Mar 24 2018

CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 320AD Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very Rare i26309

CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 320AD Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very Rare i26309

CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 320AD Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very Rare i26309

Item: i26309 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Constantine I’The Great’- Roman Emperor: 307-337 A. Bronze AE3 20mm (2.64 grams) Rome mint 320 A. Reference: RIC 194 (VII, Rome) CONSTANTINVSAG – Helmeted, cuirassed bust right. ROMAEAETERNAE Exe: R(W-like monogram)CP – Roma seated right, holding shield reading X/V. Numismatic note: Rare type. In traditional Roman religion , Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. Her image appears on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius. Roma , formerly queen of almost the whole earth. 3 calls her the prince of cities; and according to Martial L. 8 she is terrarum dea gentiumque. Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus 27 February c. 272 22 May 337, commonly known in English as Constantine I , Constantine the Great , or (among Eastern Orthodox , Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine , was Roman emperor from 306, and the undisputed holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian , and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire. The Byzantine liturgical calendar, observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite , lists both Constantine and his mother Helena as saints. Although he is not included in the Latin Church’s list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title “The Great” for his contributions to Christianity. Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople , which would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years. One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes. He later went on to defeat the rival emperor Maxentius in the decisive battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. He is credited for several great landmarks in history and is probably best memorialized by the city that bore his name for hundreds of years: Constantinople. Although now renamed Istanbul, this city was to be the seat of power for all Byzantine emperors for the next 1100 years. Constantine is also remembered as the first Roman emperor who embraced Christianity and instituted the buildings and papal dynasty that eventually grew into what is today the Vatican and the Pope. The latter part of his life saw his commitment to the church rise in step with the increasing repression against old-school paganism. He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 320AD Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very Rare i26309″ is in sale since Sunday, February 05, 2012. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Constantine I

Mar 10 2018

Ancient Roman Provincial Coin Sons of Augustus, Mysia, RPC 2365, VERY RARE

Ancient Roman Provincial Coin Sons of Augustus, Mysia, RPC 2365, VERY RARE

Ancient Roman Provincial Coin Sons of Augustus, Mysia, RPC 2365, VERY RARE

Ancient Roman Provincial Coin Sons of Augustus, Mysia, RPC 2365, VERY RARE

You won’t regret it! All my coins are guaranteed to be authentic! Ancient Roman Provincial Coin. Augustus, with Gaius and Lucius as Caesars (27 BC-14 AD). Bare head of Gaius right. Bare head of Lucius right. If you are not happy with your order PLEASE let me know and I will do whatever I can to make it right! Thanks for your consideration and most of all… The item “Ancient Roman Provincial Coin Sons of Augustus, Mysia, RPC 2365, VERY RARE” is in sale since Sunday, November 05, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Provincial (100-400 AD)”. The seller is “lpgstock1″ and is located in Providence, Rhode Island. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Mar 2 2018

VESPASIAN 71AD Huge Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very rare i33782

VESPASIAN 71AD Huge Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very rare i33782

VESPASIAN 71AD Huge Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very rare i33782

Item: i33782 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Vespasian – Roman Emperor: 69-79 A. Bronze Sestertius 32mm (21.18 grams) Rome mint: 71 A. Reference: RIC 190; Sear 5 #2331; Cohen 419 IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right. ROMA S-C, Roma standing left holding Victory and spear. The sestertius , or sesterce , pl. Sestertii was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. Helmed Roma head right, IIS behind Dioscuri riding right, ROMA in linear frame below. The name sestertius (originally semis-tertius) means “2 ½”, the coin’s original value in asses , and is a combination of semis “half” and tertius “third”, that is, “the third half” (0 ½ being the first half and 1 ½ the second half) or “half the third” (two units plus half the third unit, or half way between the second unit and the third). Parallel constructions exist in Danish with halvanden (1 ½), halvtredje (2 ½) and halvfjerde (3 ½). The form sesterce , derived from French , was once used in preference to the Latin form, but is now considered old-fashioned. It is abbreviated as (originally IIS). Example of a detailed portrait of Hadrian 117 to 138. The sestertius was introduced c. 211 BC as a small silver coin valued at one-quarter of a denarius (and thus one hundredth of an aureus). A silver denarius was supposed to weigh about 4.5 grams, valued at ten grams, with the silver sestertius valued at two and one-half grams. In practice, the coins were usually underweight. When the denarius was retariffed to sixteen asses (due to the gradual reduction in the size of bronze denominations), the sestertius was accordingly revalued to four asses, still equal to one quarter of a denarius. It was produced sporadically, far less often than the denarius, through 44 BC. Hostilian under Trajan Decius 250 AD. In or about 23 BC, with the coinage reform of Augustus , the denomination of sestertius was introduced as the large brass denomination. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1/100 Aureus. The sestertius was produced as the largest brass denomination until the late 3rd century AD. Most were struck in the mint of Rome but from AD 64 during the reign of Nero (AD 5468) and Vespasian (AD 6979), the mint of Lyon (Lugdunum), supplemented production. Lyon sestertii can be recognised by a small globe, or legend stop, beneath the bust. The brass sestertius typically weighs in the region of 25 to 28 grammes, is around 3234 mm in diameter and about 4 mm thick. The distinction between bronze and brass was important to the Romans. Their name for brass was orichalcum , a word sometimes also spelled aurichalcum (echoing the word for a gold coin, aureus), meaning’gold-copper’, because of its shiny, gold-like appearance when the coins were newly struck (see, for example Pliny the Elder in his Natural History Book 34.4). Orichalcum was considered, by weight, to be worth about double that of bronze. This is why the half-sestertius, the dupondius , was around the same size and weight as the bronze as, but was worth two asses. Sestertii continued to be struck until the late 3rd century, although there was a marked deterioration in the quality of the metal used and the striking even though portraiture remained strong. Later emperors increasingly relied on melting down older sestertii, a process which led to the zinc component being gradually lost as it burned off in the high temperatures needed to melt copper (Zinc melts at 419 °C, Copper at 1085 °C). The shortfall was made up with bronze and even lead. Later sestertii tend to be darker in appearance as a result and are made from more crudely prepared blanks (see the Hostilian coin on this page). The gradual impact of inflation caused by debasement of the silver currency meant that the purchasing power of the sestertius and smaller denominations like the dupondius and as was steadily reduced. In the 1st century AD, everyday small change was dominated by the dupondius and as, but in the 2nd century, as inflation bit, the sestertius became the dominant small change. In the 3rd century silver coinage contained less and less silver, and more and more copper or bronze. By the 260s and 270s the main unit was the double-denarius, the antoninianus , but by then these small coins were almost all bronze. Although these coins were theoretically worth eight sestertii, the average sestertius was worth far more in plain terms of the metal they contained. Some of the last sestertii were struck by Aurelian (270275 AD). During the end of its issue, when sestertii were reduced in size and quality, the double sestertius was issued first by Trajan Decius (249251 AD) and later in large quantity by the ruler of a breakaway regime in the West called Postumus (259268 AD), who often used worn old sestertii to overstrike his image and legends on. The double sestertius was distinguished from the sestertius by the radiate crown worn by the emperor, a device used to distinguish the dupondius from the as and the antoninianus from the denarius. Eventually, the inevitable happened. Many sestertii were withdrawn by the state and by forgers, to melt down to make the debased antoninianus, which made inflation worse. In the coinage reforms of the 4th century, the sestertius played no part and passed into history. Sestertius of Hadrian , dupondius of Antoninus Pius , and as of Marcus Aurelius. As a unit of account. The sestertius was also used as a standard unit of account, represented on inscriptions with the monogram HS. Large values were recorded in terms of sestertium milia , thousands of sestertii, with the milia often omitted and implied. The hyper-wealthy general and politician of the late Roman Republic, Crassus (who fought in the war to defeat Spartacus), was said by Pliny the Elder to have had’estates worth 200 million sesterces’. A loaf of bread cost roughly half a sestertius, and a sextarius (0.5 liter) of wine anywhere from less than half to more than 1 sestertius. One modius (6.67 kg) of wheat in 79 AD Pompeii cost 7 sestertii, of rye 3 sestertii, a bucket 2 sestertii, a tunic 15 sestertii, a donkey 500 sestertii. A writing tablet from Londinium (Roman London), dated to c. 75125 AD, records the sale of a Gallic slave girl called Fortunata for 600 denarii, equal to 2,400 sestertii, to a man called Vegetus. It is difficult to make any comparisons with modern coinage or prices, but for most of the 1st century AD the ordinary legionary was paid 900 sestertii per annum, rising to 1,200 under Domitian (81-96 AD), the equivalent of 3.3 sestertii per day. Half of this was deducted for living costs, leaving the soldier (if he was lucky enough actually to get paid) with about 1.65 sestertii per day. A sestertius of Nero , struck at Rome in 64 AD. The reverse depicts the emperor on horseback with a companion. The legend reads DECVRSIO,’a military exercise’. Sestertii are highly valued by numismatists , since their large size gave caelatores (engravers) a large area in which to produce detailed portraits and reverse types. The most celebrated are those produced for Nero (54-68 AD) between the years 64 and 68 AD, created by some of the most accomplished coin engravers in history. The brutally realistic portraits of this emperor, and the elegant reverse designs, greatly impressed and influenced the artists of the Renaissance. The series issued by Hadrian (117-138 AD), recording his travels around the Roman Empire, brilliantly depicts the Empire at its height, and included the first representation on a coin of the figure of Britannia ; it was revived by Charles II , and was a feature of United Kingdom coinage until the 2008 redesign. In traditional Roman religion , Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. Her image appears on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius. Roma , formerly queen of almost the whole earth. 3 calls her the prince of cities; and according to Martial L. 8 she is terrarum dea gentiumque. Titus Flavius Vespasianus , known in English as Vespasian. 79 AD, was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 69 AD until his death in 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty , which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD He was succeeded by his sons Titus (7981) and Domitian (8196). Vespasian descended from a family of equestrians which rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, partaking in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and subjugating the Judaea province during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the Roman Empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea themselves declared Vespasian emperor on July 1. Vitellius was defeated, and the following day, Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. Little factual information survives about Vespasian’s government during the ten years he was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects such as the Colosseum. Upon his death on. He was succeeded by his eldest son Titus. The item “VESPASIAN 71AD Huge Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin ROMA Very rare i33782″ is in sale since Friday, August 09, 2013. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Vespasian

Feb 25 2018

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD

Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius), AR Denarius, 3.77 grams. Circa 41-47 AD, Rome mint. Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA legend with laureate, draped bust right. Rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI legend with Antonia standing facing, draped as Constantia, holding long torch and cornucopia. See images for proper impression. Footnotes Antonia (died 37 AD) was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus and mother of Claudius. The item “Very Rare Ancient Roman Empire Coin Antonia (under Claudius)AR Denarius 41-47 AD” is in sale since Saturday, July 29, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins\Coins\Ancient\Roman\Roman Imperial (96-235AD)”. The seller is “neroni666″ and is located in London. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Metal: Silver
  • Denomination: Denarius

Jan 16 2018

Ancient Roman Gold Coin, Valentinian I Lyon Mint, 364-375 A. D. Very Rare Coin

Ancient Roman Gold Coin, Valentinian I Lyon Mint, 364-375 A. D. Very Rare Coin

Ancient Roman Gold Coin, Valentinian I Lyon Mint, 364-375 A. D. Very Rare Coin

Ancient Roman Gold Coin, Valentinian I Lyon Mint, 364-375 A. D. Very Rare Coin

Ancient Roman Gold Coin, Valentinian I Lyon Mint, 364-375 A. D. Very Rare Coin

WE ARE PLEASED TO OFFER AN OUTSTANDING COIN OF. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I right. Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe; SMLVG. Dabbah Collection, then by descent. I ENCOURAGE ALL BUYERS TO TAKE THEIR ANCIENT PIECES TO THE NEAREST MUSEUM TO BE AUTHENTICATED AND YOU CAN HAVE PEACE OF MIND. COA’s offered upon request! IF YOU WANT TO SEE MORE AMAZING ANCIENT DEALS, PLEASE. Check out my other items! The item “ANCIENT ROMAN GOLD COIN, VALENTINIAN I LYON MINT, 364-375 A. D. VERY RARE COIN” is in sale since Sunday, December 10, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “tarrabcoins” and is located in Salem, Oregon. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Solidus
  • Ruler: Valens
  • Composition: Gold
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Provenance: Ownership History Available
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: Uncleaned

Jan 12 2018

BALBINUS 238AD Rome VERY RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Denarius Roman Coin

BALBINUS 238AD Rome VERY RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Denarius Roman Coin

BALBINUS 238AD Rome VERY RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Denarius Roman Coin

[6581] Balbinus – Roman Emperor: 238 A. Silver’Heavy’ Denarius 20mm (3.70 grams) Rome mint, April-June 238 A. RIC 5 IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Balbinus to right. P M TR P COS II P P Balbinus standing front, head to left, holding olive-branch in his right hand and parazonium with his left. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC by Sergey Nechayev, PhD – Numismatic Expert. The item “BALBINUS 238AD Rome VERY RARE Authentic Ancient Silver Denarius Roman Coin” is in sale since Thursday, November 02, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “victoram” and is located in Forest Hills, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Balbinus
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Culture: Roman
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins
  • Composition: Silver
  • Denomination: Denarius

Jan 5 2018

TRAJAN 103AD Rome VERY RARE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin CIRCUS MAXIMUS i65820

TRAJAN 103AD Rome VERY RARE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin CIRCUS MAXIMUS i65820

TRAJAN 103AD Rome VERY RARE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin CIRCUS MAXIMUS i65820

Item: i65820 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Bronze Sestertius 32mm (19.80 grams) Rome mint, struck 103-104 A. Reference: C 546; BMC 853; RIC 571; CBN 222 IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P Laureate bust r. SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI S C. The Circus Maximus, as seen from the Forum Boarium: porticos with two entrances, with monumental gate crowned by quadriga, triumphal arches, curved wall, temple of Sol, spina with obelisk flanked by equestrian statue of Trajan and shrine of Cybele in background. The skeletal outline of the Circus Maximus in Rome today is only a faint indication of the grand structure that once was the focal point for entertainment in the capital. This hippodrome is said to have been Rome’s oldest stadium. It evolved from a simple racetrack between the Aventine and Palatine hills with no formal structure, to one incorporating wooden, and then stone benches, and finally a massive superstructure as seen on this sestertius. Over time the area was decorated with monuments, statues, trophies, shrines, arcades, towers, porticoes, triumphal gates and arches. Served as the center piece of the spina. Pliny the Elder describes the circus as able to accommodate 250,000 people, but this figure no doubt includes those viewing from the slopes of the flanking hills. However, at its peak in the mid-4th Century A. It is believed to have been able to seat more than 200,000 spectators. The circus was damaged on many occasions, including by fire during the reigns of Augustus and Nero. Restorations to the structure, it seems, are celebrated on coinage. For this reason, Trajan issued sestertii depicting the hippodrome, which probably served as the prototype for Caracalla’s issue since both show the structure from the same elevated perspective with simultaneous exterior and interior views. A variety of events were held there, including parades, theatrical events, foot races, boxing and wrestling matches and equestrian contests. Bloody spectacles were also hosted, such as gladiatorial combats (ludi gladiatorii) and exotic animal hunts (venationes). Chariot racing (ludi circenses), however, was the most popular event held in the circus. In Trajan’s time two dozen races would have been held in a single day, with eight teams competing in each event. A race consisted of seven laps that could be completed in less than ten minutes. The chariots were usually drawn by teams of two, three or four horses. Occasionally there were teams of six horses, which certainly was more of a crowd-pleasing novelty than a practical event. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus , commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 – 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non-patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province (modern day Spain), Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian, serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier, and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Market and Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia against king Decebalus, defeating the Dacian army near Tapae in 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom, establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia, advancing as far as the city of Susa in 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke on August 9, in the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus-commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning “may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan”. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan, while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (in what is now Andalusia in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica, where the Italian families were paramount. Of Italian stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a prominent senator and general from the famous gens Ulpia. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana and his niece was Salonina Matidia. The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army, serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 76-77, Trajan’s father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. Trajan was nominated as Consul and brought Apollodorus of Damascus with him to Rome around 91. Along the Rhine River, he took part in the Emperor Domitian’s wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva, who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History , it was the future Emperor Hadrian who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. The new Roman emperor was greeted by the people of Rome with great enthusiasm, which he justified by governing well and without the bloodiness that had marked Domitian’s reign. His popularity was such that the Roman Senate eventually bestowed upon Trajan the honorific of optimus , meaning “the best”. Dio Cassius, sometimes known as Dio, reveals that Trajan drank heartily and was involved with boys. I know, of course, that he was devoted to boys and to wine, but if he had ever committed or endured any base or wicked deed as the result of this, he would have incurred censure; as it was, however, he drank all the wine he wanted, yet remained sober, and in his relation with boys he harmed no one. ” This sensibility was one that influenced his governing on at least one occasion, leading him to favour the king of Edessa out of appreciation for his handsome son: “On this occasion, however, Abgarus, induced partly by the persuasions of his son Arbandes, who was handsome and in the pride of youth and therefore in favour with Trajan, and partly by his fear of the latter’s presence, he met him on the road, made his apologies and obtained pardon, for he had a powerful intercessor in the boy. It was as a military commander that Trajan is best known to history, particularly for his conquests in the Near East, but initially for the two wars against Dacia – the reduction to client kingdom (101-102), followed by actual incorporation to the Empire of the trans-Danube border kingdom of Dacia-an area that had troubled Roman thought for over a decade with the unfavourable (and to some, shameful) peace negotiated by Domitian’s ministers In the first war c. March-May 101, he launched a vicious attack into the kingdom of Dacia with four legions, crossing to the northern bank of the Danube River on a stone bridge he had built, and defeating the Dacian army near or in a mountain pass called Tapae (see Second Battle of Tapae). Trajan’s troops were mauled in the encounter, however and he put off further campaigning for the year to heal troops, reinforce, and regroup. During the following winter, King Decebalus launched a counter-attack across the Danube further downstream, but this was repulsed. Trajan’s army advanced further into Dacian territory and forced King Decebalus to submit to him a year later, after Trajan took the Dacian capital/fortress of Sarmizegethusa. The Emperor Domitian had campaigned against Dacia from 86 to 87 without securing a decisive outcome, and Decebalus had brazenly flouted the terms of the peace (89 AD) which had been agreed on conclusion of this campaign. The victory was celebrated by the Tropaeum Traiani. Decebalus though, after being left to his own devices, in 105 undertook an invasion against Roman territory by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took to the field again and after building with the design of Apollodorus of Damascus his massive bridge over the Danube, he conquered Dacia completely in 106. Sarmizegethusa was destroyed, Decebalus committed suicide, and his severed head was exhibited in Rome on the steps leading up to the Capitol. Trajan built a new city, “Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa”, on another site than the previous Dacian Capital, although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. He resettled Dacia with Romans and annexed it as a province of the Roman Empire. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns benefited the Empire’s finances through the acquisition of Dacia’s gold mines. The victory is celebrated by Trajan’s Column. Expansion in the East. At about the same time Rabbel II Soter, one of Rome’s client kings, died. This event might have prompted the annexation of the Nabataean kingdom, although the manner and the formal reasons for the annexation are unclear. Some epigraphic evidence suggests a military operation, with forces from Syria and Egypt. What is clear, however, is that by 107, Roman legions were stationed in the area around Petra and Bostra, as is shown by a papyrus found in Egypt. The empire gained what became the province of Arabia Petraea (modern southern Jordan and north west Saudi Arabia). The next seven years, Trajan ruled as a civilian emperor, to the same acclaim as before. It was during this time that he corresponded with Pliny the Younger on the subject of how to deal with the Christians of Pontus, telling Pliny to leave them alone unless they were openly practicing the religion. He built several new buildings, monuments and roads in Italia and his native Hispania. His magnificent complex in Rome raised to commemorate his victories in Dacia (and largely financed from that campaign’s loot)-consisting of a forum, Trajan’s Column, and Trajan’s Market still stands in Rome today. He was also a prolific builder of triumphal arches, many of which survive, and rebuilder of roads (Via Traiana and Via Traiana Nova). One notable act of Trajan was the hosting of a three-month gladiatorial festival in the great Colosseum in Rome (the precise date of this festival is unknown). Combining chariot racing, beast fights and close-quarters gladiatorial bloodshed, this gory spectacle reputedly left 11,000 dead (mostly slaves and criminals, not to mention the thousands of ferocious beasts killed alongside them) and attracted a total of five million spectators over the course of the festival. Another important act was his formalisation of the Alimenta , a welfare program that helped orphans and poor children throughout Italy. It provided general funds, as well as food and subsidized education. Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute between modern scholars: usually, it’s assumed that the programme intended to bolster citzen numbers in Italy. However, the fact that it was subsidized by means of interest payments on loans made by landowners restricted it to a small percentage of potential welfare recipients (Paul Veyne has assumed that, in the city of Veleia, only one child out of ten was an actual beneficiary) – therefore, the idea, advanced by Moses I. Finley, that the whole scheme was at most a form of random charity, a mere imperial benevolence. Maximum extent of the Empire. The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan (117). In 113, he embarked on his last campaign, provoked by Parthia’s decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier. Some modern historians also attribute Trajan’s decision to wage war on Parthia to economic motives: to control, after the annexation of Arabia, Mesopotamia and the coast of the Persian Gulf, and with it the sole remaining receiving-end of the Indian trade outside Roman control – an attribution of motive other historians find absurd, as seeing a commercial motive in a campaign triggered by the lure of territorial annexation and prestige – by the way, the only motive for Trajan’s actions ascribed by Dio Cassius in his description of the events. Other modern historians, however, think that Trajan’s original aim was quite modest: to assure a more defensible Eastern frontier for the Roman Empire, crossing across Northern Mesopotamia along the course of the river Khabur in order to offer cover to a Roman Armenia. Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident) and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. The cronology of subsequent events is uncertain, but it’s generally believed that early in 115 Trajan turned south into the core Parthian hegemony, taking the Northern Mesopotamian cities of Nisibis and Batnae and organizing a province of Mesopotamia in the beginning of 116, when coins were issued announcing that Armenia and Mesopotamia had been put under the authority of the Roman people. In early 116, however, Trajan began to toy with the conquest of the whole of Mesopotamia, an overambitious goal that eventually backfired on the results of his entire campaign: One Roman division crossed the Tigris into Adiabene, sweeping South and capturing Adenystrae; a second followed the river South, capturing Babylon; while Trajan himself sailed down the Euphrates, then dragged his fleet overland into the Tigris, capturing Seleucia and finally the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, receiving the submission of Athambelus, the ruler of Charax, whence he declared Babylon a new province of the Empire, sent the Senate a laurelled letter declaring the war to be at a close and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great and reach the distant India itself. A province of Assyria was also proclaimed, apparently covering the territory of Adiabene, as well as some measures seem to have been considered about the fiscal administration of the Indian trade. However, as Trajan left the Persian Gulf for Babylon – where he intended to offer sacrifice to Alexander in the house where he had died in 323 B. A sudden outburst of Parthian resistance, led by a nephew of the Parthian king, Sanatrukes, imperilled Roman positions in Mesopotamia and Armenia, something Trajan sought to deal with by forsaking direct Roman rule in Parthia proper, at least partially: later in 116, after defeating a Parthian army in a battle where Sanatrukes was killed and re-taking Seleucia, he formally deposed the Parthian king Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. That done, he retreated North in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia. Bust of Trajan, Glyptothek, Munich. It was at this point that Trajan’s health started to fail him. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. He was personally present at the siege and it is possible that he suffered a heat stroke while in the blazing heat. Shortly afterwards, the Jews inside the Eastern Roman Empire rose up in rebellion once more, as did the people of Mesopotamia. Trajan was forced to withdraw his army in order to put down the revolts. Trajan saw it as simply a temporary setback, but he was destined never to command an army in the field again, turning his Eastern armies over to the high ranking legate and governor of Judaea, Lusius Quietus, who in early 116 had been in charge of the Roman division who had recovered Nisibis and Edessa from the rebels; Quietus was promised for this a consulate in the following year – when he was actually put to death by Hadrian , who had no use for a man so committed to Trajan’s aggressive policies. Early in 117, Trajan grew ill and set out to sail back to Italy. His health declined throughout the spring and summer of 117, something publicy acknowledged by the fact that a bronze bust displayed at the time in the public baths of Ancyra showed him clearly aged and edemaciated. By the time he had reached Selinus in Cilicia which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 9. Some say that he had adopted Hadrian as his successor, but others that it was his wife Pompeia Plotina who hired someone to impersonate him after he had died. Hadrian, upon becoming ruler, recognized the abandonment of Mesopotamia and restored Armenia – as well as Osroene – to the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty – a telling sign the Roman Empire lacked the means for pursuing Trajan’s overambitious goals. However, all the other territories conquered by Trajan were retained. Trajan’s ashes were laid to rest underneath Trajan’s column, the monument commemorating his success. The Alcántara Bridge, widely hailed as a masterpiece of Roman engineering. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Notable structures include Trajan’s Column, Trajan’s Forum, Trajan’s Bridge, Alcántara Bridge, and possibly the Alconétar Bridge. In order to build his forum and the adjacent brick market that also held his name Trajan had vast areas of the surrounding hillsides leveled. Unlike many lauded rulers in history, Trajan’s reputation has survived undiminished for nearly nineteen centuries. Ancient sources on Trajan’s personality and accomplishments are unanimously positive. Pliny the younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. Dio Cassius admits Trajan had vices like heavy drinking and sexual involvement with boys, but added that he always remained dignified and fair. The Christianisation of Rome resulted in further embellishment of his legend: it was commonly said in medieval times that Pope Gregory I, through divine intercession, resurrected Trajan from the dead and baptized him into the Christian faith. An account of this features in the Golden Legend. Theologians, such as Thomas Aquinas, discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. In the Divine Comedy, Dante, following this legend, sees the spirit of Trajan in the Heaven of Jupiter with other historical and mythological persons noted for their justice. He also features in Piers Plowman. An episode, referred to as the justice of Trajan was reflected in several art works. In the 18th Century King Charles III of Spain comminsioned Anton Raphael Mengs to paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banqueting-hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid – considered among the best work of this artist. “Traian” is used as a male first name in present-day Romania – among others, that of the country’s incumbent president, Traian Bsescu. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store”. For on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. The item “TRAJAN 103AD Rome VERY RARE Sestertius Ancient Roman Coin CIRCUS MAXIMUS i65820″ is in sale since Wednesday, November 29, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan
  • Denomination: Sestertius

Jan 4 2018

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE

Roman coin – antoninianus. Julian I of Pannonia. IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in right hand, sceptre in left. Bronze, original green olive patina. Originating from ancient Siscium, nowadays Sisak, Croatia. Additional photos can be sent upon request. The item “Ancient Roman coin antoninianus, Julian I of Pannonia. 284-285 AD VERY RARE” is in sale since Saturday, September 16, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “blesko5″ and is located in Ljubljana. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Antoninianus
  • Cleaned/Uncleaned: Cleaned
  • Ruler: Julian I of Pannonia
  • Date: 284-285 AD
  • Composition: Bronze

Dec 24 2017

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin

Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin. This coin is a great find and highly sought after. It will make a great addition to ones collection. Caracalla, 198-217 AD Tetradrachm Antioch (Seleucis and Pieria) circa 214-215 AD, AR 26mm. Eagle standing facing, head and tail l. With wings displayed, holding wreath in beak. An alloy formerly used for coinage, containing gold or silver with a predominating amount of copper or other base metal. 4 April 188 8 April 217, formally. Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus. From AD 198 to 217. A member of the Severan Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Septimius Severus. Caracalla reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus’ death in 211. Caracalla then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta. With whom he had a fraught relationship, until he had Geta murdered later that year. Caracalla’s reign was marked by domestic instability and external invasions from the Germanic people. Caracalla is presented in ancient sources as a tyrant and cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Present Caracalla as a soldier first and emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth. Started the legend of Caracalla’s role as the king of Britain. Later, in the 18th century, Caracalla’s memory was revived in the works of French artists due to the parallels between Caracalla’s apparent tyranny and that of King Louis XVI. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler. His rule is remembered as being one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. Caracalla’s reign was notable for the Antonine Constitution. , also known as the Edict of Caracalla , which granted Roman citizenship. To nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla’s adopted praenomen. Domestically, Caracalla was known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla. Which became the second largest baths in Rome, for the introduction of a new Roman currency named the antoninianus. A sort of double denarius, and for the massacres he enacted against the people of Rome and elsewhere in the empire. Towards the end of his rule, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire. He did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217. He was succeeded as emperor by Macrinus. International Buyers – Please Note. The item “Caracalla. Very Rare Tetradrachm circa 214-215 AD. Ancient Roman Silver Coin” is in sale since Wednesday, December 20, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “ancientauctions” and is located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Tetradrachm
  • Certification: NGC Encapsulation Advisable
  • Composition: Billon
  • Grade: High Grade
  • Ruler: Caracalla
  • Date: 215-215 AD

Dec 4 2017

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare

See pictures to read the latin letters they are readable. Please note that some of th pictures are under the 10x magnifying glass which foucus on one side only of the view. I will accept your good offer just try. The item “Ancient roman coin pure gold authentic. Value 10k if in complete form very rare” is in sale since Tuesday, November 21, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “legrandteka” and is located in Lutherville-Timonium, Maryland. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Composition: Gold