised him to remember the vicissitudes of fortune, to dread the returning power of Rome, and to make his illustrious captive the pledge of peace, not the object of insult, Sapor still remained inflexible. When Valerian sunk under the weight of shame and grief, his skin, stuffed with straw, and formed into the likeness of a human figure, was preserved for ages in the most celebrated temple of Persia; a more real monument of triumph, than the fancied trophies of brass and marble so often erected by Roman vanity. The tale is moral and pathetic, but the truth of it may very fairly be called in question. The letters still extant from the princes of the East to Sapor are manifest forgeries; nor is it natural to suppose that a jealous monarch should, even in the person of a rival, thus publicly degrade the majesty of kings. Whatever treatment the unfortunate Valerian might experience in Persia, it is at least certain that the only emperor of Rome who had ever fallen into the hands of the enemy, languished away his life in hopeless captivity. Valerian’s massacre of 258. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia. Was seized on 6 August, 258, in one of the Catacombs and was put to death; Cyprian of Carthage. Suffered martyrdom on 14 September. Another celebrated martyr was the Roman deacon St. In Spain Bishop Fructuosus of Tarragona. And his two deacons were put to death on 21 January, 259. There were also executions in the eastern provinces (Eusebius, VII, xii). Taken altogether, however, the repressions were limited to scattered spots and had no great success. An early Christian source, Lactantius. Maintained that for some time prior to his death Valerian was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human footstool by Shapur when mounting his horse. According to this version of events, after a long period of such treatment Valerian offered Shapur a huge ransom for his release. In reply, according to one version, Shapur was said to have forced Valerian to swallow molten gold (the other version of his death is almost the same but it says that Valerian was killed by being flayed alive) and then had the unfortunate Valerian skinned and his skin stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the main Persian temple. It was further alleged by Lactantius that it was only after a later Persian defeat against Rome that his skin was given a cremation and burial. The role of a Chinese prince held hostage by Shapur I, in the events following the death of Valerian has been frequently debated by historians, without reaching any definitive conclusion. The Humiliation of Emperor Valerian by Shapur I. Pen and ink, Hans Holbein the Younger. Some modern scholars believe that, contrary to Lactantius’ account, Shapur I. Sent Valerian and some of his army to the city of Bishapur. Where they lived in relatively good condition. Shapur used the remaining soldiers in engineering and development plans. Band-e Kaisar (Caesar’s dam) is one of the remnants of Roman engineering located near the ancient city of Susa. In all the stone carvings on Naghshe-Rostam, in Iran, Valerian is respected by holding hands with Shapur I, in sign of submission. It is generally supposed that some of Lactantius. Account is motivated by his desire to establish that persecutors of the Christians died fitting deaths; the story was repeated then and later by authors in the Roman Near East “fiercely hostile” to Persia. Other modern scholars tend to give at least some credence to Lactantius’ account. Valerian and Gallienus’ joint rule was threatened several times by usurpers. Despite several usurpation attempts, Gallienus secured the throne until his own assassination in 268. Owing to imperfect and often contradictory sources, the chronology and details of this reign are very uncertain. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “VALERIAN I 255AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin SOL Whip Sun i58970″ is in sale since Tuesday, February 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Valerian I
  • Composition: Silver

Feb 1 2017

Diva MARINIANA on Peacock VALERIAN I wife 254AD Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59045

Diva MARINIANA on Peacock VALERIAN I wife 254AD Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59045

Diva MARINIANA on Peacock VALERIAN I wife 254AD Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59045

Authentic Ancient Coin of. Wife of Valerian I’Diva Mariniana’ Silver Antoninianus 22mm (3.96 grams) Rome mint. 2nd-3rd emission of Valerian and Gallienus, 254-256 A. CONSECRATIO, Apotheosis of Mariniana: Mariniana, raising hand and holding scepter, reclining left on peacock flying upward to the right. Egnatia Mariniana probably was the wife of Roman Emperor. And mother of Emperor Gallienus. Several coins bearing the legend. Date back to the beginning of the reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Given the use of deifying the wife’s dead before their husbands’ accession to the throne, it is possible Mariniana died before 253. It is possible that Egnatius Victor Marinianus. Was the father of Mariniana. If this is true, Mariniana is also the mother of Gallienus, whose name was Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus. Other sources, however, make her the daughter of Lucius Egnatius Victor. And sister of Lucius Egnatius Victor Lollianus. Which makes him her uncle or perhaps brother. This is sustained by the fact that her great-great-great-great-great-nephew was named Flavius Avitus Marinianus. The item “Diva MARINIANA on Peacock VALERIAN I wife 254AD Ancient Silver Roman Coin i59045″ is in sale since Wednesday, February 01, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Mariniana
  • Composition: Silver