Jul 13 2018

HADRIAN 134AD Rome Big Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Victory over Dacia i58458

HADRIAN 134AD Rome Big Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Victory over Dacia i58458

HADRIAN 134AD Rome Big Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Victory over Dacia i58458

HADRIAN 134AD Rome Big Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Victory over Dacia i58458

Item: i58458 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Hadrian – Roman Emperor: 117-138 A. Victory over Dacia Bronze As 24mm (10.66 grams) Rome mint: 134-138 A. Reference: RIC 850 HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right Dacia seated left on rock pile, holding vexillum and curved sword; DACIA in exergue; S-C across field. In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians or Getae as they were known by the Greeksa branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range. Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the Istros , or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons (the Balkan Mountains). Moesia (Dobrogea), a region south of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea) and the river Danastris (Dniester), in Greek sources the Tyras. But several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis (Bug River), and the Tisia (Tisza) to the west. At times Dacia included areas between the Tisza and the Middle Danube. The Carpathian Mountains were located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present day countries of Romania and Moldova , as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria , Serbia , Hungary , and Ukraine. Dacians (or Getae) were North Thracian tribes. Dacian tribes had both peaceful and military encounters with other neighboring tribes, such as Celts , Ancient Germanics , Sarmatians , and Scythians , but were most influenced by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The latter eventually conquered, and linguistically and culturally assimilated the Dacians. A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa , located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia. The Dacians, situated north of the lower Danube in the area of the Carpathians and Transylvania , are the earliest named people on the present territory of Romania. They are first mentioned in the writings of the Ancient Greeks , in Herodotus (Histories Book IV XCIII: “[Getae] the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes”) and Thucydides (Peloponnesian Wars , Book II: ” [Getae] border on the Scythians and are armed in the same manner, being all mounted archers “). Later, the Dacians were mentioned in Roman documents: Caesar’s De Bello Gallico , Book VI 25,1: The Hercynian Forest… Stretches along the Danube to the areas of the Daci and Anarti , and also under the name Geta (plural Getae). Strabo in his Geography , Book VII 3,12, tells about the Daci-Getae division “Getae, those who incline towards the Pontus and the east, and Daci, those who incline in the opposite direction towards Germany and the sources of the Ister”. In Strabo’s opinion, the original name of the Dacians was “daoi”, which Mircea Eliade in his De Zalmoxis à Genghis Khan explained with a possible Phrygian cognate “Daos”, the name of the wolf god. This assumption is supported by the fact that the Dacian standard, the Dacian Draco , had a wolf head. The late Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana indicates them as Dagae and Gaete. Much later, in the Late Middle Ages , the Roman Catholic Church on a few occasions used the term Dacia to denote Denmark , and referred to several notables from Denmark as “of Dacia”. The term did not catch on, and fell into disuse soon after its (re)introduction, so normally there is no confusion with the original usage. The extent and location of the geographical entity Dacia varied in its three distinct historical periods (see History , below). The Dacia of King Burebista (8244 BC), stretched from the Black Sea to the river Tisza and from the Balkan Mountains to Bohemia. During that period, the Geto-Dacians conquered a wider territory and Dacia extended from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea littoral (between Apollonia and Olbia) and from present-day Slovakia’s mountains to the Balkan mountains. In 53 BC, Julius Caesar stated that the lands of the Dacians started on the eastern edge of the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest). After Burebista’s death, his kingdom split in four states, later five. Around 20 AD, Strabo wrote Geographica. Which delineates the regions inhabited by Dacians at that time. On its basis, Lengyel and Radan (1980), Hoddinott (1981) and Mountain (1998) consider that the Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii, and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians. The hold of the Dacians between the Danube and Tisza was tenuous. However, the archaeologist Parducz argued a Dacian presence west of the Tisza dating from the time of Burebista. According to Tacitus (AD 56 AD 117) Dacians bordered Germania in the south-east, while Sarmatians bordered it in the east. In the 1st century AD, the Iazyges settled West of Dacia, on the plain between the Danube and the Tisza rivers, according to the scholars’ interpretation of Pliny’s text: The higher parts between the Danube and the Hercynian Forest (Black Forest) as far as the winter quarters of Pannonia at Carnutum and the plains and level country of the German frontiers there are occupied by the Sarmatian Iazyges, while the Dacians whom they have driven out hold the mountains and forests as far as the river Theiss. Strabo, in his Geography written between 20 BC 23 AD, says. As for the southern part of Germany beyond the Albis, the portion which is just contiguous to that river is occupied by the Suevi; then immediately adjoining this is the land of the Getae, which, though narrow at first, stretching as it does along the Ister on its southern side and on the opposite side along the mountain-side of the Hercynian Forest (for the land of the Getae also embraces a part of the mountains), afterwards broadens out towards the north as far as the Tyregetae; but I cannot tell the precise boundaries. Towards the west Dacia may originally have extended as far as the Danube, where it runs from north to south at Vác. In the 1st century BC, at the time of the Dacian Kingdom of Burebista , Julius Caesar in his De Bello Gallico (book 6) speaks of the Hercynian forest extending along the Danube to the territory of the Dacians. Written a few decades after the Roman conquest of Dacia 105106 AD. Ptolemy’s Geographia included the boundaries of Dacia. According to the scholars’ interpretation of Ptolemy (Hrushevskyi 1997, Bunbury 1879, Mocsy 1974, Barbulescu and Nagler 2005) Dacia was the region between the rivers Tisza , Danube, upper Dniester, and Siret. Mainstream historians accept this interpretation: Avery (1972) Berenger (1994) Fol (1996) Mountain (1998), Waldman Mason (2006). Ptolemy also provided a couple of Dacian toponyms in south Poland in the Upper Vistula (Polish: Wisla) river basin: Susudava and Setidava with a manuscript variant Getidava. This could have been an echo of Burebistas expansion. It seems that this northern expansion of the Dacian language, as far as the Vistula river, lasted until AD 170-180 when the migration of the Vandal Hasdingi pushed out this northern Dacian group. This Dacian group, possibly the Costoboci / Lipia culture , is associated by Gudmund Schütte with towns having the specific Dacian language ending ” dava ” i. The Roman province Dacia Traiana , established by the victors of the Dacian Wars during 101106 AD, initially comprised only the regions known today as Banat , Oltenia , Transylvania , and was subsequently gradually extended to parts of Moldavia , while Dobruja and Budjak belonged the Roman province of Moesia. In the 2nd century AD, after the Roman conquest, Ptolemy puts the eastern boundary of Dacia Traiana (the Roman province) as far east as the Hierasus (Siret) river, in modern Romania. Roman rule extended to include the south-western area of the Dacian Kingdom, but not to what later became known as Maramure , to parts of the later Principality of Moldavia east of the Siret and north of the Upper Trajan Wall , and to areas in modern Muntenia and Ukraine, except the Black Sea shore. After the Marcomannic Wars (166-180 AD), Dacian groups from outside Roman Dacia had been set in motion. So were the 12,000 Dacians’from the neighbourhood of Roman Dacia sent away from their own country’. Their native country could have been the Upper Tisza region but some other places cannot be excluded. The later Roman province Dacia Aureliana , was organized inside former Moesia Superior after the retreat of the Roman army from Dacia, during the reign of emperor Aurelian during 271275. It was reorganised as Dacia Ripensis (as a military province) and Dacia Mediterranea (as a civil province). Ptolemy gives a list of 43 names of towns in Dacia, out of which arguably 33 were of Dacian origin. Most of the latter included the added suffix dava (meaning settlement, village) But, other Dacian names from his list lack the suffix e. Zarmisegethusa regia = Zermizirga In addition, nine other names of Dacian origin seem to have been Latinised. The cities of the Dacians were known as -dava , -deva , – “-dawa” or “-dava”, Anc. Or – “-dava”, Byz. There is a list of Dacian davas 1 and, more actual, at SOLTDM. In Dacia: Acidava , Argedava , Buridava , Dokidava , Carsidava , Clepidava , Cumidava , Marcodava , Netindava , Patridava , Pelendava , Perburidava , Petrodaua , Piroboridaua , Rhamidaua , Rusidava , Sacidava , Sangidava , Setidava , Singidava , Tamasidava , Utidava , Zargidava , Ziridava , Sucidava 26 names altogether. In Lower Moesia (the present Northern Bulgaria) and Scythia minor (Dobrudja): Aedeba , Buteridava , Giridava , Dausadava , Kapidaua , Murideba , Sacidava , Scaidava (Skedeba), Sagadava , Sukidaua (Sucidava)10 names in total. In Upper Moesia (the districts of Nish, Sofia, and partly Kjustendil): Aiadaba , Bregedaba , Danedebai , Desudaba , Itadeba , Kuimedaba , Zisnudeba seven names in total. Gil-doba , a village in Thracia , of unknown location. Thermi-daua , a town in Dalmatia. Probably a Grecized form of Germidava. Pulpu-deva , (Phillipopolis) today Plovdiv in Bulgaria. The migrations of the forebears of Ancient Greece c. 750 BC or earlier are thought to have originated from periodically swelled populations in the fertile plains of the region. Such migrations would have occurred in prehistoric times, and therefore no documentation exists about them. There may have been trade with communities along the Danube via the Black sea , even in Minoan times (2700 to 1450 BC). Geto-Dacians inhabited both sides of the Tisza river prior to the rise of the Celtic Boii and again after the latter were defeated by the Dacians under the king Burebista. It seems likely that the Dacian state arose as an unstable tribal confederacy, which was united only fitfully by charismatic leadership in both military-political and ideological-religious domains. At the beginning of the 2nd century BC, under the rule of Rubobostes , a Dacian king in present-day Transylvania , the Dacians’ power in the Carpathian basin increased after they defeated the Celts , who previously held power in the region. A kingdom of Dacia also existed as early as the first half of the 2nd century BC under King Oroles. Conflicts with the Bastarnae and the Romans (112 109 BC, 74 BC), against whom they had assisted the Scordisci and Dardani , greatly weakened the resources of the Dacians. Burebista (Boerebista), a contemporary of Julius Caesar , ruled Geto-Dacian tribes between 82 BC and 44 BC. He thoroughly reorganised the army and attempted to raise the moral standard and obedience of the people by persuading them to cut their vines and give up drinking wine. During his reign, the limits of the Dacian Kingdom were extended to their maximum. The Bastarnae and Boii were conquered, and even the Greek towns of Olbia and Apollonia on the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) recognized Burebista’s authority. In 53 BC, Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest. Burebista suppressed the indigenous minting of coinages by four major tribal groups, adopting imported or copied Roman denarii as a monetary standard. During his reign, Burebista transferred Geto-Dacians capital from Argedava to Sarmizegetusa Regia. For at least one and a half centuries, Sarmizegetusa was the Dacians’ capital and reached its peak under King Decebalus. The Dacians appeared so formidable that Caesar contemplated an expedition against them, which his death in 44 BC prevented. In the same year Burebista was murdered, and the kingdom was divided into four (later five) parts under separate rulers. One of these entities was Cotiso’s state, to whom Augustus betrothed his own five-year-old daughter Julia. He is well known from the line in Horace Occidit Daci Cotisonis agmen , Odes, III. The Dacians are often mentioned under Augustus, according to whom they were compelled to recognize Roman supremacy. However they were by no means subdued, and in later times to maintain their independence they seized every opportunity of crossing the frozen Danube during the winter and ravaging the Roman cities in the province of Moesia. Strabo testified: “although the Getae and Daci once attained to very great power, so that they actually could send forth an expedition of two hundred thousand men, they now find themselves reduced to as few as forty thousand, and they have come close to the point of yielding obedience to the Romans, though as yet they are not absolutely submissive, because of the hopes which they base on the Germans, who are enemies to the Romans” [17]. In fact, this occurred because Burebista’s empire split after his death into four and later five smaller states, as Strabo explains, only recently, when Augustus Caesar sent an expedition against them, the number of parts into which the empire had been divided was five, though at the time of the insurrection it had been four. Such divisions, to be sure, are only temporary and vary with the times. Decebalus ruled the Dacians between 87 AD and 106 AD. The frontiers of Decebal’s Dacia were marked by the Tisza River to the west, by the Carpathians to the north and by the Dniester River to the east. Fiery battle scene between the Roman and Dacian armies, Trajan’s Column , Rome. Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedonia and Greece and east of the Danube that had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Julius Caesar. When a Roman army had been beaten at the Battle of Histria. In 85 AD, the Dacians had swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia. And initially defeated an army the Emperor Domitian sent against them. But the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae in 88 AD and a truce was drawn up. From 85 to 89 AD, the Dacians under Decebalus were engaged in two wars with the Romans. In 87 AD, the Roman troops under Cornelius Fuscus were defeated, and Cornelius Fuscus was killed by the Dacians by authority of their ruler, Diurpaneus. After this victory, Diurpaneus took the name of Decebalus. The next year, 88 AD, new Roman troops under Tettius Iullianus , gained a significant advantage, but were obliged to make peace following the defeat of Domitian by the Marcomanni , leaving the Dacians effectively independent. Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles. Defeated the Dacian general Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. With Trajan’s troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa , Decebalus once more sought terms. Decebalus rebuilt his power over the following years and attacked Roman garrisons again in 105 AD. In response Trajan again marched into Dacia. Attacking the Dacian capital in the Siege of Sarmizegethusa , and razing it to the ground. With Dacia quelled, Trajan subsequently invaded the Parthian empire to the east. His conquests brought the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. Rome’s borders in the east were governed indirectly in this period, through a system of client states , which led to less direct campaigning than in the west. To increase the glory of his reign, restore the finances of Rome, and end a treaty perceived as humiliating, Trajan resolved on the conquest of Dacia, the capture of the famous Treasure of Decebalus, and control over the Dacian gold mines of Transylvania. The result of his first campaign (101102) was the siege of the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa and the occupation of part of the country. The second campaign (105106) ended with the suicide of Decebalus, and the conquest of the territory that was to form the Roman province Dacia Traiana. The history of the war is given by Cassius Dio , but the best commentary upon it is the famous Column of Trajan in Rome. Although the Romans conquered and destroyed the ancient Kingdom of Dacia, a large remainder of the land remained outside of Roman Imperial authority. Additionally, the conquest changed the balance of power in the region and was the catalyst for a renewed alliance of Germanic and Celtic tribes and kingdoms against the Roman Empire. However, the material advantages of the Roman Imperial system was attractive to the surviving aristocracy. Thus, most of the Romanian historians and linguists believe that many of the Dacians became Romanised (see also Origin of Romanians). In 183 AD, war broke out in Dacia: few details are available, but it appears two future contenders for the throne of emperor Commodus , Clodius Albinus and Pescennius Niger , both distinguished themselves in the campaign. The Roman emperor Decius (249-251 AD) had to restore Roman Dacia from the Carpo-Dacians of Zosimus “having undertaken an expedition against the Carpi, who had then possessed themselves of Dacia and Moesia”. Even so, the Germanic and Celtic kingdoms, particularly the Gothic tribes , slowly moved toward the Dacian borders, and within a generation were making assaults on the province. Ultimately, the Goths succeeded in dislodging the Romans and restoring the “independence” of Dacia following Emperor Aurelian’s withdrawal, in 275. In 268-269 AD, at Naissus , Claudius II (Gothicus Maximus) obtained a decisive victory over the Goths. Since at that time Romans were still occupying Roman Dacia it is assumed that the Goths didn’t cross the Danube from the Roman province. The Goths who survived their defeat didn’t even attempt to escape through Dacia, but through Thrace. At the boundaries of Roman Dacia , Carpi (Free Dacians) were still strong enough to sustain five battles in eight years against the Romans from 301308 AD. That makes it probable that Roman Dacia was left in 275 AD by the Romans, to the Carpi again, and not to the Goths. There were still Dacians in 336 AD, against whom Constantine the Great fought. The province was abandoned by Roman troops, and, according to the Breviarium historiae Romanae by Eutropius , Roman citizens “from the towns and lands of Dacia” were resettled to the interior of Moesia. However, some historians maintain that the bulk of the civilian population remained and a surviving aristocratic Dacian line revived the kingdom under Regalianus. The Historia Augusta says he was a Dacian, a kinsman of [Decebalus]. Nonetheless, the Gothic aristocracy remained ascendant and through intermarriage soon dominated the kingdom, which was absorbed into their large empire. 296 AD, in order to defend the Roman border, fortifications were erected by the Romans on both banks of the Danube. By 336 AD, Constantine the Great had reconquered the lost province. He took the title Dacicus Maximus (“The great Victor over the Dacians”) when he restored Dacia back to the Roman Empire in 336 AD. However following his death, the Romans abandoned Dacia permanently. Hadrian – Roman Emperor : 117-138 A. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (as emperor Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus , and Divus Hadrianus after his apotheosis , known as Hadrian in English ; 24 January 76 10 July 138) was emperor of Rome from AD 117 to 138, as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia , Hadrian was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Italica or, less probably, in Rome , from a well-established family which had originated in Picenum in Italy and had subsequently settled in Italica , Hispania Baetica (the republican Hispania Ulterior), near the present day location of Seville, Spain. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian’s father. Trajan never officially designated a successor, but, according to his wife, Pompeia Plotina , Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan’s wife was well-disposed toward Hadrian: Hadrian may well have owed his succession to her. Hadrian’s presumed indebtedness to Plotina was widely regarded as the reason for Hadrian’s succession. However, there is evidence that he accomplished his succession on his own governing and leadership merits while Trajan was still alive. For example, between the years AD 100108 Trajan gave several public examples of his personal favour towards Hadrian, such as betrothing him to his grandniece, Vibia Sabina , designating him quaestor Imperatoris , comes Augusti , giving him Nerva’s diamond “as hope of succession”, proposing him for consul suffectus , and other gifts and distinctions. The young Hadrian was Trajan’s only direct male family/marriage/bloodline. The support of Plotina and of L. Licinius Sura (died in AD 108) were nonetheless extremely important for Hadrian, already in this early epoch. Although it was an accepted part of Hadrian’s personal history that Hadrian was born in Italica located in the province called Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula , comprising modern Spain and Portugal), his biography in Augustan History states that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian, but Hispanian for many generations. However, this may be a ruse to make Hadrian look like a person from Rome instead of a person hailing from the provinces. His father was the Hispano-Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer , who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome. Hadrians forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri , an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan. His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispano-Roman Senatorial family. Hadrians elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina , married with the triple consul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus , his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator, from Barcino. His parents died in 86 when Hadrian was ten, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajans Praetorian Prefect). Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus (“Greekling”). Hadrian visited Italica when (or never left it until) he was 14, when he was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. His first military service was as a tribune of the Adiutrix Legio II. Later, he was to be transferred to the Minervia Legio I in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen. His career before becoming emperor follows: decemvir stlitibus iudicandis – sevir turmae equitum Romanorum – praefectus Urbi feriarum Latinarum – tribunus militum legionis II Adiutricis Piae Fidelis (95, in Pannonia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis V Macedonicae (96, in Moesia Inferior) – tribunus militum legionis XXII Primigeniae Piae Fidelis (97, in Germania Superior) – quaestor (101) – ab actis senatus – tribunus plebis (105) – praetor (106) – legatus legionis I Minerviae Piae Fidelis (106, in Germania Inferior) – legatus Augusti pro praetore Pannoniae Inferioris (107) – consul suffectus (108) – septemvir epulonum (before 112) – sodalis Augustalis (before 112) – archon Athenis (112/13) – legatus Syriae (117). Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the Macedonica V) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian’s military skill is not well attested; however, his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent. Hadrian joined Trajan’s expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajans staff. Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command. Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan’s heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Since the document was signed by Plotina, it has been suggested that Trajan may have already been dead. The Roman empire in 125 AD, under the rule of Hadrian. Castel Sant’Angelo , the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum. This famous statue of Hadrian in Greek dress was revealed in 2008 to have been forged in the Victorian era by cobbling together a head of Hadrian and an unknown body. For years the statue had been used by historians as proof of Hadrian’s love of Hellenic culture. Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus , was instantly dismissed. The Senate’s endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight Hadrian’s legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate and the Syrian armies. Hadrian did not at first go to Rome he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian’s former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he “discovered” a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial they were hunted down and killed out of hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initiative. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan’s men. Hadrian and the military. Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian’s reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan’s conquests in Mesopotamia , considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. The peace policy was strengthened by the erection of permanent fortifications along the empire’s borders limites , sl. The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian’s Wall in Great Britain , and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications , forts, outposts and watchtowers , the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian’s policy was peace through strength, even threat. Cultural pursuits and patronage. Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian’s Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d’Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d’Este. In Rome , the Pantheon , originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome’s ancient buildings and was highly influential to many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus , famed architect of the Forum of Trajan , dismissed his designs. When Trajan , predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems. ” “Pumpkins refers to Hadrian’s drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this later story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward. Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer whether Marius Maximus or someone else on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography. Hadrian was a passionate hunter, already from the time of his youth according to one source. In northwest Asia, he founded and dedicated a city to commemorate a she-bear he killed. It is documented that in Egypt he and his beloved Antinous killed a lion. In Rome, eight reliefs featuring Hadrian in different stages of hunting on a building that began as a monument celebrating a kill. Another of Hadrian’s contributions to “popular” culture was the beard, which symbolised his philhellenism. Except for Nero (also a great lover of Greek culture), all Roman emperors before Hadrian were clean shaven. Most of the emperors after Hadrian would be portrayed with beards. Their beards, however, were not worn out of an appreciation for Greek culture but because the beard had, thanks to Hadrian, become fashionable. Hadrian had a face covered in warts and scars, and this may have partially motivated Hadrian’s beard growth. Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus , Heliodorus and Favorinus , but was generally considered an Epicurean , as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts , baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him “the Empire’s first servant”, and British historian Edward Gibbon admired his “vast and active genius”, as well as his “equity and moderation”. In 1776, he stated that Hadrian’s epoch was part of the “happiest era of human history”. While visiting Greece in 126, Hadrian attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion , failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes. Hadrian had a close relationship, widely reported to have been romantic, with a Greek youth, Antinous , whom he met in Bithynia in 124 when the boy was thirteen or fourteen. While touring Egypt in 130, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis , and had Antinous deified – an unprecedented honour for one not of the ruling family. Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber , in Rome , a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant’Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus. According to Cassius Dio a gigantic equestrian statue was erected to Hadrian after his death. It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small. The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero , once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii , to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad. Hadrian’s visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian’s will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt , this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship. At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class. Hadrian’s first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire’s very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed to Britannia. Hadrian’s Wall (Vallum Hadriani), a fortification in Northern England (viewed from Vercovicium). Hadrian’s Gate , in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 CE. Prior to Hadrian’s arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia , spanning roughly two years (119121). It was here where in 122 he initiated the building of Hadrian’s Wall (the exact Latin name of which is unknown). The purpose of the wall is academically debated. In 1893, Haverfield stated categorically that the Wall was a means of military defence. This prevailing, early 20th century view was challenged by Collingwood. Since then, other points of view have been put forwards; the wall has been seen as a marker to the limits of Romanitas , as a monument to Hadrian to gain glory in lieu of military campaigns, as work to keep the Army busy and prevent mutiny and waste through boredom, or to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future small scale invasions and unwanted immigration from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland). Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes , built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction; nevertheless, the Western third of the wall, from modern-day Carlisle to the River Irthing, was built of turf because of the lack of suitable building stone. This problem also led to the narrowing of the width of the wall, from the original 12 feet to 7, saving masonry. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian’s will to improve and develop within the Empire , rather than waging wars and conquering. Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled. By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania. In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels. However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt. When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates , he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king Osroes I. He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea. He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia , the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous , a young boy who was destined to become the emperor’s beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous’s drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14. It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite. After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably more than a mere whim lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city’s construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble. Temple of Zeus in Athens. The Pantheonn was rebuilt by Hadrian. The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians’ request he conducted a revision of their constitution among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name. During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their “restorer”. He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian’s lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous’s home in Bithynia. By March 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building the Temple of Olympian Zeus it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct. On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade. Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon. Also completed by then was Hadrian’s villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian. Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day. Greece, Asia and Egypt. In September 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries. This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece. Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time Hadrian set off for Ephesus. In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile , Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated. The emperor was grief stricken. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinopolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died Cassius Dio, LIX. 11; Historia Augusta , Hadrian. Hadrians movements subsequent to the founding of Antinopolis on October 30, 130 are obscure. See also: Bar Kokhba revolt. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem , in Judaea , left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 6673. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus , the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple , which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision , which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence “barbaric”. These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain , and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian’s report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation “I and the legions are well”. However, Hadrian’s army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio , during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar , a fortified city 10 km. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian only allowed the Jews to bury their dead after a period of six days. According to the Babylonian Talmud , after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism , which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph “may his bones be crushed” (or , the Aramaic equivalent), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple. Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation or the end of the Second Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of Venus and Roma on the former site of Nero’s Golden House. About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession. In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the “four consulars” executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia , Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138. Following the death of Aelius Caesar, Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrians close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesars daughter Ceionia Fabia). Hadrians precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part. It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius who was Annius Veruss uncle who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus’ daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative. The ancient sources present Hadrian’s last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness. The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian’s brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus’ grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death. Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would “long for death but be unable to die”. The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions. Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62. The cause of death is believed to have been heart failure. Dio Cassius and the Historia Augusta record details of his failing health, and a study published in 1980 drew attention to classical sculptures of Hadrian that show he had diagonal earlobe creases a characteristic associated with coronary heart disease. Hadrian was buried first at Puteoli , near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius , his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius , who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius. According to the Historia Augusta Hadrian composed shortly before his death the following poem. Quae nunc abibis in loca. Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos.. Little soul, roamer and charmerr. Body’s guest and companion. Into what places will you now depart. Pale, stiff, and nude. An end to all your jokes.. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. Whether your goal is to collect or give the item as a gift, coins presented like this could be more prized and valued higher than items that were not given such care and attention to. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens sometimes that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for their order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. How and where do I learn more about collecting ancient coins? Visit the “Guide on How to Use My Store” for on an overview about using my store, with additional information and links to all other parts of my store which may include educational information on topics you are looking for. You may also want to do a YouTube search for the term “ancient coin collecting” for educational videos on this topic. The item “HADRIAN 134AD Rome Big Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Victory over Dacia i58458″ is in sale since Sunday, January 22, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Hadrian

Jul 7 2018

Constantine I the Great Ancient Roman Coin Victory Over Licinius I i31356

Constantine I the Great Ancient Roman Coin Victory Over Licinius I i31356

Constantine I the Great Ancient Roman Coin Victory Over Licinius I i31356

Item: i31356 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Constantine I’The Great’- Roman Emperor: 307-337 A. Victory Over Licinius Commemorative Bronze AE3 20mm (2.51 grams) Constantinople mint: 327 A. Reference: RIC VII 30 CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed head right. CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus holding palm in each hand, looking right; before her, trophy at foot of which kneeling captive turning head, spurned by Victory; B/CONS in exergue. Numismatic Note: Rare victory over Licinius issue. Often thought to commemorate the Constantinian Fort of Daphne, Melville Jones suggests that the legend comes from the Greek word for laurel (daphne) and therefore may be a symbol of victory over Licinius I at Chrysopolis. The same obverse type gazing upward, was also used for gold and silver coins and some other bronze coins. The ancient author Eusebius mentioned these types of coins. The Battle of Chrysopolis was fought on 18 September 324 at Chrysopolis (Üsküdar), near Chalcedon (Kadköy), between the two Roman emperors Constantine I and Licinius. The battle was the final encounter between the two emperors. After his navy’s defeat in the Battle of the Hellespont , Licinius withdrew his forces from the city of Byzantium across the Bosporus to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Constantine followed, and won the subsequent battle. This left Constantine as the sole emperor, ending the period of the Tetrarchy. In the Battle of the Hellespont Licinius’ navy had suffered a catastrophic defeat. His admiral, Abantus, had been outfought by Constantine’s son the caesar Crispus , despite the latter’s distinctly smaller fleet. Following this naval victory, Constantine crossed over to Asia Minor. He used a flotilla of light transports in order to avoid the enemy army, which, under the command of Licinius’ newly appointed co-emperor Martinian , was guarding the coast at Lampsacus. Following the destruction of his naval forces Licinius evacuated his garrison from Byzantium which joined his main army in Chalcedon on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus. From there he also summoned Martinian’s forces and a band of Visigothic auxiliaries, under their leader Aliquaca (or Alica), to reinforce his principal army which had been depleted by its earlier defeat at the Battle of Adrianople. Constantine’s army landed on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphoros at a place called the Sacred Promontory and marched southward towards Chalcedon. Licinius moved his army a few miles north towards Chysopolis. Constantine’s army reached the environs of Chrysopolis before the forces of Licinius. Following a retreat to his tent to seek divine guidance, Constantine decided to take the initiative. The religious aspect of the conflict was reflected in Licinius drawing up his battle lines with images of the pagan gods of Rome prominently displayed, whilst Constantine’s army fought under his talismanic Christian standard, the labarum. Licinius had developed a superstitious dread of the labarum and forbade his troops from attacking it, or even looking directly at it. Constantine seemingly eschewed any subtlety of manoeuvre, he launched a single massive frontal assault on Licinius’ troops and routed them. He won a decisive victory in what was a very large-scale battle. According to the historian Zosimus , There was great slaughter at Chrysopolis. Licinius was reported to have lost 25,000 to 30,000 dead, with thousands more breaking and running in flight. Licinius managed to escape and gathered around 30,000 of his surviving troops at the city of Nicomedia. Licinius and his son, depicted with haloes, on a gold coin. Licinius, recognising that his surviving forces in Nicomedia could not stand against Constantine’s victorious army, was persuaded to throw himself on the mercy of his enemy. Constantia, Constantine’s half-sister and Licinius’ wife, acted as intermediary. Initially, yielding to the pleas of his sister, Constantine spared the life of his brother-in-law, but some months later he ordered his execution, thereby breaking his solemn oath. A year later, Constantine’s nephew the younger Licinius also fell victim to the emperor’s anger or suspicions. In defeating his last foe, Licinius, Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman empire ; the first since the elevation of Maximian to the status of augustus by Diocletian in April 286. After his conquest of the eastern portion of the Roman Empire Constantine made the momentous decision to give the east its own capital, and the empire as a whole its second. He chose the city of Byzantium renamed Constantinopolis as the site of this new foundation. Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus 27 February c. 272 22 May 337, commonly known in English as Constantine I , Constantine the Great , or (among Eastern Orthodox , Coptic Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine , was Roman emperor from 306, and the undisputed holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian , and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire. The Byzantine liturgical calendar, observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite , lists both Constantine and his mother Helena as saints. Although he is not included in the Latin Church’s list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title “The Great” for his contributions to Christianity. Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople , which would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years. One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes. He later went on to defeat the rival emperor Maxentius in the decisive battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. He is credited for several great landmarks in history and is probably best memorialized by the city that bore his name for hundreds of years: Constantinople. Although now renamed Istanbul, this city was to be the seat of power for all Byzantine emperors for the next 1100 years. Constantine is also remembered as the first Roman emperor who embraced Christianity and instituted the buildings and papal dynasty that eventually grew into what is today the Vatican and the Pope. The latter part of his life saw his commitment to the church rise in step with the increasing repression against old-school paganism. He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “Constantine I the Great Ancient Roman Coin Victory Over Licinius I i31356″ is in sale since Sunday, January 20, 2013. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Constantine I

Jun 20 2018

VESPASIAN 69AD Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin i63910

VESPASIAN 69AD Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin i63910

VESPASIAN 69AD Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin i63910

Item: i63910 Authentic Ancient Coin of. “Judaea Capta” Silver Denarius 16mm (3.29 grams) Rome mint: 69-70 A. 35; Hendin 759 (3rd Edition); Hendin 1464 (5th Edition) Laureate head of Vespasian right; around IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG. Jewess seated right mourning below right of trophy; in exergue, IVDAEA. Judaea Capta coins (also spelled Judea Capta) were a series of commemorative coins originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to celebrate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt. There are several variants of the coinage. The reverse of the coins shows a Jewish female (representing Judaea) seated right in an attitude of mourning at the base of a palm tree, with either a captive Jewish male standing right, with his hands bound behind his back, or the standing figure of the victorious emperor, or the goddess Victory, with a trophy of weapons, shields, and helmets to the left. The female figure may reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen… Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground. The Judaea Capta coins were struck for 25 years under Vespasian and his two sons who succeeded him as Emperor – Titus and Domitian. These commemorative coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. Only bronze’Judaea Capta’ coins were struck in Caesarea, in the defeated Roman province of Judea. These coins are much cruder than the Roman issues, and the inscriptions are in Greek rather than Latin. The designs feature the Goddess Nike writing on a shield, Minerva with a spear, shield, trophy and palm tree, etc. Most such coins were issued during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD). Unusually, a’Judaea Capta’ coin was also minted by the Jewish ruler Agrippa II, the great-grandson of Herod the Great. Brought up in Rome at the court of Claudius, Agrippa was thoroughly Romanised and was a close friend of Titus, whom he supported throughout the First Jewish Revolt. His bronze coin was minted at Tiberias and shows a portrait of Titus on the obverse with the Greek inscription”, while the reverse depicted the goddess Nike advancing right holding a wreath and palm branch over her shoulder, with a star in upper right field and the inscription’ETO – KS BA AGRI-PPA’. Sole Reign with Titus. As Caesars 71-79 A. Sole Reign (with Titus as Imperator and Domitian as Caesar). Titus Flavius Vespasianus , known in English as Vespasian (November 17 9AD – June 23 79AD), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 69 AD until his death in 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD He was succeeded by his sons Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96). Vespasian descended from a family of equestrians which rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, partaking in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and subjugating the Judaea province during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the Roman Empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea themselves declared Vespasian emperor on July 1. On December 20, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day, Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. Little factual information survives about Vespasian’s government during the ten years he was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects such as the Colosseum. Upon his death on June 23, 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus. Family and early career. Vespasian was born in Falacrina, in the Sabine country near Reate. His mother, Vespasia Polla, was the sister of a Senator. After prompting from his mother, Vespasian followed his older brother, also called Titus Flavius Sabinus, into public life. He served in the army as a military tribune in Thrace in 36. The following year he was elected quaestor and served in Crete and Cyrene. He rose through the ranks of Roman public office, being elected aedile on his second attempt in 39 and praetor on his first attempt in 40, taking the opportunity to ingratiate himself with the Emperor Caligula. In the meantime, he married Domitilla the Elder, the daughter of an equestrian from Ferentium. They had two sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus b. 41 and Titus Flavius Domitianus b. 51, and a daughter, Domitilla b. Domitilla died before Vespasian became emperor. Thereafter his mistress, Caenis, was his wife in all but name until she died in 74. Upon the accession of Claudius as emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta , stationed in Germania, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus. In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain, and he distinguished himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius. After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames, he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset. Vespasian marched from Noviomagus Reginorum (Chichester) to subdue the hostile Durotriges and Dumnonii tribes. Captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts, including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset). He also invaded Vectis (the Isle of Wight), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter). These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome. Vespasian was elected consul for the last two months of 51, after which he withdrew from public life. He came out of retirement in 63 when he was sent as governor to Africa Province. According to Tacitus ii. 97, his rule was “infamous and odious” but according to Suetonius Vesp. 4, he was “upright and, highly honourable”. On one occasion he was pelted with turnips. Vespasian used his time in North Africa wisely. Corruption was so rife, that it was almost expected that a governor would come back from these appointments with his pockets full. During his time in North Africa, he found himself in financial difficulties and was forced to mortgage his estates to his brother. To revive his fortunes he turned to the mule trade and gained the nickname mulio (mule-driver). Returning from Africa, Vespasian toured Greece in Nero’s retinue, but lost Imperial favour after paying insufficient attention (some sources suggest he fell asleep) during one of the Emperor’s recitals on the lyre, and found himself in the political wilderness. However, in 66, Vespasian was appointed to conduct the war in Judea. A revolt there had killed the previous governor and routed Licinius Mucianus, the governor of Syria, when he tried to restore order. Two legions, with eight cavalry squadrons and 10 auxiliary cohorts, were therefore dispatched under the command of Vespasian to add to the one already there. His elder son, Titus, served on his staff. During this time he became the patron of Flavius Josephus, a Jewish resistance leader turned Roman agent who would go on to write his people’s history in Greek. In the end, thousands of Jews were killed and many towns destroyed by the Romans, who successfully re-established control over Judea. They took Jerusalem in 70. He is remembered by Jews as a fair and humane official, in contrast to the notorious Herod the Great. Josephus wrote that after the Roman Legio X Fretensis accompanied by Vespasian destroyed Jericho on June 21, 68, he took a group of Jews who could not swim (possibly Essenes from Qumran), fettered them, and threw them into the Dead Sea to test its legendary buoyancy. Sure enough, the Jews shot back up after being thrown in from boats and floated calmly on top of the sea. Year of Four Emperors. Main article: Year of the Four Emperors. Map of the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus. After the death of Nero in 68, Rome saw a succession of short-lived emperors and a year of civil wars. Galba was murdered by Otho, who was defeated by Vitellius. Otho’s supporters, looking for another candidate to support, settled on Vespasian. According to Suetonius, a prophecy ubiquitous in the Eastern provinces claimed that from Judaea would come the future rulers of the world. Vespasian eventually believed that this prophecy applied to him, and found a number of omens, oracles, and portents that reinforced this belief. He also found encouragement in Mucianus, the governor of Syria; and, although Vespasian was a strict disciplinarian and reformer of abuses, Vespasian’s soldiers were thoroughly devoted to him. All eyes in the East were now upon him. Mucianus and the Syrian legions were eager to support him. While he was at Caesarea, he was proclaimed emperor (July 1, 69), first by the army in Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander, and then by his troops in Judaea (July 11 according to Suetonius, July 3 according to Tacitus). Nevertheless, Vitellius, the occupant of the throne, had Rome’s best troops on his side – the veteran legions of Gaul and the Rhineland. But the feeling in Vespasian’s favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia, and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him the de facto master of half of the Roman world. While Vespasian himself was in Egypt securing its grain supply, his troops entered Italy from the northeast under the leadership of M. They defeated Vitellius’s army (which had awaited him in Mevania) at Bedriacum (or Betriacum), sacked Cremona and advanced on Rome. They entered Rome after furious fighting. In the resulting confusion, the Capitol was destroyed by fire and Vespasian’s brother Sabinus was killed by a mob. On receiving the tidings of his rival’s defeat and death at Alexandria, the new emperor at once forwarded supplies of urgently needed grain to Rome, along with an edict or a declaration of policy, in which he gave assurance of an entire reversal of the laws of Nero, especially those relating to treason. While in Egypt he visited the Temple of Serapis, where reportedly he experienced a vision. Later he was confronted by two labourers who were convinced that he possessed a divine power that could work miracles. Aftermath of the civil war. Bust of Vespasian, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate while he was in Egypt in December of 69 (the Egyptians had declared him emperor in June of 69). In the short-term, administration of the empire was given to Mucianus who was aided by Vespasian’s son, Domitian. By his own example of simplicity of life – he caused something of a scandal when it was made known he took his own boots off – he initiated a marked improvement in the general tone of society in many respects. In early 70, Vespasian was still in Egypt, the source of Rome’s grain supply, and had not yet left for Rome. According to Tacitus, his trip was delayed due to bad weather. Modern historians theorize that Vespasian had been and was continuing to consolidate support from the Egyptians before departing. Stories of a divine Vespasian healing people circulated in Egypt. In addition to the uprising in Egypt, unrest and civil war continued in the rest of the empire in 70. In Judea, rebellion had continued from 66. Vespasian’s son, Titus, finally subdued the rebellion with the capture of Jerusalem and destruction of the Jewish Temple in 70. According to Eusebius, Vespasian then ordered all descendants of the royal line of David to be hunted down, causing the Jews to be persecuted from province to province. Several modern historians have suggested that Vespasian, already having been told by Josephus that he was prophesied to become emperor whilst in Judaea, was probably reacting to other widely-known Messianic prophecies circulating at the time, to suppress any rival claimants arising from that dynasty. In January of the same year, an uprising occurred in Gaul and Germany, known as the second Batavian Rebellion. This rebellion was headed by Gaius Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus. Sabinus, claiming he was descended from Julius Caesar, declared himself emperor of Gaul. The rebellion defeated and absorbed two Roman legions before it was suppressed by Vespasian’s brother-in-law, Quintus Petillius Cerialis, by the end of 70. Arrival in Rome and gathering support. In mid-70, Vespasian first came to Rome. Vespasian immediately embarked on a series of efforts to stay in power and prevent future revolts. He offered gifts to many in the military and much of the public. Soldiers loyal to Vitellius were dismissed or punished. He also restructured the Senatorial and Equestrian orders, removing his enemies and adding his allies. Regional autonomy of Greek provinces was repealed. Additionally, he made significant attempts to control public perception of his rule. Many modern historians note the increased amount of propaganda that appeared during Vespasian’s reign. Stories of a supernatural emperor who was destined to rule circulated in the empire. Nearly one-third of all coins minted in Rome under Vespasian celebrated military victory or peace. The word vindex was removed from coins so as not to remind the public of rebellious Vindex. Construction projects bore inscriptions praising Vespasian and condemning previous emperors. A temple of peace was constructed in the forum as well. Vespasian approved histories written under his reign, ensuring biases against him were removed. Vespasian also gave financial rewards to ancient writers. The ancient historians who lived through the period such as Tacitus, Suetonius, Josephus and Pliny the Elder speak suspiciously well of Vespasian while condemning the emperors who came before him. Tacitus admits that his status was elevated by Vespasian, Josephus identifies Vespasian as a patron and savior, and Pliny dedicated his Natural Histories to Vespasian, Titus. Those who spoke against Vespasian were punished. A number of stoic philosophers were accused of corrupting students with inappropriate teachings and were expelled from Rome. Helvidius Priscus, a pro-republic philosopher, was executed for his teachings. Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum, was begun by Vespasian, and ultimately finished by his son Titus. Between 71 and 79, much of Vespasian’s reign is a mystery. Historians report that Vespasian ordered the construction of several buildings in Rome. Additionally, he survived several conspiracies against him. Vespasian helped rebuild Rome after the civil war. He added the temple of Peace and the temple to the Deified Claudius. In 75, he erected a colossal statue of Apollo, begun under Nero, and he dedicated a stage of the theater of Marcellus. He also began construction of the Colosseum. Suetonius claims that Vespasian was met with “constant conspiracies” against him. Only one conspiracy is known specifically, though. In 78 or 79, Eprius Marcellus and Aulus Caecina Alienus attempted to kill Vespasian. Why these men turned against Vespasian is not known. Military pursuits and death. In 78, Agricola was sent to Britain, and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his way into what is now Scotland. On June 23 of the following year, Vespasian was on his deathbed and expiring rapidly, he demanded that he be helped to stand as he believed “An emperor should die on his feet”. He died of an intestinal inflammation which led to excessive diarrhea. His purported great wit can be glimpsed from his last words; Væ, puto deus fio , Damn. Vespasian was known for his wit and his amiable manner alongside his commanding persona and military prowess. He could be liberal to impoverished Senators and equestrians and to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity. He was especially generous to men of letters and rhetors, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as 1,000 gold pieces a year. Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favor. Pliny the Elder’s work, the Natural History , was written during Vespasian’s reign, and dedicated to Vespasian’s son Titus. Vespasian distrusted philosophers in general, viewing them as unmanly complainers who talked too much. It was the idle talk of philosophers, who liked to glorify the good times of the Republic, that provoked Vespasian into reviving the obsolete penal laws against this profession as a precautionary measure. Only one however, Helvidius Priscus, was put to death, and he had repeatedly affronted the Emperor by studied insults which Vespasian had initially tried to ignore, “I will not kill a dog that barks at me, ” were his words on discovering Priscus’s public slander. Vespasian was indeed noted for mildness when dealing with political opposition. According to Suetonius, he bore the frank language of his friends, the quips of pleaders, and the impudence of the philosophers with the greatest patience. Marcus Didius Falco novels. The Course of Honour , a novel by Lindsey Davis. Edward Rutherfurd’s historical fiction novel Sarum contains an account of one the protagonists’ (a Celtic chief) meeting Vespasian during his campaign through southern Britannia. Vespasian, as legate under Aulus Plautius, is a regular secondary character in Simon Scarrow’s Eaglegle series. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. 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The item “VESPASIAN 69AD Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin i63910″ is in sale since Saturday, August 26, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Vespasian
  • Composition: Silver
  • Material: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Ancient Coins: Roman Coins

Jun 19 2018

NERO Genuine 66AD Dupondius Lugdunum Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i65826

NERO Genuine 66AD Dupondius Lugdunum Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i65826

NERO Genuine 66AD Dupondius Lugdunum Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i65826

Item: i65826 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Bronze Dupondius 29mm (12.00 grams) Lugdunum mint, struck 66 A. Reference: RIC 523 IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head left. VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; S-C across fields. In ancient Roman religion, Victoria or Victory was the personified goddess of victory. She is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Nike, and was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine agricultural goddess Vacuna and had a temple on the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota was also sometimes identified with Victoria. Unlike the Greek Nike , the goddess Victoria (Latin for “victory”) was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus there was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant generals returning from war. Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races, Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war. Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts. She is often seen with or in a chariot, as in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany; “Il Vittoriano” in Rome has two. Winged figures, very often in pairs, representing victory and referred to as “victories”, were common in Roman official iconography, typically hovering high in a composition, and often filling spaces in spandrels or other gaps in architecture. These represent the spirit of victory rather than the goddess herself. They continued to appear after Christianization of the Empire, and slowly mutated into Christian angels. Caesar, 50-54 (Under Claudius). Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ;15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius’ death. During his reign, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and enhancing the cultural life of the Empire. He ordered theaters built and promoted athletic games. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain. Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the Empire and began the First Roman-Jewish War. In 64, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, which many Romans believed Nero himself had started in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68 (the first Roman emperor to do so) His death ended the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero’s rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance. He is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. He is infamously known as the Emperor who “fiddled while Rome burned” and as an early persecutor of Christians. He was known for having captured Christians to burn them in his garden at night for a source of light. This view is based on the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius, and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Nero’s reign. Few surviving sources paint Nero in a favorable light. Some sources, though, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, especially in the East. Some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Nero’s tyrannical acts. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus , the future Nero, was born on 15 December 37 in Antium, near Rome. He was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, sister of Emperor Caligula. Nero’s father Gnaeus was the son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 16 BC) and Antonia Major. Gnaeus was thus the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32 BC) and probably Aemilia Lepida on his father’s side, and the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor on his mother’s side. Thus, Nero had as his paternal grandmother Antonia Maior, and also claimed more remote descent from Antonia Minor as a great-grandson-later grandson after Claudius adopted him. Through Octavia, Nero was the grandnephew of Caesar Augustus. Nero’s father had been employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligula’s staff when the latter traveled to the East (some apparently think Suetonius refers to Augustus’ adopted son Gaius Caesar here, but this is not likely). Nero’s father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by Emperor Tiberius with treason, adultery, and incest. Tiberius died, allowing him to escape these charges. Nero’s father died of edema (“dropsy”) in 39 when Nero was two. Nero’s mother was Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and his wife Scribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippina’s father, Germanicus, was a grandson of Augustus’s wife, Livia, on one side and to Mark Antony and Octavia on the other. Germanicus’ mother Antonia Minor, was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Octavia was Augustus’ elder sister. Germanicus was also the adopted son of Tiberius. Agrippina poisoned her second husband Passienus Crispus, so many ancient historians also accuse her of murdering her third husband, the emperor Claudius. Coin issued under Claudius celebrating young Nero as the future emperor, c. Nero was not expected to become Emperor because his maternal uncle, Caligula, had begun his reign at the age of 25 with enough time to produce his own heir. Nero’s mother, Agrippina, lost favor with Caligula and was exiled in 39 after her husband’s death. Caligula seized Nero’s inheritance and sent him to be raised by his less wealthy aunt, Domitia Lepida, who was the mother of Valeria Messalina, Claudius’s third wife. Caligula, his wife Caesonia and their infant daughter Julia Drusilla were murdered on 24 January 41. These events led Claudius, Caligula’s uncle, to become emperor. Claudius allowed Agrippina to return from exile. Claudius had married twice before marrying Valeria Messalina. His previous marriages produced three children including a son, Drusus, who died at a young age. He had two children with Messalina – Claudia Octavia (born 40) and Britannicus (born 41). Messalina was executed by Claudius in the year 48. In 49 AD, Claudius married a fourth time, to Nero’s mother Agrippina. To aid Claudius politically, young Nero was adopted in 50 and took the name Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus. Nero was older than his stepbrother Britannicus, and thus became heir to the throne. Nero was proclaimed an adult in 51 at the age of 14. He was appointed proconsul, entered and first addressed the Senate, made joint public appearances with Claudius, and was featured in coinage. In 53, he married his stepsister Claudia Octavia. Agrippina crowns her young son Nero with a laurel wreath. She carries a cornucopia, symbol of fortune and plenty, and he wears the armour and cloak of a Roman commander, with a helmet on the ground at his feet. The scene refers to Nero’s accession as emperor in 54 AD and is dated before 59 AD when Nero had Agrippina murdered. Claudius died in 54 and Nero, taking the name Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus , was established as Emperor. Though accounts vary, many ancient historians state Agrippina poisoned Claudius. According to Pliny the Elder, she used poison mushrooms. It is not known how much Nero knew or if he was even involved in the death of Claudius. For even if he was not the instigator of the emperor’s death, he was at least privy to it, as he openly admitted; for he used afterwards to laud mushrooms, the vehicle in which the poison was administered to Claudius, as “the food of the gods, ” as the Greek proverb has it. At any rate, after Claudius’ death he vented on him every kind of insult, in act and word, charging him now with folly and now with cruelty; for it was a favourite joke of his to say that Claudius had ceased to play the fool among mortals, lengthening the first syllable of the word morari, and he disregarded many of his decrees and acts as the work of a madman and a dotard. Finally, he neglected to enclose the place where his body was burned except with a low and mean wall. Nero became Emperor at 17 when the news of Claudius’ death was made known, the youngest emperor until that time. Ancient historians describe Nero’s early reign as being strongly influenced by his mother, Agrippina, his tutor Lucius Annaeus Seneca, and the Praetorian Prefect Sextus Afranius Burrus, especially in the first year. Other tutors were less often mentioned, such as Alexander of Aegae. Very early in Nero’s rule, problems arose from competition for influence between Agrippina and Nero’s two main advisers, Seneca and Burrus. In 54, Agrippina tried to sit down next to Nero while he met with an Armenian envoy, but Seneca stopped her and prevented a scandalous scene (as it was unimaginable at that time for a woman to be in the same room as men doing official business). Nero’s friends also mistrusted Agrippina and told Nero to beware of his mother. Nero was reportedly unsatisfied with his marriage to Octavia and entered into an affair with Claudia Acte, a former slave. In 55, Agrippina attempted to intervene in favor of Octavia and demanded that her son dismiss Acte. Nero, with the support of Seneca, resisted the intervention of his mother in his personal affairs. With Agrippina’s influence over her son severed, she reportedly began pushing for Britannicus, Nero’s stepbrother, to become emperor. Nearly fifteen-year-old Britannicus, heir-designate prior to Nero’s adoption, was still legally a minor, but was approaching legal adulthood. According to Tacitus, Agrippina hoped that with her support, Britannicus, being the blood son of Claudius, would be seen as the true heir to the throne by the state over Nero. However, the youth died suddenly and suspiciously on 12 February 55, the very day before his proclamation as an adult had been set. Nero claimed that Britannicus died from an epileptic seizure, but ancient historians all claim Britannicus’ death came from Nero’s poisoning him. Supposedly, he enlisted the services of Locusta, a woman who specialized in the manufacture of poisons. She devised a mixture to kill Britannicus, but after testing it unsuccessfully on a slave, Nero angrily threatened to have her put to death if she did not come up with something usable. Locusta then devised a new concoction that she promised would kill swifter than a viper. Her promise was fulfilled after Britannicus consumed it at a dinner party from water used to cool his wine, which had already been tasted, and succumbed within minutes. After the death of Britannicus, Agrippina was accused of slandering Octavia and Nero ordered her out of the imperial residence. Matricide and consolidation of power. Coin of Nero and Poppaea Sabina. Over time, Nero became progressively more powerful, freeing himself of his advisers and eliminating rivals to the throne. In 55, he removed Marcus Antonius Pallas, an ally of Agrippina, from his position in the treasury. Pallas, along with Burrus, was accused of conspiring against the Emperor to bring Faustus Sulla to the throne. Seneca was accused of having relations with Agrippina and embezzlement. Seneca succeeded in having himself, Pallas and Burrus acquitted. According to Cassius Dio, at this time, Seneca and Burrus reduced their role in governing from careful management to mere moderation of Nero. In 58, Nero became romantically involved with Poppaea Sabina, the wife of his friend and future emperor Otho. Reportedly because a marriage to Poppaea and a divorce from Octavia did not seem politically feasible with Agrippina alive, Nero ordered the murder of his mother in 59. A number of modern historians find this an unlikely motive as Nero did not marry Poppaea until 62. Additionally, according to Suetonius, Poppaea did not divorce her husband until after Agrippina’s death, making it unlikely that the already married Poppaea would be pressing Nero for marriage. Some modern historians theorize that Nero’s execution of Agrippina was prompted by her plotting to set Rubellius Plautus on the throne. According to Suetonius, Nero tried to kill his mother through a planned shipwreck, which took the life of her friend, Acerronia Polla, but when Agrippina survived, he had her executed and framed it as a suicide. The incident is also recorded by Tacitus. The Remorse of the Emperor Nero after the Murder of his Mother , by John William Waterhouse, 1878. In 62, Nero’s adviser, Burrus, died. Additionally, Seneca was again faced with embezzlement charges. Seneca asked Nero for permission to retire from public affairs. Nero divorced and banished Octavia on grounds of infertility, leaving him free to marry the pregnant Poppaea. After public protests, Nero was forced to allow Octavia to return from exile, but she was executed shortly after her return. Nero also was reported to have kicked Poppaea to death in 65 before she could have his second child. However, modern historians, noting Suetonius, Tacitus and Cassius Dio’s possible bias against Nero and the likelihood that they did not have eyewitness accounts of private events, postulate that Poppaea may have died because of complications of miscarriage or childbirth. Accusations of treason being plotted against Nero and the Senate first appeared in 62. The Senate ruled that Antistius, a praetor, should be put to death for speaking ill of Nero at a party. Later, Nero ordered the exile of Fabricius Veiento who slandered the Senate in a book. Tacitus writes that the roots of the conspiracy led by Gaius Calpurnius Piso began in this year. To consolidate power, Nero executed a number of people in 62 and 63 including his rivals Pallas, Rubellius Plautus and Faustus Sulla. According to Suetonius, Nero “showed neither discrimination nor moderation in putting to death whomsoever he pleased” during this period. Nero’s consolidation of power also included a slow usurping of authority from the Senate. In 54, Nero promised to give the Senate powers equivalent to those under Republican rule. By 65, senators complained that they had no power left and this led to the Pisonian conspiracy. When Nero’s wife Poppaea Sabina died in 65, Nero went into deep mourning. Her body was not cremated, it was stuffed with spices, embalmed and put in the Mausoleum of Augustus. She was given a state funeral. Nero praised her during the funeral eulogy and gave her divine honors. It is said that Nero burned ten years’ worth of Arabia’s incense production at her funeral. In the beginning of 66, he married Statilia Messalina. She was already married when she became Nero’s mistress in 65 AD, with Statilia’s husband being driven to suicide in 66, so Nero could marry Statilia. She was one of the few of Nero’s courtiers who survived the fall of his reign. In 67, Nero ordered a young freedman, Sporus, to be castrated and then married him. According to Dion Cassius, Sporus bore an uncanny resemblance to Sabina, and Nero even called him by his dead wife’s name. Over the course of his reign, Nero often made rulings that pleased the lower class. Nero was criticized as being obsessed with personal popularity. Nero began his reign in 54 by promising the Senate more autonomy. In this first year, he forbade others to refer to him with regard to enactments, for which he was praised by the Senate. Nero was known for spending his time visiting brothels and taverns during this period. In 55, Nero began taking on a more active role as an administrator. He was consul four times between 55 and 60. During this period, some ancient historians speak fairly well of Nero and contrast it with his later rule. Under Nero, restrictions were put on the amount of bail and fines. There was a discussion in the Senate on the misconduct of the freedmen class, and a strong demand was made that patrons should have the right of revoking freedom. Nero supported the freedmen and ruled that patrons had no such right. The Senate tried to pass a law in which the crimes of one slave applied to all slaves within a household. Despite riots from the people, Nero supported the Senate on their measure, and deployed troops to organise the execution of 400 slaves affected by the law. However, he vetoed strong measures against the freedmen affected by the case. Nero banned any magistrate or procurator from exhibiting public entertainment for fear that the venue was being used as a method to sway the populace. Additionally, there were many impeachments and removals of government officials along with arrests for extortion and corruption. The Senate convinced him this action would bankrupt the public treasury. In imitation of the Greeks, Nero built a number of gymnasiums and theatres. Enormous gladiatorial shows were also held. Nero also established the quinquennial Neronia. The festival included games, poetry, and theater. Historians indicate that there was a belief that theatre led to immorality. Others considered that to have performers dressed in Greek clothing was old fashioned. Some questioned the large public expenditure on entertainment. In 64, Rome burned. Nero enacted a public relief effort as well as significant reconstruction. A number of other major construction projects occurred in Nero’s late reign. Nero had the marshes of Ostia filled with rubble from the fire. He erected the large Domus Aurea. In 67, Nero attempted to have a canal dug at the Isthmus of Corinth. Ancient historians state that these projects and others exacerbated the drain on the State’s budget. The cost to rebuild Rome was immense, requiring funds the state treasury did not have. Nero devalued the Roman currency for the first time in the Empire’s history. He reduced the weight of the denarius from 84 per Roman pound to 96 (3.85 grams to 3.35 grams). He also reduced the silver purity from 99.5% to 93.5%-the silver weight dropping from 3.83 grams to 3.4 grams. Furthermore, Nero reduced the weight of the aureus from 40 per Roman pound to 45 (8 grams to 7.2 grams). Between 62 and 67, according to Plinius the Elder and Seneca, Nero promoted an expedition to discover the sources of the Nile River. It was the first exploration of equatorial Africa from Europe in history. However, Nero’s expedition up the Nile failed because water plants had clogged the river, denying Nero’s vessels access to the Sudd of Nubia. The economic policy of Nero is a point of debate among scholars. Modern historians, though, note that the period was riddled with deflation and that it is likely that Nero’s spending came in the form of public works projects and charity intended to ease economic troubles. Great Fire of Rome (64 AD). The Great Fire of Rome erupted on the night of 18 July to 19 July 64. Artwork depicting the Great Fire of Rome. The extent of the fire is uncertain. According to Tacitus, who was nine at the time of the fire, it spread quickly and burned for over five days. It destroyed three of fourteen Roman districts and severely damaged seven. The only other historian who lived through the period and mentioned the fire is Pliny the Elder, who wrote about it in passing. Other historians who lived through the period (including Josephus, Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch, and Epictetus) make no mention of it in what remains of their work. It is uncertain who or what actually caused the fire-whether accident or arson. Suetonius and Cassius Dio favor Nero as the arsonist, so he could build a palatial complex. Tacitus mentions that Christians confessed to the crime, but it is not known whether these confessions were induced by torture. However, accidental fires were common in ancient Rome. In fact, Rome suffered another large fire in 69 and in 80. It was said by Suetonius and Cassius Dio that Nero sang the “Sack of Ilium” in stage costume while the city burned. Popular legend claims that Nero played the fiddle at the time of the fire, an anachronism based merely on the concept of the lyre, a stringed instrument associated with Nero and his performances. There were no fiddles in 1st-century Rome. Tacitus’s account, however, has Nero in Antium at the time of the fire. Tacitus also said that Nero playing his lyre and singing while the city burned was only rumor. Nero’s contributions to the relief extended to personally taking part in the search for and rescue of victims of the blaze, spending days searching the debris without even his bodyguards. After the fire, Nero opened his palaces to provide shelter for the homeless, and arranged for food supplies to be delivered in order to prevent starvation among the survivors. In the wake of the fire, he made a new urban development plan. Houses after the fire were spaced out, built in brick, and faced by porticos on wide roads. Nero also built a new palace complex known as the Domus Aurea in an area cleared by the fire. This included lush artificial landscapes and a 30-meter-tall statue of himself, the Colossus of Nero. The size of this complex is debated (from 100 to 300 acres). To find the necessary funds for the reconstruction, tributes were imposed on the provinces of the empire. Tacitus notes that the population searched for a scapegoat and rumors held Nero responsible. To deflect blame, Nero targeted Christians. He ordered Christians to be thrown to dogs, while others were crucified and burned. Nero enjoyed driving a one-horse chariot, singing to the lyre, and poetry. He even composed songs that were performed by other entertainers throughout the empire. At first, Nero only performed for a private audience. Nero began singing in public in Neapolis in order to improve his popularity. He also sang at the second quinquennial Neronia in 65. It was said that Nero craved the attention, but historians also write that Nero was encouraged to sing and perform in public by the Senate, his inner circle and the people. Ancient historians strongly criticize his choice to perform, calling it shameful. Nero was convinced to participate in the Olympic Games of 67 in order to improve relations with Greece and display Roman dominance. As a competitor, Nero raced a ten-horse chariot and nearly died after being thrown from it. He also performed as an actor and a singer. The victories are attributed to Nero bribing the judges and his status as emperor. War and peace with Parthia. Shortly after Nero’s accession to the throne in 54, the Roman vassal kingdom of Armenia overthrew their Iberian prince Rhadamistus and he was replaced with the Parthian prince Tiridates. This was seen as a Parthian invasion of Roman territory. There was concern in Rome over how the young Emperor would handle the situation. Nero reacted by immediately sending the military to the region under the command of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. The Parthians temporarily relinquished control of Armenia to Rome. The peace did not last and full-scale war broke out in 58. The Parthian king Vologases I refused to remove his brother Tiridates from Armenia. The Parthians began a full-scale invasion of the Armenian kingdom. Commander Corbulo responded and repelled most of the Parthian army that same year. Tiridates retreated and Rome again controlled most of Armenia. Nero was acclaimed in public for this initial victory. Tigranes, a Cappadocian noble raised in Rome, was installed by Nero as the new ruler of Armenia. Corbulo was appointed governor of Syria as a reward. In 62, Tigranes invaded the Parthian province of Adiabene. Again, Rome and Parthia were at war and this continued until 63. Parthia began building up for a strike against the Roman province of Syria. Corbulo tried to convince Nero to continue the war, but Nero opted for a peace deal instead. There was anxiety in Rome about eastern grain supplies and a budget deficit. The result was a deal where Tiridates again became the Armenian king, but was crowned in Rome by Emperor Nero. In the future, the king of Armenia was to be a Parthian prince, but his appointment required approval from the Romans. Tiridates was forced to come to Rome and partake in ceremonies meant to display Roman dominance. This peace deal of 63 was a considerable victory for Nero politically. Nero became very popular in the eastern provinces of Rome and with the Parthians as well. The peace between Parthia and Rome lasted 50 years until Emperor Trajan of Rome invaded Armenia in 114. Other major power struggles and rebellions. A plaster bust of Nero, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The war with Parthia was not Nero’s only major war but he was both criticized and praised for an aversion to battle. Like many emperors, Nero faced a number of rebellions and power struggles within the empire. British Revolt of 60-61 (Boudica’s Uprising). In 60, a major rebellion broke out in the province of Britannia. While the governor Gaius Suetonius Paullinus and his troops were busy capturing the island of Mona (Anglesey) from the druids, the tribes of the southeast staged a revolt led by queen Boudica of the Iceni. Boudica and her troops destroyed three cities before the army of Paullinus could return, receive reinforcements, and quell the rebellion in 61. Fearing Paullinus himself would provoke further rebellion, Nero replaced him with the more passive Publius Petronius Turpilianus. The Pisonian Conspiracy of 65. In 65, Gaius Calpurnius Piso, a Roman statesman, organized a conspiracy against Nero with the help of Subrius Flavus and Sulpicius Asper, a tribune and a centurion of the Praetorian Guard. According to Tacitus, many conspirators wished to “rescue the state” from the emperor and restore the Republic. The freedman Milichus discovered the conspiracy and reported it to Nero’s secretary, Epaphroditos. As a result, the conspiracy failed and its members were executed including Lucan, the poet. Nero’s previous advisor, Seneca was ordered to commit suicide after admitting he discussed the plot with the conspirators. The First Jewish War of 66-70. In 66, there was a Jewish revolt in Judea stemming from Greek and Jewish religious tension. In 67, Nero dispatched Vespasian to restore order. This revolt was eventually put down in 70, after Nero’s death. This revolt is famous for Romans breaching the walls of Jerusalem and destroying the Second Temple of Jerusalem. The revolt of Vindex and Galba and the death of Nero. Lucius Verginius Rufus, the governor of Germania Superior, was ordered to put down Vindex’s rebellion. In an attempt to gain support from outside his own province, Vindex called upon Servius Sulpicius Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, to join the rebellion and further, to declare himself emperor in opposition to Nero. At the Battle of Vesontio in May 68, Verginius’ forces easily defeated those of Vindex and the latter committed suicide. However, after putting down this one rebel, Verginius’ legions attempted to proclaim their own commander as Emperor. Verginius refused to act against Nero, but the discontent of the legions of Germany and the continued opposition of Galba in Spain did not bode well for Nero. While Nero had retained some control of the situation, support for Galba increased despite his being officially declared a public enemy. The prefect of the Praetorian Guard, Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, also abandoned his allegiance to the Emperor and came out in support for Galba. In response, Nero fled Rome with the intention of going to the port of Ostia and, from there, to take a fleet to one of the still-loyal eastern provinces. However, he abandoned the idea when some army officers openly refused to obey his commands, responding with a line from Vergil’s Aeneid : Is it so dreadful a thing then to die? ” Nero then toyed with the idea of fleeing to Parthia, throwing himself upon the mercy of Galba, or to appeal to the people and beg them to pardon him for his past offences “and if he could not soften their hearts, to entreat them at least to allow him the prefecture of Egypt. Suetonius reports that the text of this speech was later found in Nero’s writing desk, but that he dared not give it from fear of being torn to pieces before he could reach the Forum. After sleeping, he awoke at about midnight to find the palace guard had left. Dispatching messages to his friends’ palace chambers for them to come, he received no answers. Upon going to their chambers personally, he found them all abandoned. When he called for a gladiator or anyone else adept with a sword to kill him, no one appeared. He cried, Have I neither friend nor foe? And ran out as if to throw himself into the Tiber. Returning, Nero sought for some place where he could hide and collect his thoughts. An imperial freedman, Phaon, offered his villa, located 4 miles outside the city. Travelling in disguise, Nero and four loyal freedman, Epaphroditos, Phaon, Neophytus, and Sporus, reached the villa, where Nero ordered them to dig a grave for him. At this time, a courier arrived with a report that the Senate had declared Nero a public enemy and that it was their intention to execute him by beating him to death. At this news, Nero prepared himself for suicide. Losing his nerve, he first begged for one of his companions to set an example by first killing himself. At last, the sound of approaching horsemen drove Nero to face the end. However, he still could not bring himself to take his own life but instead he forced his private secretary, Epaphroditos, to perform the task. Nero’s famous dying words were “Qualis artifex pereo, ” which translates into English as What an artist dies in me! Events and revolts leading up to Nero’s death are portrayed in the 1951 film, Quo Vadis, with Peter Ustinov playing Nero. When one of the horsemen entered, upon his seeing Nero all but dead he attempted to stop the bleeding in vain. Nero died on 9 June 68, the anniversary of the death of Octavia, and was buried in the Mausoleum of the Domitii Ahenobarbi, in what is now the Villa Borghese (Pincian Hill) area of Rome. With his death, the Julio-Claudian dynasty ended. Chaos ensued in the year of the Four Emperors. According to Suetonius and Cassius Dio, the people of Rome celebrated the death of Nero. Tacitus, though, describes a more complicated political environment. Tacitus mentions that Nero’s death was welcomed by Senators, nobility and the upper class. The lower-class, slaves, frequenters of the arena and the theater, and “those who were supported by the famous excesses of Nero”, on the other hand, were upset with the news. Members of the military were said to have mixed feelings, as they had allegiance to Nero, but were bribed to overthrow him. Eastern sources, namely Philostratus II and Apollonius of Tyana, mention that Nero’s death was mourned as he “restored the liberties of Hellas with a wisdom and moderation quite alien to his character” and that he held our liberties in his hand and respected them. Modern scholarship generally holds that, while the Senate and more well-off individuals welcomed Nero’s death, the general populace was loyal to the end and beyond, for Otho and Vitellius both thought it worthwhile to appeal to their nostalgia. Nero’s name was erased from some monuments, in what Edward Champlin regards as an “outburst of private zeal”. Many portraits of Nero were reworked to represent other figures; according to Eric R. Varner, over fifty such images survive. This reworking of images is often explained as part of the way in which the memory of disgraced emperors was condemned posthumously (see damnatio memoriae). Champlin, however, doubts that the practice is necessarily negative and notes that some continued to create images of Nero long after his death. The civil war during the year of the Four Emperors was described by ancient historians as a troubling period. According to Tacitus, this instability was rooted in the fact that emperors could no longer rely on the perceived legitimacy of the imperial bloodline, as Nero and those before him could. Galba began his short reign with the execution of many allies of Nero and possible future enemies. One such notable enemy included Nymphidius Sabinus, who claimed to be the son of Emperor Caligula. Otho was said to be liked by many soldiers because he had been a friend of Nero’s and resembled him somewhat in temperament. It was said that the common Roman hailed Otho as Nero himself. Otho used “Nero” as a surname and reerected many statues to Nero. Vitellius began his reign with a large funeral for Nero complete with songs written by Nero. After Nero’s suicide in 68, there was a widespread belief, especially in the eastern provinces, that he was not dead and somehow would return. This belief came to be known as the Nero Redivivus Legend. The legend of Nero’s return lasted for hundreds of years after Nero’s death. Augustine of Hippo wrote of the legend as a popular belief in 422. At least three Nero imposters emerged leading rebellions. The first, who sang and played the cithara or lyre and whose face was similar to that of the dead emperor, appeared in 69 during the reign of Vitellius. After persuading some to recognize him, he was captured and executed. Sometime during the reign of Titus (79-81), another impostor appeared in Asia and sang to the accompaniment of the lyre and looked like Nero but he, too, was killed. Twenty years after Nero’s death, during the reign of Domitian, there was a third pretender. He was supported by the Parthians, who only reluctantly gave him up, and the matter almost came to war. In his book The Lives of the Twelve Caesars , Suetonius describes Nero as about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond, his features regular rather than attractive, his eyes blue and somewhat weak, his neck over thick, his belly prominent, and his legs very slender. The history of Nero’s reign is problematic in that no historical sources survived that were contemporary with Nero. These first histories at one time did exist and were described as biased and fantastical, either overly critical or praising of Nero. The original sources were also said to contradict on a number of events. Nonetheless, these lost primary sources were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Nero written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporary historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus, Cluvius Rufus and Pliny the Elder all wrote condemning histories on Nero that are now lost. There were also pro-Nero histories, but it is unknown who wrote them or for what deeds Nero was praised. The bulk of what is known of Nero comes from Tacitus, Suetonius and Cassius Dio, who were all of the senatorial class. Tacitus and Suetonius wrote their histories on Nero over fifty years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 150 years after Nero’s death. These sources contradict on a number of events in Nero’s life including the death of Claudius, the death of Agrippina, and the Roman fire of 64, but they are consistent in their condemnation of Nero. At the end of 66, conflict broke out between Greeks and Jews in Jerusalem and Caesarea. According to the Talmud, Nero went to Jerusalem and shot arrows in all four directions. All the arrows landed in the city. He then asked a passing child to repeat the verse he had learned that day. The child responded, “I will lay my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel” Ez. Nero became terrified, believing that God wanted the Temple in Jerusalem to be destroyed, but would punish the one to carry it out. Nero said, “He desires to lay waste His House and to lay the blame on me, ” whereupon he fled and converted to Judaism to avoid such retribution. Vespasian was then dispatched to put down the rebellion. The Talmud adds that the sage Reb Meir Baal HaNess, a prominent supporter of the Bar Kokhba rebellion against Roman rule, was a descendant of Nero. Roman and Greek sources nowhere report Nero’s alleged trip to Jerusalem or his alleged conversion to Judaism. There is also no record of Nero having any offspring who survived infancy: his only recorded child, Claudia Augusta, died aged 4 months. Christian tradition and secular historical sources hold Nero as the first major state sponsor of Christian persecution, and sometimes as the killer of Apostles Peter and Paul. Some 2nd- and 3rd-century theologians, among others, recorded their belief that Nero would return from death or exile, usually as the Anti-Christ. He is also seen as one of the most savage persecutors of Christians. Non-Christian historian Tacitus describes Nero extensively torturing and executing Christians after the fire of 64. Suetonius also mentions Nero punishing Christians, though he does so as a praise and does not connect it with the fire. Christian writer Tertullian c. 155-230 was the first to call Nero the first persecutor of Christians. He wrote, Examine your records. There you will find that Nero was the first that persecuted this doctrine. 240-320 also said that Nero “first persecuted the servants of God”. As does Sulpicius Severus. However, Suetonius writes that, “since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, he [emperor Claudius] expelled them from Rome” (” Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantis Roma expulit “). These expelled “Jews” may have been early Christians, although Suetonius is not explicit. Nor is the Bible explicit, calling Aquila of Pontus and his wife, Priscilla, both expelled from Italy at the time, Jews. Killer of Peter and Paul. The first text to suggest that Nero killed an apostle is the apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah , a Christian writing from the 2nd century. It says, the slayer of his mother, who himself this king, will persecute the plant which the Twelve Apostles of the Beloved have planted. Of the Twelve one will be delivered into his hands. Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea c. 275-339 was the first to write that Paul was beheaded in Rome during the reign of Nero. He states that Nero’s persecution led to Peter and Paul’s deaths, but that Nero did not give any specific orders. Several other accounts have Paul surviving his two years in Rome and traveling to Hispania. Peter is first said to have been crucified upside-down in Rome during Nero’s reign (but not by Nero) in the apocryphal Acts of Peter c. The account ends with Paul still alive and Nero abiding by God’s command not to persecute any more Christians. By the 4th century, a number of writers were stating that Nero killed Peter and Paul. The Ascension of Isaiah is the first text to suggest that Nero was the Antichrist. It claims that a lawless king, the slayer of his mother… Will come and there will come with him all the powers of this world, and they will hearken unto him in all that he desires. The Sibylline Oracles, Book 5 and 8, written in the 2nd century, speak of Nero returning and bringing destruction. Within Christian communities, these writings, along with others, fueled the belief that Nero would return as the Antichrist. In 310, Lactantius wrote that Nero suddenly disappeared, and even the burial-place of that noxious wild beast was nowhere to be seen. This has led some persons of extravagant imagination to suppose that, having been conveyed to a distant region, he is still reserved alive; and to him they apply the Sibylline verses. In 422, Augustine of Hippo wrote about 2 Thessalonians 2:1-11, where he believed Paul mentioned the coming of the Antichrist. Though he rejects the theory, Augustine mentions that many Christians believed that Nero was the Antichrist or would return as the Antichrist. He wrote, so that in saying, “For the mystery of iniquity doth already work, ” he alluded to Nero, whose deeds already seemed to be as the deeds of Antichrist. Some modern biblical scholars such as Delbert Hillers (Johns Hopkins University) of the American Schools of Oriental Research and the editors of the Oxford & Harper Collins Study Bibles, contend that the number 666 in the Book of Revelation is a code for Nero, a view that is also supported in Roman Catholic Biblical commentaries. The concept of Nero as the Antichrist is often a central belief of Preterist eschatology. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Additionally, the coin is inside it’s own protective coin flip (holder), with a 2×2 inch description of the coin matching the individual number on the COA. 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This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Denomination: Dupondius
  • Ruler: Nero

Jun 9 2018

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin NGC i61912

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin NGC i61912

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin NGC i61912

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin NGC i61912

VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin NGC i61912

Item: i61912 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Vespasian – Roman Emperor: 69-79 A. “Judaea Capta” Silver Denarius 16mm (2.87 grams) Rome mint: 69-70 A. 35; Hendin 759 (3rd Edition); Hendin 1464 (5th Edition) Certification: NGC Ancients F 4529167-007 Laureate head of Vespasian right; around IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG. Jewess seated right mourning below right of trophy; in exergue, IVDAEA. Judaea Capta coins (also spelled Judea Capta) were a series of commemorative coins originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to celebrate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt. There are several variants of the coinage. The reverse of the coins shows a Jewish female (representing Judaea) seated right in an attitude of mourning at the base of a palm tree, with either a captive Jewish male standing right, with his hands bound behind his back, or the standing figure of the victorious emperor, or the goddess Victory, with a trophy of weapons, shields, and helmets to the left. The female figure may reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen… Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground. The Judaea Capta coins were struck for 25 years under Vespasian and his two sons who succeeded him as Emperor – Titus and Domitian. These commemorative coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. Only bronze’Judaea Capta’ coins were struck in Caesarea, in the defeated Roman province of Judea. These coins are much cruder than the Roman issues, and the inscriptions are in Greek rather than Latin. The designs feature the Goddess Nike writing on a shield, Minerva with a spear, shield, trophy and palm tree, etc. Most such coins were issued during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD). Unusually, a’Judaea Capta’ coin was also minted by the Jewish ruler Agrippa II, the great-grandson of Herod the Great. Brought up in Rome at the court of Claudius, Agrippa was thoroughly Romanised and was a close friend of Titus, whom he supported throughout the First Jewish Revolt. His bronze coin was minted at Tiberias and shows a portrait of Titus on the obverse with the Greek inscription”, while the reverse depicted the goddess Nike advancing right holding a wreath and palm branch over her shoulder, with a star in upper right field and the inscription’ETO – KS BA AGRI-PPA’. Vespasian – Roman Emperor : 69-79 A. Sole Reign (with Titus and Domitian as Caesars) 71-79 A. Sole Reign (with Titus as Imperator and Domitian as Caesar). Titus Flavius Vespasianus , known in English as Vespasian (November 17 9AD – June 23 79AD), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 69 AD until his death in 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the short-lived Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD He was succeeded by his sons Titus (79-81) and Domitian (81-96). Vespasian descended from a family of equestrians which rose into the senatorial rank under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Although he attained the standard succession of public offices, holding the consulship in 51, Vespasian became more reputed as a successful military commander, partaking in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and subjugating the Judaea province during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian was preparing to besiege the city of Jerusalem during the latter campaign, emperor Nero committed suicide, plunging the Roman Empire into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in mid 69. In response, the armies in Egypt and Judaea themselves declared Vespasian emperor on July 1. On December 20, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day, Vespasian was declared emperor by the Roman Senate. Little factual information survives about Vespasian’s government during the ten years he was emperor. His reign is best known for financial reforms following the demise of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, the successful campaign against Judaea, and several ambitious construction projects such as the Colosseum. Upon his death on June 23, 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus. Family and early career. Vespasian was born in Falacrina, in the Sabine country near Reate. His mother, Vespasia Polla, was the sister of a Senator. After prompting from his mother, Vespasian followed his older brother, also called Titus Flavius Sabinus, into public life. He served in the army as a military tribune in Thrace in 36. The following year he was elected quaestor and served in Crete and Cyrene. He rose through the ranks of Roman public office, being elected aedile on his second attempt in 39 and praetor on his first attempt in 40, taking the opportunity to ingratiate himself with the Emperor Caligula. In the meantime, he married Domitilla the Elder, the daughter of an equestrian from Ferentium. They had two sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus b. 41 and Titus Flavius Domitianus b. 51, and a daughter, Domitilla b. Domitilla died before Vespasian became emperor. Thereafter his mistress, Caenis, was his wife in all but name until she died in 74. Upon the accession of Claudius as emperor in 41, Vespasian was appointed legate of Legio II Augusta , stationed in Germania, thanks to the influence of the Imperial freedman Narcissus. In 43, Vespasian and the II Augusta participated in the Roman invasion of Britain, and he distinguished himself under the overall command of Aulus Plautius. After participating in crucial early battles on the rivers Medway and Thames, he was sent to reduce the south west, penetrating through the modern counties of Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon and Cornwall with the probable objectives of securing the south coast ports and harbours along with the tin mines of Cornwall and the silver and lead mines of Somerset. Vespasian marched from Noviomagus Reginorum (Chichester) to subdue the hostile Durotriges and Dumnonii tribes. Captured twenty oppida (towns, or more probably hill forts, including Hod Hill and Maiden Castle in Dorset). He also invaded Vectis (the Isle of Wight), finally setting up a fortress and legionary headquarters at Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter). These successes earned him triumphal regalia (ornamenta triumphalia) on his return to Rome. Vespasian was elected consul for the last two months of 51, after which he withdrew from public life. He came out of retirement in 63 when he was sent as governor to Africa Province. According to Tacitus ii. 97, his rule was “infamous and odious” but according to Suetonius Vesp. 4, he was “upright and, highly honourable”. On one occasion he was pelted with turnips. Vespasian used his time in North Africa wisely. Corruption was so rife, that it was almost expected that a governor would come back from these appointments with his pockets full. During his time in North Africa, he found himself in financial difficulties and was forced to mortgage his estates to his brother. To revive his fortunes he turned to the mule trade and gained the nickname mulio (mule-driver). Returning from Africa, Vespasian toured Greece in Nero’s retinue, but lost Imperial favour after paying insufficient attention (some sources suggest he fell asleep) during one of the Emperor’s recitals on the lyre, and found himself in the political wilderness. However, in 66, Vespasian was appointed to conduct the war in Judea. A revolt there had killed the previous governor and routed Licinius Mucianus, the governor of Syria, when he tried to restore order. Two legions, with eight cavalry squadrons and 10 auxiliary cohorts, were therefore dispatched under the command of Vespasian to add to the one already there. His elder son, Titus, served on his staff. During this time he became the patron of Flavius Josephus, a Jewish resistance leader turned Roman agent who would go on to write his people’s history in Greek. In the end, thousands of Jews were killed and many towns destroyed by the Romans, who successfully re-established control over Judea. They took Jerusalem in 70. He is remembered by Jews as a fair and humane official, in contrast to the notorious Herod the Great. Josephus wrote that after the Roman Legio X Fretensis accompanied by Vespasian destroyed Jericho on June 21, 68, he took a group of Jews who could not swim (possibly Essenes from Qumran), fettered them, and threw them into the Dead Sea to test its legendary buoyancy. Sure enough, the Jews shot back up after being thrown in from boats and floated calmly on top of the sea. Year of Four Emperors. Main article: Year of the Four Emperors. Map of the Roman Empire during the Year of the Four Emperors (69 AD). Blue areas indicate provinces loyal to Vespasian and Gaius Licinius Mucianus. After the death of Nero in 68, Rome saw a succession of short-lived emperors and a year of civil wars. Galba was murdered by Otho, who was defeated by Vitellius. Otho’s supporters, looking for another candidate to support, settled on Vespasian. According to Suetonius, a prophecy ubiquitous in the Eastern provinces claimed that from Judaea would come the future rulers of the world. Vespasian eventually believed that this prophecy applied to him, and found a number of omens, oracles, and portents that reinforced this belief. He also found encouragement in Mucianus, the governor of Syria; and, although Vespasian was a strict disciplinarian and reformer of abuses, Vespasian’s soldiers were thoroughly devoted to him. All eyes in the East were now upon him. Mucianus and the Syrian legions were eager to support him. While he was at Caesarea, he was proclaimed emperor (July 1, 69), first by the army in Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander, and then by his troops in Judaea (July 11 according to Suetonius, July 3 according to Tacitus). Nevertheless, Vitellius, the occupant of the throne, had Rome’s best troops on his side – the veteran legions of Gaul and the Rhineland. But the feeling in Vespasian’s favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia, and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him the de facto master of half of the Roman world. While Vespasian himself was in Egypt securing its grain supply, his troops entered Italy from the northeast under the leadership of M. They defeated Vitellius’s army (which had awaited him in Mevania) at Bedriacum (or Betriacum), sacked Cremona and advanced on Rome. They entered Rome after furious fighting. In the resulting confusion, the Capitol was destroyed by fire and Vespasian’s brother Sabinus was killed by a mob. On receiving the tidings of his rival’s defeat and death at Alexandria, the new emperor at once forwarded supplies of urgently needed grain to Rome, along with an edict or a declaration of policy, in which he gave assurance of an entire reversal of the laws of Nero, especially those relating to treason. While in Egypt he visited the Temple of Serapis, where reportedly he experienced a vision. Later he was confronted by two labourers who were convinced that he possessed a divine power that could work miracles. Aftermath of the civil war. Bust of Vespasian, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate while he was in Egypt in December of 69 (the Egyptians had declared him emperor in June of 69). In the short-term, administration of the empire was given to Mucianus who was aided by Vespasian’s son, Domitian. By his own example of simplicity of life – he caused something of a scandal when it was made known he took his own boots off – he initiated a marked improvement in the general tone of society in many respects. In early 70, Vespasian was still in Egypt, the source of Rome’s grain supply, and had not yet left for Rome. According to Tacitus, his trip was delayed due to bad weather. Modern historians theorize that Vespasian had been and was continuing to consolidate support from the Egyptians before departing. Stories of a divine Vespasian healing people circulated in Egypt. In addition to the uprising in Egypt, unrest and civil war continued in the rest of the empire in 70. In Judea, rebellion had continued from 66. Vespasian’s son, Titus, finally subdued the rebellion with the capture of Jerusalem and destruction of the Jewish Temple in 70. According to Eusebius, Vespasian then ordered all descendants of the royal line of David to be hunted down, causing the Jews to be persecuted from province to province. Several modern historians have suggested that Vespasian, already having been told by Josephus that he was prophesied to become emperor whilst in Judaea, was probably reacting to other widely-known Messianic prophecies circulating at the time, to suppress any rival claimants arising from that dynasty. In January of the same year, an uprising occurred in Gaul and Germany, known as the second Batavian Rebellion. This rebellion was headed by Gaius Julius Civilis and Julius Sabinus. Sabinus, claiming he was descended from Julius Caesar, declared himself emperor of Gaul. The rebellion defeated and absorbed two Roman legions before it was suppressed by Vespasian’s brother-in-law, Quintus Petillius Cerialis, by the end of 70. Arrival in Rome and gathering support. In mid-70, Vespasian first came to Rome. Vespasian immediately embarked on a series of efforts to stay in power and prevent future revolts. He offered gifts to many in the military and much of the public. Soldiers loyal to Vitellius were dismissed or punished. He also restructured the Senatorial and Equestrian orders, removing his enemies and adding his allies. Regional autonomy of Greek provinces was repealed. Additionally, he made significant attempts to control public perception of his rule. Many modern historians note the increased amount of propaganda that appeared during Vespasian’s reign. Stories of a supernatural emperor who was destined to rule circulated in the empire. Nearly one-third of all coins minted in Rome under Vespasian celebrated military victory or peace. The word vindex was removed from coins so as not to remind the public of rebellious Vindex. Construction projects bore inscriptions praising Vespasian and condemning previous emperors. A temple of peace was constructed in the forum as well. Vespasian approved histories written under his reign, ensuring biases against him were removed. Vespasian also gave financial rewards to ancient writers. The ancient historians who lived through the period such as Tacitus, Suetonius, Josephus and Pliny the Elder speak suspiciously well of Vespasian while condemning the emperors who came before him. Tacitus admits that his status was elevated by Vespasian, Josephus identifies Vespasian as a patron and savior, and Pliny dedicated his Natural Histories to Vespasian, Titus. Those who spoke against Vespasian were punished. A number of stoic philosophers were accused of corrupting students with inappropriate teachings and were expelled from Rome. Helvidius Priscus, a pro-republic philosopher, was executed for his teachings. Construction of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum, was begun by Vespasian, and ultimately finished by his son Titus. Between 71 and 79, much of Vespasian’s reign is a mystery. Historians report that Vespasian ordered the construction of several buildings in Rome. Additionally, he survived several conspiracies against him. Vespasian helped rebuild Rome after the civil war. He added the temple of Peace and the temple to the Deified Claudius. In 75, he erected a colossal statue of Apollo, begun under Nero, and he dedicated a stage of the theater of Marcellus. He also began construction of the Colosseum. Suetonius claims that Vespasian was met with “constant conspiracies” against him. Only one conspiracy is known specifically, though. In 78 or 79, Eprius Marcellus and Aulus Caecina Alienus attempted to kill Vespasian. Why these men turned against Vespasian is not known. Military pursuits and death. In 78, Agricola was sent to Britain, and both extended and consolidated the Roman dominion in that province, pushing his way into what is now Scotland. On June 23 of the following year, Vespasian was on his deathbed and expiring rapidly, he demanded that he be helped to stand as he believed “An emperor should die on his feet”. He died of an intestinal inflammation which led to excessive diarrhea. His purported great wit can be glimpsed from his last words; Væ, puto deus fio , Damn. Vespasian was known for his wit and his amiable manner alongside his commanding persona and military prowess. He could be liberal to impoverished Senators and equestrians and to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity. He was especially generous to men of letters and rhetors, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as 1,000 gold pieces a year. Quintilian is said to have been the first public teacher who enjoyed this imperial favor. Pliny the Elder’s work, the Natural History , was written during Vespasian’s reign, and dedicated to Vespasian’s son Titus. Vespasian distrusted philosophers in general, viewing them as unmanly complainers who talked too much. It was the idle talk of philosophers, who liked to glorify the good times of the Republic, that provoked Vespasian into reviving the obsolete penal laws against this profession as a precautionary measure. Only one however, Helvidius Priscus, was put to death, and he had repeatedly affronted the Emperor by studied insults which Vespasian had initially tried to ignore, “I will not kill a dog that barks at me, ” were his words on discovering Priscus’s public slander. Vespasian was indeed noted for mildness when dealing with political opposition. According to Suetonius, he bore the frank language of his friends, the quips of pleaders, and the impudence of the philosophers with the greatest patience. Marcus Didius Falco novels. The Course of Honour , a novel by Lindsey Davis. Edward Rutherfurd’s historical fiction novel Sarum contains an account of one the protagonists’ (a Celtic chief) meeting Vespasian during his campaign through southern Britannia. Vespasian, as legate under Aulus Plautius, is a regular secondary character in Simon Scarrow’s Eaglegle series. Ilya Zlobin, world-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. 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The item “VESPASIAN Jewish War Victory JUDAEA CAPTA Silver Ancient Roman Coin NGC i61912″ is in sale since Thursday, May 25, 2017. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Vespasian
  • Composition: Silver
  • Material: Silver
  • Coin Type: Ancient Roman
  • Certification: NGC
  • Denomination: Denarius
  • Certification Number: 4529167-007

May 22 2018

MAXIMIAN 293AD Jupiter Victory Eagle Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Lyons i43626

MAXIMIAN 293AD Jupiter Victory Eagle Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Lyons i43626

MAXIMIAN 293AD Jupiter Victory Eagle Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Lyons i43626

Item: i43626 Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of. Maximian – Roman Emperor : 285-305, 306-308 & 310 A. Bronze Antoninianus 23mm (3.77 grams) Lyons mint: 293-294 A. Reference: RIC 386 IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right. IOVI AVGG, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle at foot; Mintmark P. In Roman mythology , Jupiter or Jove was the king of the gods , and the god of sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus in the Greek pantheon. He was called Iuppiter (or Diespiter) Optimus Maximus (“Father God the Best and Greatest”). As the patron deity of ancient Rome , he ruled over laws and social order. He was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad , with sister/wife Juno. Jupiter is also the father of the god Mars with Juno. Therefore, Jupiter is the grandfather of Romulus and Remus , the legendary founders of Rome. Jupiter was venerated in ancient Roman religion , and is still venerated in Roman Neopaganism. He is a son of Saturn , along with brothers Neptune and Pluto. He is also the brother/husband of Ceres (daughter of Saturn and mother of Proserpina), brother of Veritas (daughter of Saturn), and father of Mercury. Bust of Emperor Maximian. Under Diocletian April 2, 286 May 1, 305 (as Augustus of the West, with Diocletian as Augustus of the East) Late 306 November 11, 308 (declared himself Augustus) 310 (declared himself Augustus). Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus. July 310 (aged 60). Flavia Maximiana Theodora Maxentius Fausta. From 286 to 305. From 285 to 286, then. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior. Diocletian , whose political brain complemented Maximian’s military brawn. Maximian established his residence at. But spent most of his time on campaign. In the late summer of 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the. From 285 to 288, he fought against. Together with Diocletian, he launched a. Territory in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhine provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion. The man he appointed to police the. Carausius , rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. Maximian failed to oust Carausius, and his invasion fleet was destroyed by storms in 289 or 290. Constantius , campaigned against Carausius’ successor. Allectus , while Maximian held the. The rebel leader was ousted in 296, and Maximian moved south to combat piracy near. When these campaigns concluded in 298, he departed for Italy, where he lived in comfort until 305. At Diocletian’s behest, Maximian abdicated on May 1, 305, gave the Augustan office to Constantius, and retired to southern Italy. In late 306, Maximian took the title of Augustus again and aided his son. Maxentius’ rebellion in Italy. In April 307, he attempted to depose his son, but failed and fled to the court of Constantius’ successor. (who was both Maximian’s step-grandson and also his son-in-law), in Trier. At the Council of. In November 308, Diocletian and his successor. Galerius , forced Maximian to renounce his imperial claim again. In early 310, Maximian attempted to seize Constantine’s title while the emperor was on campaign on the Rhine. Few supported him, and he was captured by Constantine in Marseille. Maximian committed suicide in the summer of 310 on Constantine’s orders. During Constantine’s war with Maxentius, Maximian’s image was purged from all public places. However, after Constantine ousted and killed Maxentius, Maximian’s image was rehabilitated, and he was deified. Maximian was born near. Pannonia , around 250 into the family of. Beyond that, the ancient sources contain vague allusions to. To his Pannonian virtues. And to his harsh upbringing along the war-torn. Maximian joined the army, serving with Diocletian under the emperors. He probably participated in the Mesopotamian campaign of. In 283 and attended Diocletian’s election as emperor on November 20, 284 at. Maximian’s swift appointment by Diocletian as Caesar is taken by the writer Stephen Williams and historian. To mean that the two men were longterm allies, that their respective roles were pre-agreed and that Maximian had probably supported Diocletian during his campaign against. 283285 but there is no direct evidence for this. With his great energy, firm aggressive character and disinclination to rebel, Maximian was an appealing candidate for imperial office. Described Maximian as “a colleague trustworthy in friendship, if somewhat boorish, and of great military talents”. Despite his other qualities, Maximian was uneducated and preferred action to thought. Of 289, after comparing his actions to. Scipio Africanus’ victories over. Second Punic War , suggested that Maximian had never heard of them. His ambitions were purely military; he left politics to Diocletian. Suggested that Maximian shared Diocletian’s basic attitudes but was less puritanical in his tastes, and took advantage of the sensual opportunities his position as emperor offered. Lactantius charged that Maximian defiled senators’ daughters and traveled with young virgins to satisfy his unending lust, though Lactantius’ credibility is undermined by his general hostility towards pagans. Maximian had two children with his. There is no direct evidence in the ancient sources for their birthdates. Modern estimates of Maxentius’ birth year have varied from c. 287, and most date Fausta’s birth to c. Theodora , the wife of Constantius Chlorus, is often called Maximian’s stepdaughter by ancient sources, leading to claims by. And Ernest Stein that she was born from an earlier marriage between Eutropia and Afranius Hannibalianus. Barnes challenges this view, saying that all “stepdaughter” sources derive their information from the partially unreliable work of history. Kaisergeschichte , while other, more reliable sources, refer to her as Maximian’s natural daughter. Barnes concludes that Theodora was born no later than c. 275 to an unnamed earlier wife of Maximian, possibly one of Hannibalianus’ daughters. Diocletian, Maximian’s senior colleague and Augustus in the east. Italy in July 285. Diocletian proclaimed Maximian as his co-ruler, or Caesar. The reasons for this decision are complex. With conflict in every province of the Empire, from Gaul to Syria, from Egypt to the lower Danube, Diocletian needed a lieutenant to manage his heavy workload. Historian Stephen Williams suggests that Diocletian considered himself a mediocre general and needed a man like Maximian to do most of his fighting. Next, Diocletian was vulnerable in that he had no sons, just a daughter, Valeria, who could never succeed him. He was forced therefore to seek a co-ruler from outside his family and that co-ruler had to be someone he trusted. The historian William Seston has argued that Diocletian, like heirless emperors before him, adopted Maximian as his. (“Augustan son”) upon his appointment to the office. Some agree, but the historian. Has stated that arguments for the adoption are based on misreadings of the papyrological evidence. Maximian did take Diocletian’s. (family name) Valerius, however. Finally, Diocletian knew that single rule was dangerous and that precedent existed for dual rulership. Despite their military prowess, both sole-emperors Aurelian and Probus had been easily removed from power. In contrast, just a few years earlier, the emperor. And his sons had ruled jointly, albeit not for long. Even the first emperor. 27 BCAD 19, had shared power with his colleagues and more formal offices of co-emperor had existed from. The dual system evidently worked well. About 287, the two rulers’ relationship was re-defined in religious terms, with Diocletian assuming the title. The titles were pregnant with symbolism: Diocletian- Jove. Had the dominant role of planning and commanding; Maximian- Hercules. Role of completing assigned tasks. Yet despite the symbolism, the emperors were not “gods” in the. (although they may have been hailed as such in Imperial panegyrics). Instead, they were the gods’ instruments, imposing the gods’ will on earth. Early campaigns in Gaul and Germany. Of Gaul are obscure figures, appearing fleetingly in the ancient sources, with their 285 uprising being their first appearance. Described them as rural people under the leadership of. Amandus and Aelianus , while Aurelius Victor called them bandits. The historian David S. Potter suggests that they were more than peasants, seeking either Gallic political autonomy or reinstatement of the recently deposed Carus a native of. Gallia Narbonensis , in what would become southern. France : in this case, they would be defecting imperial troops, not brigands. Although poorly equipped, led and trained and therefore a poor match for Roman legions Diocletian certainly considered the Bagaudae sufficient threat to merit an emperor to counter them. Maximian traveled to Gaul, engaging the Bagaudae late in the summer of 285. Details of the campaign are sparse and provide no tactical detail: the historical sources dwell only on Maximian’s virtues and victories. The panegyric to Maximian in 289 records that the rebels were defeated with a blend of harshness and leniency. As the campaign was against the Empire’s own citizens, and therefore distasteful, it went unrecorded in. Indeed, Maximian’s panegyrist declares: I pass quickly over this episode, for I see in your magnanimity you would rather forget this victory than celebrate it. By the end of the year, the revolt had significantly abated, and Maximian moved the bulk of his forces to the Rhine frontier, heralding a period of stability. Maximian did not put down the Bagaudae swiftly enough to avoid a Germanic reaction. In the autumn of 285, two barbarian armies one of. And Alamanni, the other of Chaibones and. Forded the Rhine and entered Gaul. The first army was left to die of disease and hunger, while Maximian intercepted and defeated the second. He then established a Rhine headquarters in preparation for future campaigns. Either at Moguntiacum Mainz. Germany , Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), or Colonia Agrippina (Cologne , Germany). Roof tile showing the badge and standard of. Legio XX Valeria Victrix , one of the legions that joined Carausius’ rebellion. Although most of Gaul was pacified, regions bordering the English Channel still suffered from. The emperors Probus and Carinus had begun to fortify the. Saxon Shore , but much remained to be done. For example, there is no archaeological evidence of naval bases at. In response to the pirate problem, Maximian appointed Mausaeus. Netherlands to command the Channel and to clear it of raiders. And by the end of 285 he was capturing pirate ships in great numbers. Maximian soon heard that Carausius was waiting until the pirates had finished plundering before attacking and keeping their booty himself instead of returning it to the population at large or into the imperial treasury. Maximian ordered Carausius’ arrest and execution, prompting him to flee to Britain. Carausius’ support among the British was strong, and at least two British legions II Augusta. And XX Valeria Victrix defected to him, as did some or all of a legion near Boulogne probably. Carausius quickly eliminated the few remaining loyalists in his army and declared himself Augustus. Maximian could do little about the revolt. He had no fleet he had given it to Carausius and was busy quelling the Heruli and the Franks. Meanwhile, Carausius strengthened his position by enlarging his fleet, enlisting Frankish mercenaries, and paying his troops well. By the autumn of 286, Britain, much of northwestern Gaul, and the entire Channel coast, was under his control. Carausius declared himself head of an independent British state, an. And issued coin of a markedly higher purity than that of Maximian and Diocletian, earning the support of British and Gallic merchants. Even Maximian’s troops were vulnerable to Carausius’ influence and wealth. Spurred by the crisis with Carausius, on April 1, 286. Maximian took the title of. This gave him the same status as Carausius so the clash was between two Augusti, rather than between an Augustus and a Caesar and, in Imperial propaganda, Maximian was proclaimed Diocletian’s brother, his equal in authority and prestige. Diocletian could not have been present at Maximian’s appointment. Causing Seeck to suggest that Maximian usurped the title and was only later recognized by Diocletian in hopes of avoiding civil war. This suggestion has not won much support, and the historian William Leadbetter has recently refuted it. Despite the physical distance between the emperors, Diocletian trusted Maximian enough to invest him with imperial powers, and Maximian still respected Diocletian enough to act in accordance with his will. In theory, the Roman Empire was not divided by the dual imperium. Though divisions did take place each emperor had his own court, army, and official residences these were matters of practicality, not substance. Imperial propaganda from 287 on insists on a singular and indivisible Rome, a. As the panegyrist of 289 declares to Maximian: So it is that this great empire is a communal possession for both of you, without any discord, nor would we endure there to be any dispute between you, but plainly you hold the state in equal measure as once those two. Spartan Kings , had done. Legal rulings were given and imperial celebrations took place in both emperors’ names, and the same coins were issued in both parts of the empire. Diocletian sometimes issued commands to Maximian’s province of Africa; Maximian could presumably have done the same for Diocletian’s territory. Campaigns against Rhenish tribes. Campaigns in 286 and 287. Maximian realized that he could not immediately suppress Carausius and campaigned instead against Rhenish tribes. These tribes were probably greater threats to Gallic peace anyway and included many supporters of Carausius. Although Maximian had many enemies along the river, they were more often in dispute with each other than in combat with the Empire. Few clear dates survive for Maximian’s campaigns on the Rhine beyond a general range of 285 to 288. While receiving the consular. On January 1, 287, Maximian was interrupted by news of a barbarian raid. Doffing his toga and donning his armor, he marched against the barbarians and, although they were not entirely dispersed, he celebrated a victory in Gaul later that year. Maximian believed the Burgundian and Alemanni tribes of the. Region to be the greatest threat, so he targeted them first. He campaigned using scorched earth tactics, laying waste to their land and reducing their numbers through famine and disease. After the Burgundians and Alemanni, Maximian moved against the weaker Heruli and Chaibones. He cornered and defeated them in a single battle. He fought in person, riding along the battle line until the Germanic forces broke. Roman forces pursued the fleeing tribal armies and routed them. With his enemies weakened from starvation. Maximian launched a great invasion across the Rhine. He moved deep into Germanic territory, bringing destruction to his enemies’ homelands. And demonstrating the superiority of Roman arms. By the winter of 287, he had the advantage and the Rhenish lands were free of Germanic tribesmen. Maximian’s panegyrist declared: All that I see beyond the Rhine is Roman. Flavius Constantius, Maximian’s praetorian prefect. And husband to his daughter Theodora. Joint campaign against the Alamanni. The emperors met that year, but neither date nor place is known with certainty. They probably agreed on a joint campaign against the Alamanni and a naval expedition against Carausius. Later in the year, Maximian led a surprise invasion of the. A region between the upper Rhine and upper Danube deep within Alamanni territory while Diocletian invaded Germany via. Both emperors burned crops and food supplies as they went, destroying the Germans’ means of sustenance. They added large swathes of territory to the Empire and allowed Maximian’s build-up to proceed without further disturbance. In the aftermath of the war, towns along the Rhine were rebuilt, bridgeheads created on the eastern banks at such places as Mainz and Cologne, and a military frontier was established, comprising forts, roads, and fortified towns. A military highway through Tornacum Tournai. Belgium , Bavacum (Bavay , France), Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren , Belgium), Mosae Trajectum (Maastricht , Netherlands), and Cologne connected points along the frontier. Constantius, Gennobaudes, and resettlement. In early 288, Maximian appointed his praetorian prefect. Constantius Chlorus , husband of Maximian’s daughter Theodora, to lead a campaign against Carausius’ Frankish allies. These Franks controlled the Rhine. Estuaries , thwarting sea-attacks against Carausius. Constantius moved north through their territory, wreaking havoc, and reaching the. The Franks sued for peace and in the subsequent settlement Maximian reinstated the deposed Frankish king Gennobaudes. Gennobaudes became Maximian’s vassal and, with lesser Frankish chiefs in turn swearing loyalty to Gennobaudes, Roman regional dominance was assured. Maximian allowed a settlement of. And other tribes along a strip of Roman territory, either between the Rhine and. Rivers from Noviomagus (Nijmegen , Netherlands) to Traiectum (Utrecht , Netherlands). These tribes were allowed to settle on the condition that they acknowledged Roman dominance. Their presence provided a ready pool of manpower and prevented the settlement of other Frankish tribes, giving Maximian a buffer along the northern Rhine and reducing his need to garrison the region. Later campaigns in Britain and Gaul. Failed expedition against Carausius. Carausius, rebel emperor of. By 289, Maximian was prepared to invade Carausius’ Britain, but for some reason the plan failed. Maximian’s panegyrist of 289 was optimistic about the campaign’s prospects, but the panegyrist of 291 made no mention of it. Constantius’ panegyrist suggested that his fleet was lost to a storm. But this might simply have been to diminish the embarrassment of defeat. Diocletian curtailed his Eastern province tour soon after, perhaps on learning of Maximian’s failure. And Sirmium on the Danube by July 1, 290. Diocletian met Maximian in Milan either in late December 290 or January 291. Crowds gathered to witness the event, and the emperors devoted much time to public pageantry. Potter, among others, has surmised that the ceremonies were arranged to demonstrate Diocletian’s continuing support for his faltering colleague. The rulers discussed matters of politics and war in secret. And they may have considered the idea of expanding the imperial college to include four emperors (the Tetrarchy). Meanwhile, a deputation from the Roman Senate met with the rulers and renewed its infrequent contact with the imperial office. The emperors would not meet again until 303. Following Maximian’s failure to invade in 289, an uneasy truce with Carausius began. Maximian tolerated Carausius’ rule in Britain and on the continent but refused to grant the secessionist state formal legitimacy. For his part, Carausius was content with his territories beyond the Continental coast of Gaul. Diocletian, however, would not tolerate this affront to his rule. Faced with Carausius’ secession and further challenges on the Egyptian, Syrian, and Danubian borders, he realized that two emperors were insufficient to manage the Empire. On March 1, 293 at Milan, Maximian appointed Constantius to the office of Caesar. On either the same day or a month later, Diocletian did the same for. Galerius , thus establishing the “Tetrarchy”, or “rule of four”. Constantius was made to understand that he must succeed where Maximian had failed and defeat Carausius. Constantius met expectations quickly and efficiently and by 293 had expelled Carausian forces from northern Gaul. In the same year, Carausius was assassinated and replaced by his treasurer. Constantius marched up the coast to the Rhine and Scheldt estuaries where he was victorious over Carausius’ Frankish allies, taking the title. His sights now set on Britain, Constantius spent the following years building an invasion fleet. There, he held the Rhenish frontiers against Carausius’ Frankish allies while Constantius launched his invasion of Britain. Allectus was killed on the. In battle with Constantius’ praetorian prefect. Constantius himself had landed near. (Dover) and marched on. (London), whose citizens greeted him as a liberator. Campaigns in North Africa. With Constantius’ victorious return, Maximian was able to focus on the conflict in Mauretania (Northwest Africa). As Roman authority weakened during the third century, nomadic Berber tribes harassed settlements in the region with increasingly severe consequences. In 289, the governor of. Algeria gained a temporary respite by pitting a small army against the Bavares and. In 296, Maximian raised an army, from. Aquileian , Egyptian, and Danubian legionaries, Gallic and German. Recruits, advancing through Spain that autumn. He may have defended the region against raiding. Morocco to protect the area from Frankish pirates. By March 297, Maximian had begun a bloody offensive against the Berbers. The campaign was lengthy, and Maximian spent the winter of 297298 resting in. Before returning to the field. Not content to drive them back into their homelands in the. From which they could continue to wage war Maximian ventured deep into Berber territory. The terrain was unfavorable, and the Berbers were skilled at. Guerrilla warfare , but Maximian pressed on. Apparently wishing to inflict as much punishment as possible on the tribes, he devastated previously secure land, killed as many as he could, and drove the remainder back into the. His campaign was concluded by the spring of 298 and, on March 10, he made a triumphal entry into Carthage. Inscriptions there record the people’s gratitude to Maximian, hailing him as Constantius had been on his entry to London as. (“restorer of the eternal light”). Maximian was more aggressive in his relationship with the Senate than Constantius, and Lactantius contends that he terrorized senators, to the point of falsely charging and subsequently executing several, including the prefect of Rome in 301/2. In contrast, Constantius kept up good relations with the senatorial aristocracy and spent his time in active defense of the empire. He took up arms against the Franks in 300 or 301 and in 302 while Maximian was resting in Italy continued to campaign against Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine. Maximian was only disturbed from his rest in 303 by Diocletian’s. Vicennalia , the 20-year anniversary of his reign, in Rome. Some evidence suggests that it was then that Diocletian exacted a promise from Maximian to retire together, passing their titles as Augusti to the Caesars Constantius and Galerius. Presumably Maximian’s son. Together would then become the new Caesars. While Maximian might not have wished to retire, Diocletian was still in control and there was little resistance. Before retirement, Maximian would receive one final moment of glory by officiating at the. On May 1, 305, in separate ceremonies in Milan and Nicomedia, Diocletian and Maximian retired simultaneously. The succession did not go not entirely to Maximian’s liking: perhaps because of Galerius’ influence. Were appointed Caesar, thus excluding Maxentius. Both the newly appointed Caesars had had long military careers and were close to Galerius: Maximinus was his nephew and Severus a former army comrade. Maximian quickly soured to the new tetrarchy, which saw Galerius assume the dominant position Diocletian once held. Although Maximian led the ceremony that proclaimed Severus as Caesar, within two years he was sufficiently dissatisfied to support his son’s rebellion against the new regime. Diocletian retired to the expansive. He had built in his homeland, Dalmatia near Salona on the. Maximian retired to villas in. Lucania , where he lived a life of ease and luxury. Although far from the political centers of the Empire, Diocletian and Maximian remained close enough to stay in regular contact. After the death of Constantius on July 25, 306, Constantine assumed the title of Augustus. This displeased Galerius, who instead offered Constantine the title of Caesar, which Constantine accepted. The title of Augustus then went to Severus. Maxentius was jealous of Constantine’s power, and on October 28, 306, he persuaded a cohort of imperial guardsmen to declare him as Augustus. Uncomfortable with sole leadership, Maxentius sent a set of imperial robes to Maximian and saluted him as “Augustus for the second time”, offering him theoretic equal rule but less actual power and a lower rank. Galerius refused to recognize Maxentius and sent Severus with an army to Rome to depose him. As many of Severus’ soldiers had served under Maximian, and had taken Maxentius’ bribes, most of the army defected to Maxentius. Ravenna , which Maximian besieged. The city was strongly fortified so Maximian offered terms, which Severus accepted. Maximian then seized Severus and took him under guard to a public villa in southern Rome, where he was kept as a hostage. In the autumn of 307, Galerius led a second force against Maxentius but he again failed to take Rome, and retreated north with his army mostly intact. Dresden bust of Maxentius. While Maxentius built up Rome’s defenses, Maximian made his way to Gaul to negotiate with Constantine. A deal was struck in which Constantine would marry Maximian’s younger daughter Fausta and be elevated to Augustan rank in Maxentius’ secessionist regime. In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius, and support Maxentius’ cause in Italy but would remain neutral in the war with Galerius. The deal was sealed with a double ceremony in Trier in the late summer of 307, at which Constantine married Fausta and was declared Augustus by Maximian. He spoke of Rome’s sickly government, disparaged Maxentius for having weakened it, and ripped the imperial toga from Maxentius’ shoulders. He expected the soldiers to recognize him but they sided with Maxentius, and Maximian was forced to leave Italy in disgrace. On November 11, 308, to resolve the political instability, Galerius called Diocletian (out of retirement) and Maximian to a general council meeting at the military city of Carnuntum on the upper Danube. There, Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to Caesar, with Maximinus the Caesar in the east. Licinius , a loyal military companion to Galerius, was appointed Augustus of the West. After Constantine and Maximinus refused to be placated with the titles of. Sons of the Augusti , they were promoted in early 310, with the result that there were now four Augusti. In 310, Maximian rebelled against Constantine while the Emperor was on campaign against the Franks. Maximian had been sent south to Arles with part of Constantine’s army to defend against attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul. In Arles, Maximian announced that Constantine was dead and took up the. In spite of offering bribes to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine’s army remained loyal, and Maximian was compelled to leave. Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and moved quickly to southern Gaul, where he confronted the fleeing Maximian at Massilia (Marseille). The town was better able to withstand a long siege than Arles, but it made little difference as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine. Maximian was captured, reproved for his crimes, and stripped of his title for the third and last time. Constantine granted Maximian some clemency but strongly encouraged his suicide. In July 310, Maximian hanged himself. Despite the earlier rupture in relations, after Maximian’s suicide Maxentius presented himself as his father’s devoted son. He minted coins bearing his father’s deified image and proclaimed his desire to avenge his death. Constantine initially presented the suicide as an unfortunate family tragedy. By 311, however, he was spreading another version. According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep. Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a. In his own place in bed. Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted. In addition to the propaganda, Constantine instituted a. On Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image. Constantine defeated Maxentius at the. Battle of the Milvian Bridge. On October 28, 312. Maxentius died, and Italy came under Constantine’s rule. Eutropia swore on oath that Maxentius was not Maximian’s son, and Maximian’s memory was rehabilitated. Under Maxentius was declared null and void, and he was re-consecrated as a god, probably in 317. He began appearing on Constantine’s coinage as. Divus , or divine, by 318, together with the deified Constantius and. The three were hailed as Constantine’s forbears. They were called “the best of emperors”. Through his daughters Fausta and Flavia, Maximian was grandfather or great-grandfather to every reigning emperor from 337 to 363. Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius c. July 310, commonly referred to as Maximian , was Caesar (junior Roman Emperor) from July 285 and Augustus (senior Roman Emperor) from April 1, 286 to May 1, 305. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian , whose political brain complemented Maximian’s military brawn. Maximian established his residence at Trier but spent most of his time on campaign. In the late summer of 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the Bagaudae. From 285 to 288, he fought against Germanic tribes along the Rhine frontier. Together with Diocletian, he ran a scorched earth campaign deep into the territory of the Alamanni tribes in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhenish provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion. The man he appointed to police the Channel shores, Carausius , rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. Maximan’s subordinate, Constantius , campaigned against Carausius’ successor, Allectus , while Maximian held the Rhenish frontier. The rebel leader was ousted in 296, and Maximian moved south to combat Moorish pirates in Iberia and Berber incursions in Mauretania. In late 306, Maximian took the title of Augustus again and aided his son Maxentius’ rebellion in Italy. In April 307, he attempted to depose his son, but failed and fled to the court of Constantius’ successor, Constantine , in Trier. At the Council of Carnuntum in November 308, Diocletian and his successor, Galerius , forced Maximian to renounce his imperial claim again. One of the members of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus had a convoluted reign that started when he and Diocletian began ruling as equals in 286. Maximianus was in charge of the western portion of the empire along with Constantius I, his junior in command, while Diocletian and Galerius ruled the eastern half. After several years of putting down revolts and usurpers, both he and Diocletian abdicated to let their Caesars take their place in 306. However, this peaceful arrangement would come to an end soon when Maximianus’s son Maxentius initiated a revolt of his own. Seeing that it would lend an air of legitimacy to his claims, Maxentius requested his father to return to assume the high post along with him. Maximianus, although possibly reluctant initially, took up his son’s offer. He had abdicated less than voluntarily under Diocletian’s scheme and now he was caught up in the fervor of Maxentius’s drive to become sole ruler. In time, Maxentius met with failure after he lost several key battles to Constantine and Maximianus found himself in the awkward position of being an emperor with no rightful claim nor army willing to proceed with his agenda. Increasingly isolated, Constantine cornered him and he was either executed or committed suicide. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “MAXIMIAN 293AD Jupiter Victory Eagle Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Lyons i43626″ is in sale since Tuesday, September 23, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Maximianus

May 20 2018

TRAJAN 108AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin ROMA wich Victory i36463

TRAJAN 108AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin ROMA wich Victory i36463

TRAJAN 108AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin ROMA wich Victory i36463

Item: i36463 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Trajan – Roman Emperor: 98-117 A. Bronze Denarius 19mm (2.68 grams) Rome mint: 108 A. Reference: RIC 116, S 3121, C 69 (for Rome mint) IMPTRAIANOAVGGERDACPMTRP – Laureate head right. COSVPPSPQROPTIMOPRINC – Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear. In traditional Roman religion , Roma was a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state. Her image appears on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius. Roma , formerly queen of almost the whole earth. 3 calls her the prince of cities; and according to Martial L. 8 she is terrarum dea gentiumque. Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus , commonly known as Trajan (18 September, 53 8 August, 117), was a Roman Emperor who reigned from AD 98 until his death in AD 117. Born Marcus Ulpius Traianus into a non- patrician family in the Hispania Baetica province (modern day Spain), Trajan rose to prominence during the reign of emperor Domitian , serving as a general in the Roman army along the German frontier , and successfully crushing the revolt of Antonius Saturninus in 89. On September 18, 96, Domitian was succeeded by Marcus Cocceius Nerva , an old and childless senator who proved to be unpopular with the army. After a brief and tumultuous year in power, a revolt by members of the Praetorian Guard compelled him to adopt the more popular Trajan as his heir and successor. Nerva died on January 27, 98, and was succeeded by his adopted son without incident. As a civilian administrator, Trajan is best known for his extensive public building program, which reshaped the city of Rome and left multiple enduring landmarks such as Trajan’s Forum , Trajan’s Market and Trajan’s Column. It was as a military commander however that Trajan celebrated his greatest triumphs. In 101, he launched a punitive expedition into the kingdom of Dacia against king Decebalus , defeating the Dacian army near Tapae in 102, and finally conquering Dacia completely in 106. In 107, Trajan pushed further east and annexed the Nabataean kingdom , establishing the province of Arabia Petraea. After a period of relative peace within the Empire, he launched his final campaign in 113 against Parthia , advancing as far as the city of Susa in 116, and expanding the Roman Empire to its greatest extent. During this campaign Trajan was struck by illness, and late in 117, while sailing back to Rome, he died of a stroke on. In the city of Selinus. He was deified by the Senate and his ashes were laid to rest under Trajan’s Column. He was succeeded by his adopted son (not having a biological heir) Publius Aelius Hadrianus commonly known as Hadrian. As an emperor, Trajan’s reputation has endured – he is one of the few rulers whose reputation has survived the scrutiny of nineteen centuries of history. Every new emperor after him was honoured by the Senate with the prayer felicior Augusto, melior Traiano , meaning “may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan”. Among medieval Christian theologians, Trajan was considered a virtuous pagan , while the 18th century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors , of which Trajan was the second. Early life and rise to power. Trajan was born on September 18, 53 in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica (in what is now Andalusia in modern Spain), a province that was thoroughly Romanized and called southern Hispania, in the city of Italica , where the Italian families were paramount. Of Italian stock himself, Trajan is frequently but misleadingly designated the first provincial emperor. Trajan was the son of Marcia and Marcus Ulpius Traianus , a prominent senator and general from the famous Ulpia gens. Trajan himself was just one of many well-known Ulpii in a line that continued long after his own death. His elder sister was Ulpia Marciana and his niece was Salonina Matidia. The patria of the Ulpii was Italica , in Spanish Baetica, where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family’s ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. As a young man, he rose through the ranks of the Roman army , serving in some of the most contentious parts of the Empire’s frontier. In 7677, Trajan’s father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. Trajan was nominated as Consul and brought Apollodorus of Damascus with him to Rome around 91. Along the Rhine River , he took part in the Emperor Domitian’s wars while under Domitian’s successor, Nerva , who was unpopular with the army and needed to do something to gain their support. He accomplished this by naming Trajan as his adoptive son and successor in the summer of 97. According to the Augustan History , it was the future Emperor Hadrian who brought word to Trajan of his adoption. When Nerva died on January 27, 98, the highly respected Trajan succeeded without incident. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “TRAJAN 108AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin ROMA wich Victory i36463″ is in sale since Wednesday, January 8, 2014. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan

May 15 2018

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i67050

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i67050

TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i67050

Item: i67050 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Silver Antoninianus 21mm (4.31 grams) Rome mint, struck circa 249-251 A. Reference: RIC 29c; C 113; S 2714; RSC 113a IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm. In ancient Roman religion, Victoria or Victory was the personified goddess of victory. She is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Nike, and was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine agricultural goddess Vacuna and had a temple on the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota was also sometimes identified with Victoria. Unlike the Greek Nike , the goddess Victoria (Latin for “victory”) was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus there was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant generals returning from war. Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races, Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war. Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts. She is often seen with or in a chariot, as in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany; “Il Vittoriano” in Rome has two. Winged figures, very often in pairs, representing victory and referred to as “victories”, were common in Roman official iconography, typically hovering high in a composition, and often filling spaces in spandrels or other gaps in architecture. These represent the spirit of victory rather than the goddess herself. They continued to appear after Christianization of the Empire, and slowly mutated into Christian angels. Gaius Messius Quintus Decius ca. 201- June 251 was the Emperor of Rome from 249 to 251. In the last year of his reign, he co-ruled with his son Herennius Etruscus until both of them were killed in the Battle of Abrittus. Early life and rise to power. Decius, who was born at Budalia, now Martinci, Serbia near Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica), in Lower Pannonia was one of the first among a long succession of future Roman Emperors to originate from the provinces of Illyria in the Danube.. Unlike some of his immediate imperial predecessors such as Philip the Arab or Maximinus, Decius was a distinguished senator who had served as consul in 232, had been governor of Moesia and Germania Inferior soon afterwards, served as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis between 235-238, and was urban prefect of Rome during the early reign of Emperor Philip the Arab (Marcus Iulius Phillipus). Around 245, Emperor Philip entrusted Decius with an important command on the Danube. By the end of 248 or 249, Decius was sent to quell the revolt of Pacatianus and his troops in Moesia and Pannonia; the soldiers were enraged because of the peace treaty signed between Philip and the Sassanids. Once arrived, the troops forced Decius to assume the imperial dignity himself instead. Decius still protested his loyalty to Philip, but the latter advanced against him and was killed near Verona, Italy. The Senate then recognized Decius as Emperor, giving him the attribute Traianus as a reference to the good emperor Trajan. As the Byzantine historian Zosimus later noted. Decius was therefore clothed in purple and forced to undertake the [burdens of] government, despite his reluctance and unwillingness. Political and monumental initiatives. Decius’ political program was focused on the restoration of the strength of the State, both military opposing the external threats, and restoring the public piety with a program of renovation of the State religion. Either as a concession to the Senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor. The choice was left to the Senate, who unanimously selected Valerian (afterwards emperor). But Valerian, well aware of the dangers and difficulties attaching to the office at such a time, declined the responsibility. The invasion of the Goths and Decius’ death put an end to the abortive attempt. During his reign, he proceeded to construct several building projects in Rome “including the Thermae Deciane or Baths of Decius on the Aventine” which was completed in 252 and still survived through to the 16th century; Decius also acted to repair the Colosseum, which had been damaged by lightning strikes. In January 250, Decius issued an edict for the suppression of Christianity. The edict itself was fairly clear. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community’for the safety of the empire’ by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the order may have been that the sacrifice had to be completed within a specified period after a community received the edict). When they sacrificed they would obtain a certificate (libellus) recording the fact that they had complied with the order. While Decius himself may have intended the edict as a way to reaffirm his conservative vision of the Pax Romana and to reassure Rome’s citizens that the empire was still secure, it nevertheless sparked a terrible crisis of authority as various [Christian] bishops and their flocks reacted to it in different ways. Measures were first taken demanding that the bishops and officers of the church make a sacrifice for the Emperor, a matter of an oath of allegiance that Christians considered offensive. Certificates were issued to those who satisfied the pagan commissioners during the persecution of Christians under Decius. Forty-six such certificates have been published, all dating from 250, four of them from Oxyrhynchus. Christian followers who refused to offer a pagan sacrifice for the Emperor and the Empire’s well-being by a specified date risked torture and execution. A number of prominent Christians did, in fact, refuse to make a sacrifice and were killed in the process including Pope Fabian himself in 250 and anti-Christian feeling[s] led to pogroms at Carthage and Alexandria. ” In reality, however, towards the end of the second year of Decius’ reign, “the ferocity of the [anti-Christian] persecution had eased off, and the earlier tradition of tolerance had begun to reassert itself. ” The Christian church though never forgot the reign of Decius whom they labelled as that “fierce tyrant. At this time, there was a second outbreak of the Antonine Plague, which at its height in 251 to 266 took the lives of 5,000 a day in Rome. This outbreak is referred to as the “Plague of Cyprian” (the bishop of Carthage), where both the plague and the persecution of Christians were especially severe. Cyprian’s biographer Pontius gave a vivid picture of the demoralizing effects of the plague and Cyprian moralized the event in his essay De mortalitate. In Carthage the “Decian persecution” unleashed at the onset of the plague sought out Christian scapegoats. Decius’ edicts were renewed under Valerius in 253 and repealed under his son, Gallienus, in 260-1. Military actions and death. The barbarian incursions into the Empire were becoming more and more daring and frequent whereas the Empire was facing a serious economic crisis in Decius’ time. During his brief reign, Decius engaged in important operations against the Goths, who crossed the Danube to raid districts of Moesia and Thrace. This is the first considerable occasion the Goths ” who would later come to play such an important role ” appear in the historical record. The Goths under King Cniva were surprised by the emperor while besieging Nicopolis on the Danube; the Goths fled through the difficult terrain of the Balkans, but then doubled back and surprised the Romans near Beroë (modern Stara Zagora), sacking their camp and dispersing the Roman troops. It was the first time a Roman emperor fled in the face of Barbarians. The Goths then moved to attack Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv), which fell into their hands. The governor of Thrace, Titus Julius Priscus, declared himself Emperor under Gothic protection in opposition to Decius but Priscus’s challenge was rendered moot when he was killed soon afterwards. The siege of Philippopolis had so exhausted the numbers and resources of the Goths that they offered to surrender their treasure and prisoners, on condition of being allowed to retire. Decius, who had succeeded in surrounding them and hoped to cut off their retreat, refused to entertain their proposals. The final engagement, in which the Goths fought with the courage of despair, under the command of Cniva, took place during the second week of June 251 on swampy ground in the Ludogorie (region in northeastern Bulgaria which merges with Dobruja plateau and the Danube Plain to the north) near the small settlement of Abrittus or Forum Terebronii (modern Razgrad): see Battle of Abrittus. Jordanes records that Decius’ son Herennius Etruscus was killed by an arrow early in the battle, and to cheer his men Decius exclaimed, Let no one mourn; the death of one soldier is not a great loss to the republic. Nevertheless, Decius’ army was entangled in the swamp and annihilated in this battle, while he himself was killed on the field of battle. As the historian Aurelius Victor relates. Decius , while pursuing the barbarians across the Danube, died through treachery at Abrittus after reigning two years…. Very many report that the son had fallen in battle while pressing an attack too boldly; that the father however, has strenuously asserted that the loss of one soldier seemed to him too little to matter. And so he resumed the war and died in a similar manner while fighting vigorously. One literary tradition claims that Decius was betrayed by his successor Trebonianus Gallus, who was involved in a secret alliance with the Goths but this cannot be substantiated and was most likely a later invention since Gallus felt compelled to adopt Decius’ younger son, Gaius Valens Hostilianus, as joint emperor even though the latter was too young to rule in his own right. It is also unlikely that the shattered Roman legions would proclaim as emperor a traitor who was responsible for the loss of so many soldiers from their ranks. Decius was the first Roman emperor to die in battle against a foreign enemy. World-renowned expert numismatist, enthusiast, author and dealer in authentic ancient Greek, ancient Roman, ancient Byzantine, world coins & more. Ilya Zlobin is an independent individual who has a passion for coin collecting, research and understanding the importance of the historical context and significance all coins and objects represent. Send me a message about this and I can update your invoice should you want this method. Getting your order to you, quickly and securely is a top priority and is taken seriously here. Great care is taken in packaging and mailing every item securely and quickly. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be very happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. 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The item “TRAJAN DECIUS 249AD Rome Silver Authentic Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY i67050″ is in sale since Monday, January 29, 2018. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Trajan Decius
  • Composition: Silver

May 2 2018

MAXIMIAN receiving Victory from Jupiter 296AD Ancient Roman Coin i53946

MAXIMIAN receiving Victory from Jupiter 296AD Ancient Roman Coin i53946

MAXIMIAN receiving Victory from Jupiter 296AD Ancient Roman Coin i53946

Item: i53946 Authentic Ancient Roman Coin of. Maximian – Roman Emperor : 285-305, 306-308 & 310 A. Bronze Antoninianus 21mm (3.11 grams) Alexandria mint: Post-Reform Radiate Fraction. Reference: RIC 46b IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right CONCORDIA MILITVM, emperor standing right in military dress, short sceptre in left hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, holding scepter; B between, ALE in ex. Numismatic Note: The emperor is invoking Jupiter to preserve his rule. Bust of Emperor Maximian. Under Diocletian April 2, 286 May 1, 305 (as Augustus of the West, with Diocletian as Augustus of the East) Late 306 November 11, 308 (declared himself Augustus) 310 (declared himself Augustus). Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus. July 310 (aged 60). Flavia Maximiana Theodora Maxentius Fausta. From 286 to 305. From 285 to 286, then. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior. Diocletian , whose political brain complemented Maximian’s military brawn. Maximian established his residence at. But spent most of his time on campaign. In the late summer of 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the. From 285 to 288, he fought against. Together with Diocletian, he launched a. Territory in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhine provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion. The man he appointed to police the. Carausius , rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. Maximian failed to oust Carausius, and his invasion fleet was destroyed by storms in 289 or 290. Constantius , campaigned against Carausius’ successor. Allectus , while Maximian held the. The rebel leader was ousted in 296, and Maximian moved south to combat piracy near. When these campaigns concluded in 298, he departed for Italy, where he lived in comfort until 305. At Diocletian’s behest, Maximian abdicated on May 1, 305, gave the Augustan office to Constantius, and retired to southern Italy. In late 306, Maximian took the title of Augustus again and aided his son. Maxentius’ rebellion in Italy. In April 307, he attempted to depose his son, but failed and fled to the court of Constantius’ successor. (who was both Maximian’s step-grandson and also his son-in-law), in Trier. At the Council of. In November 308, Diocletian and his successor. Galerius , forced Maximian to renounce his imperial claim again. In early 310, Maximian attempted to seize Constantine’s title while the emperor was on campaign on the Rhine. Few supported him, and he was captured by Constantine in Marseille. Maximian committed suicide in the summer of 310 on Constantine’s orders. During Constantine’s war with Maxentius, Maximian’s image was purged from all public places. However, after Constantine ousted and killed Maxentius, Maximian’s image was rehabilitated, and he was deified. Maximian was born near. Pannonia , around 250 into the family of. Beyond that, the ancient sources contain vague allusions to. To his Pannonian virtues. And to his harsh upbringing along the war-torn. Maximian joined the army, serving with Diocletian under the emperors. He probably participated in the Mesopotamian campaign of. In 283 and attended Diocletian’s election as emperor on November 20, 284 at. Maximian’s swift appointment by Diocletian as Caesar is taken by the writer Stephen Williams and historian. To mean that the two men were longterm allies, that their respective roles were pre-agreed and that Maximian had probably supported Diocletian during his campaign against. 283285 but there is no direct evidence for this. With his great energy, firm aggressive character and disinclination to rebel, Maximian was an appealing candidate for imperial office. Described Maximian as “a colleague trustworthy in friendship, if somewhat boorish, and of great military talents”. Despite his other qualities, Maximian was uneducated and preferred action to thought. Of 289, after comparing his actions to. Scipio Africanus’ victories over. Second Punic War , suggested that Maximian had never heard of them. His ambitions were purely military; he left politics to Diocletian. Suggested that Maximian shared Diocletian’s basic attitudes but was less puritanical in his tastes, and took advantage of the sensual opportunities his position as emperor offered. Lactantius charged that Maximian defiled senators’ daughters and traveled with young virgins to satisfy his unending lust, though Lactantius’ credibility is undermined by his general hostility towards pagans. Maximian had two children with his. There is no direct evidence in the ancient sources for their birthdates. Modern estimates of Maxentius’ birth year have varied from c. 287, and most date Fausta’s birth to c. Theodora , the wife of Constantius Chlorus, is often called Maximian’s stepdaughter by ancient sources, leading to claims by. And Ernest Stein that she was born from an earlier marriage between Eutropia and Afranius Hannibalianus. Barnes challenges this view, saying that all “stepdaughter” sources derive their information from the partially unreliable work of history. Kaisergeschichte , while other, more reliable sources, refer to her as Maximian’s natural daughter. Barnes concludes that Theodora was born no later than c. 275 to an unnamed earlier wife of Maximian, possibly one of Hannibalianus’ daughters. Diocletian, Maximian’s senior colleague and Augustus in the east. Italy in July 285. Diocletian proclaimed Maximian as his co-ruler, or Caesar. The reasons for this decision are complex. With conflict in every province of the Empire, from Gaul to Syria, from Egypt to the lower Danube, Diocletian needed a lieutenant to manage his heavy workload. Historian Stephen Williams suggests that Diocletian considered himself a mediocre general and needed a man like Maximian to do most of his fighting. Next, Diocletian was vulnerable in that he had no sons, just a daughter, Valeria, who could never succeed him. He was forced therefore to seek a co-ruler from outside his family and that co-ruler had to be someone he trusted. The historian William Seston has argued that Diocletian, like heirless emperors before him, adopted Maximian as his. (“Augustan son”) upon his appointment to the office. Some agree, but the historian. Has stated that arguments for the adoption are based on misreadings of the papyrological evidence. Maximian did take Diocletian’s. (family name) Valerius, however. Finally, Diocletian knew that single rule was dangerous and that precedent existed for dual rulership. Despite their military prowess, both sole-emperors Aurelian and Probus had been easily removed from power. In contrast, just a few years earlier, the emperor. And his sons had ruled jointly, albeit not for long. Even the first emperor. 27 BCAD 19, had shared power with his colleagues and more formal offices of co-emperor had existed from. The dual system evidently worked well. About 287, the two rulers’ relationship was re-defined in religious terms, with Diocletian assuming the title. The titles were pregnant with symbolism: Diocletian- Jove. Had the dominant role of planning and commanding; Maximian- Hercules. Role of completing assigned tasks. Yet despite the symbolism, the emperors were not “gods” in the. (although they may have been hailed as such in Imperial panegyrics). Instead, they were the gods’ instruments, imposing the gods’ will on earth. Early campaigns in Gaul and Germany. Of Gaul are obscure figures, appearing fleetingly in the ancient sources, with their 285 uprising being their first appearance. Described them as rural people under the leadership of. Amandus and Aelianus , while Aurelius Victor called them bandits. The historian David S. Potter suggests that they were more than peasants, seeking either Gallic political autonomy or reinstatement of the recently deposed Carus a native of. Gallia Narbonensis , in what would become southern. France : in this case, they would be defecting imperial troops, not brigands. Although poorly equipped, led and trained and therefore a poor match for Roman legions Diocletian certainly considered the Bagaudae sufficient threat to merit an emperor to counter them. Maximian traveled to Gaul, engaging the Bagaudae late in the summer of 285. Details of the campaign are sparse and provide no tactical detail: the historical sources dwell only on Maximian’s virtues and victories. The panegyric to Maximian in 289 records that the rebels were defeated with a blend of harshness and leniency. As the campaign was against the Empire’s own citizens, and therefore distasteful, it went unrecorded in. Indeed, Maximian’s panegyrist declares: I pass quickly over this episode, for I see in your magnanimity you would rather forget this victory than celebrate it. By the end of the year, the revolt had significantly abated, and Maximian moved the bulk of his forces to the Rhine frontier, heralding a period of stability. Maximian did not put down the Bagaudae swiftly enough to avoid a Germanic reaction. In the autumn of 285, two barbarian armies one of. And Alamanni, the other of Chaibones and. Forded the Rhine and entered Gaul. The first army was left to die of disease and hunger, while Maximian intercepted and defeated the second. He then established a Rhine headquarters in preparation for future campaigns. Either at Moguntiacum Mainz. Germany , Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), or Colonia Agrippina (Cologne , Germany). Roof tile showing the badge and standard of. Legio XX Valeria Victrix , one of the legions that joined Carausius’ rebellion. Although most of Gaul was pacified, regions bordering the English Channel still suffered from. The emperors Probus and Carinus had begun to fortify the. Saxon Shore , but much remained to be done. For example, there is no archaeological evidence of naval bases at. In response to the pirate problem, Maximian appointed Mausaeus. Netherlands to command the Channel and to clear it of raiders. And by the end of 285 he was capturing pirate ships in great numbers. Maximian soon heard that Carausius was waiting until the pirates had finished plundering before attacking and keeping their booty himself instead of returning it to the population at large or into the imperial treasury. Maximian ordered Carausius’ arrest and execution, prompting him to flee to Britain. Carausius’ support among the British was strong, and at least two British legions II Augusta. And XX Valeria Victrix defected to him, as did some or all of a legion near Boulogne probably. Carausius quickly eliminated the few remaining loyalists in his army and declared himself Augustus. Maximian could do little about the revolt. He had no fleet he had given it to Carausius and was busy quelling the Heruli and the Franks. Meanwhile, Carausius strengthened his position by enlarging his fleet, enlisting Frankish mercenaries, and paying his troops well. By the autumn of 286, Britain, much of northwestern Gaul, and the entire Channel coast, was under his control. Carausius declared himself head of an independent British state, an. And issued coin of a markedly higher purity than that of Maximian and Diocletian, earning the support of British and Gallic merchants. Even Maximian’s troops were vulnerable to Carausius’ influence and wealth. Spurred by the crisis with Carausius, on April 1, 286. Maximian took the title of. This gave him the same status as Carausius so the clash was between two Augusti, rather than between an Augustus and a Caesar and, in Imperial propaganda, Maximian was proclaimed Diocletian’s brother, his equal in authority and prestige. Diocletian could not have been present at Maximian’s appointment. Causing Seeck to suggest that Maximian usurped the title and was only later recognized by Diocletian in hopes of avoiding civil war. This suggestion has not won much support, and the historian William Leadbetter has recently refuted it. Despite the physical distance between the emperors, Diocletian trusted Maximian enough to invest him with imperial powers, and Maximian still respected Diocletian enough to act in accordance with his will. In theory, the Roman Empire was not divided by the dual imperium. Though divisions did take place each emperor had his own court, army, and official residences these were matters of practicality, not substance. Imperial propaganda from 287 on insists on a singular and indivisible Rome, a. As the panegyrist of 289 declares to Maximian: So it is that this great empire is a communal possession for both of you, without any discord, nor would we endure there to be any dispute between you, but plainly you hold the state in equal measure as once those two. Spartan Kings , had done. Legal rulings were given and imperial celebrations took place in both emperors’ names, and the same coins were issued in both parts of the empire. Diocletian sometimes issued commands to Maximian’s province of Africa; Maximian could presumably have done the same for Diocletian’s territory. Campaigns against Rhenish tribes. Campaigns in 286 and 287. Maximian realized that he could not immediately suppress Carausius and campaigned instead against Rhenish tribes. These tribes were probably greater threats to Gallic peace anyway and included many supporters of Carausius. Although Maximian had many enemies along the river, they were more often in dispute with each other than in combat with the Empire. Few clear dates survive for Maximian’s campaigns on the Rhine beyond a general range of 285 to 288. While receiving the consular. On January 1, 287, Maximian was interrupted by news of a barbarian raid. Doffing his toga and donning his armor, he marched against the barbarians and, although they were not entirely dispersed, he celebrated a victory in Gaul later that year. Maximian believed the Burgundian and Alemanni tribes of the. Region to be the greatest threat, so he targeted them first. He campaigned using scorched earth tactics, laying waste to their land and reducing their numbers through famine and disease. After the Burgundians and Alemanni, Maximian moved against the weaker Heruli and Chaibones. He cornered and defeated them in a single battle. He fought in person, riding along the battle line until the Germanic forces broke. Roman forces pursued the fleeing tribal armies and routed them. With his enemies weakened from starvation. Maximian launched a great invasion across the Rhine. He moved deep into Germanic territory, bringing destruction to his enemies’ homelands. And demonstrating the superiority of Roman arms. By the winter of 287, he had the advantage and the Rhenish lands were free of Germanic tribesmen. Maximian’s panegyrist declared: All that I see beyond the Rhine is Roman. Flavius Constantius, Maximian’s praetorian prefect. And husband to his daughter Theodora. Joint campaign against the Alamanni. The emperors met that year, but neither date nor place is known with certainty. They probably agreed on a joint campaign against the Alamanni and a naval expedition against Carausius. Later in the year, Maximian led a surprise invasion of the. A region between the upper Rhine and upper Danube deep within Alamanni territory while Diocletian invaded Germany via. Both emperors burned crops and food supplies as they went, destroying the Germans’ means of sustenance. They added large swathes of territory to the Empire and allowed Maximian’s build-up to proceed without further disturbance. In the aftermath of the war, towns along the Rhine were rebuilt, bridgeheads created on the eastern banks at such places as Mainz and Cologne, and a military frontier was established, comprising forts, roads, and fortified towns. A military highway through Tornacum Tournai. Belgium , Bavacum (Bavay , France), Atuatuca Tungrorum (Tongeren , Belgium), Mosae Trajectum (Maastricht , Netherlands), and Cologne connected points along the frontier. Constantius, Gennobaudes, and resettlement. In early 288, Maximian appointed his praetorian prefect. Constantius Chlorus , husband of Maximian’s daughter Theodora, to lead a campaign against Carausius’ Frankish allies. These Franks controlled the Rhine. Estuaries , thwarting sea-attacks against Carausius. Constantius moved north through their territory, wreaking havoc, and reaching the. The Franks sued for peace and in the subsequent settlement Maximian reinstated the deposed Frankish king Gennobaudes. Gennobaudes became Maximian’s vassal and, with lesser Frankish chiefs in turn swearing loyalty to Gennobaudes, Roman regional dominance was assured. Maximian allowed a settlement of. And other tribes along a strip of Roman territory, either between the Rhine and. Rivers from Noviomagus (Nijmegen , Netherlands) to Traiectum (Utrecht , Netherlands). These tribes were allowed to settle on the condition that they acknowledged Roman dominance. Their presence provided a ready pool of manpower and prevented the settlement of other Frankish tribes, giving Maximian a buffer along the northern Rhine and reducing his need to garrison the region. Later campaigns in Britain and Gaul. Failed expedition against Carausius. Carausius, rebel emperor of. By 289, Maximian was prepared to invade Carausius’ Britain, but for some reason the plan failed. Maximian’s panegyrist of 289 was optimistic about the campaign’s prospects, but the panegyrist of 291 made no mention of it. Constantius’ panegyrist suggested that his fleet was lost to a storm. But this might simply have been to diminish the embarrassment of defeat. Diocletian curtailed his Eastern province tour soon after, perhaps on learning of Maximian’s failure. And Sirmium on the Danube by July 1, 290. Diocletian met Maximian in Milan either in late December 290 or January 291. Crowds gathered to witness the event, and the emperors devoted much time to public pageantry. Potter, among others, has surmised that the ceremonies were arranged to demonstrate Diocletian’s continuing support for his faltering colleague. The rulers discussed matters of politics and war in secret. And they may have considered the idea of expanding the imperial college to include four emperors (the Tetrarchy). Meanwhile, a deputation from the Roman Senate met with the rulers and renewed its infrequent contact with the imperial office. The emperors would not meet again until 303. Following Maximian’s failure to invade in 289, an uneasy truce with Carausius began. Maximian tolerated Carausius’ rule in Britain and on the continent but refused to grant the secessionist state formal legitimacy. For his part, Carausius was content with his territories beyond the Continental coast of Gaul. Diocletian, however, would not tolerate this affront to his rule. Faced with Carausius’ secession and further challenges on the Egyptian, Syrian, and Danubian borders, he realized that two emperors were insufficient to manage the Empire. On March 1, 293 at Milan, Maximian appointed Constantius to the office of Caesar. On either the same day or a month later, Diocletian did the same for. Galerius , thus establishing the “Tetrarchy”, or “rule of four”. Constantius was made to understand that he must succeed where Maximian had failed and defeat Carausius. Constantius met expectations quickly and efficiently and by 293 had expelled Carausian forces from northern Gaul. In the same year, Carausius was assassinated and replaced by his treasurer. Constantius marched up the coast to the Rhine and Scheldt estuaries where he was victorious over Carausius’ Frankish allies, taking the title. His sights now set on Britain, Constantius spent the following years building an invasion fleet. There, he held the Rhenish frontiers against Carausius’ Frankish allies while Constantius launched his invasion of Britain. Allectus was killed on the. In battle with Constantius’ praetorian prefect. Constantius himself had landed near. (Dover) and marched on. (London), whose citizens greeted him as a liberator. Campaigns in North Africa. With Constantius’ victorious return, Maximian was able to focus on the conflict in Mauretania (Northwest Africa). As Roman authority weakened during the third century, nomadic Berber tribes harassed settlements in the region with increasingly severe consequences. In 289, the governor of. Algeria gained a temporary respite by pitting a small army against the Bavares and. In 296, Maximian raised an army, from. Aquileian , Egyptian, and Danubian legionaries, Gallic and German. Recruits, advancing through Spain that autumn. He may have defended the region against raiding. Morocco to protect the area from Frankish pirates. By March 297, Maximian had begun a bloody offensive against the Berbers. The campaign was lengthy, and Maximian spent the winter of 297298 resting in. Before returning to the field. Not content to drive them back into their homelands in the. From which they could continue to wage war Maximian ventured deep into Berber territory. The terrain was unfavorable, and the Berbers were skilled at. Guerrilla warfare , but Maximian pressed on. Apparently wishing to inflict as much punishment as possible on the tribes, he devastated previously secure land, killed as many as he could, and drove the remainder back into the. His campaign was concluded by the spring of 298 and, on March 10, he made a triumphal entry into Carthage. Inscriptions there record the people’s gratitude to Maximian, hailing him as Constantius had been on his entry to London as. (“restorer of the eternal light”). Maximian was more aggressive in his relationship with the Senate than Constantius, and Lactantius contends that he terrorized senators, to the point of falsely charging and subsequently executing several, including the prefect of Rome in 301/2. In contrast, Constantius kept up good relations with the senatorial aristocracy and spent his time in active defense of the empire. He took up arms against the Franks in 300 or 301 and in 302 while Maximian was resting in Italy continued to campaign against Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine. Maximian was only disturbed from his rest in 303 by Diocletian’s. Vicennalia , the 20-year anniversary of his reign, in Rome. Some evidence suggests that it was then that Diocletian exacted a promise from Maximian to retire together, passing their titles as Augusti to the Caesars Constantius and Galerius. Presumably Maximian’s son. Together would then become the new Caesars. While Maximian might not have wished to retire, Diocletian was still in control and there was little resistance. Before retirement, Maximian would receive one final moment of glory by officiating at the. On May 1, 305, in separate ceremonies in Milan and Nicomedia, Diocletian and Maximian retired simultaneously. The succession did not go not entirely to Maximian’s liking: perhaps because of Galerius’ influence. Were appointed Caesar, thus excluding Maxentius. Both the newly appointed Caesars had had long military careers and were close to Galerius: Maximinus was his nephew and Severus a former army comrade. Maximian quickly soured to the new tetrarchy, which saw Galerius assume the dominant position Diocletian once held. Although Maximian led the ceremony that proclaimed Severus as Caesar, within two years he was sufficiently dissatisfied to support his son’s rebellion against the new regime. Diocletian retired to the expansive. He had built in his homeland, Dalmatia near Salona on the. Maximian retired to villas in. Lucania , where he lived a life of ease and luxury. Although far from the political centers of the Empire, Diocletian and Maximian remained close enough to stay in regular contact. After the death of Constantius on July 25, 306, Constantine assumed the title of Augustus. This displeased Galerius, who instead offered Constantine the title of Caesar, which Constantine accepted. The title of Augustus then went to Severus. Maxentius was jealous of Constantine’s power, and on October 28, 306, he persuaded a cohort of imperial guardsmen to declare him as Augustus. Uncomfortable with sole leadership, Maxentius sent a set of imperial robes to Maximian and saluted him as “Augustus for the second time”, offering him theoretic equal rule but less actual power and a lower rank. Galerius refused to recognize Maxentius and sent Severus with an army to Rome to depose him. As many of Severus’ soldiers had served under Maximian, and had taken Maxentius’ bribes, most of the army defected to Maxentius. Ravenna , which Maximian besieged. The city was strongly fortified so Maximian offered terms, which Severus accepted. Maximian then seized Severus and took him under guard to a public villa in southern Rome, where he was kept as a hostage. In the autumn of 307, Galerius led a second force against Maxentius but he again failed to take Rome, and retreated north with his army mostly intact. Dresden bust of Maxentius. While Maxentius built up Rome’s defenses, Maximian made his way to Gaul to negotiate with Constantine. A deal was struck in which Constantine would marry Maximian’s younger daughter Fausta and be elevated to Augustan rank in Maxentius’ secessionist regime. In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius, and support Maxentius’ cause in Italy but would remain neutral in the war with Galerius. The deal was sealed with a double ceremony in Trier in the late summer of 307, at which Constantine married Fausta and was declared Augustus by Maximian. He spoke of Rome’s sickly government, disparaged Maxentius for having weakened it, and ripped the imperial toga from Maxentius’ shoulders. He expected the soldiers to recognize him but they sided with Maxentius, and Maximian was forced to leave Italy in disgrace. On November 11, 308, to resolve the political instability, Galerius called Diocletian (out of retirement) and Maximian to a general council meeting at the military city of Carnuntum on the upper Danube. There, Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to Caesar, with Maximinus the Caesar in the east. Licinius , a loyal military companion to Galerius, was appointed Augustus of the West. After Constantine and Maximinus refused to be placated with the titles of. Sons of the Augusti , they were promoted in early 310, with the result that there were now four Augusti. In 310, Maximian rebelled against Constantine while the Emperor was on campaign against the Franks. Maximian had been sent south to Arles with part of Constantine’s army to defend against attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul. In Arles, Maximian announced that Constantine was dead and took up the. In spite of offering bribes to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine’s army remained loyal, and Maximian was compelled to leave. Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and moved quickly to southern Gaul, where he confronted the fleeing Maximian at Massilia (Marseille). The town was better able to withstand a long siege than Arles, but it made little difference as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine. Maximian was captured, reproved for his crimes, and stripped of his title for the third and last time. Constantine granted Maximian some clemency but strongly encouraged his suicide. In July 310, Maximian hanged himself. Despite the earlier rupture in relations, after Maximian’s suicide Maxentius presented himself as his father’s devoted son. He minted coins bearing his father’s deified image and proclaimed his desire to avenge his death. Constantine initially presented the suicide as an unfortunate family tragedy. By 311, however, he was spreading another version. According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep. Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a. In his own place in bed. Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted. In addition to the propaganda, Constantine instituted a. On Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image. Constantine defeated Maxentius at the. Battle of the Milvian Bridge. On October 28, 312. Maxentius died, and Italy came under Constantine’s rule. Eutropia swore on oath that Maxentius was not Maximian’s son, and Maximian’s memory was rehabilitated. Under Maxentius was declared null and void, and he was re-consecrated as a god, probably in 317. He began appearing on Constantine’s coinage as. Divus , or divine, by 318, together with the deified Constantius and. The three were hailed as Constantine’s forbears. They were called “the best of emperors”. Through his daughters Fausta and Flavia, Maximian was grandfather or great-grandfather to every reigning emperor from 337 to 363. In ancient Roman religion and myth , Jupiter Latin. Or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until the Empire came under Christian rule. In Roman mythology , he negotiates with Numa Pompilius , the second king of Rome , to establish principles of Roman religion such as sacrifice. Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as a sky god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt , and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army (see Aquila). The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline (“Capitol Hill”), where the citadel was located. He was the chief deity of the early Capitoline Triad with Mars and Quirinus. In the later Capitoline Triad , he was the central guardian of the state with Juno and Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak. The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of Greek Zeus , and in Latin literature and Roman art , the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually but not always identified with Jupiter. The Etruscan counterpart was Tinia and Hindu counterpart is Indra. Jupiter and the state. The Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honoured him more than any other people had. Jupiter was the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested. He personified the divine authority of Rome’s highest offices, internal organization, and external relations. His image in the Republican and Imperial Capitol bore regalia associated with Rome’s ancient kings and the highest consular and Imperial honours. The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter’s name, and honoured him on the annual feriae of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help (and to secure his continued support), they offered him a white ox (bos mas) with gilded horns. A similar offering was made by triumphal generals , who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter’s statue in the Capitol. Some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying (or impersonating) Jupiter in the triumphal procession. Jupiter’s association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Rome’s form of government changed. Originally, Rome was ruled by kings ; after the monarchy was abolished and the Republic established, religious prerogatives were transferred to the patres , the patrician ruling class. Nostalgia for the kingship (affectatio regni) was considered treasonous. Those suspected of harbouring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state. In the 5th century BC, the triumphator Furius Camillus was sent into exile after he drove a chariot with a team of four white horses (quadriga) an honour reserved for Jupiter himself. After the Gallic occupation ended and self-rule was restored, Manlius Capitolinus took on regal pretensions and was executed as a traitor by being cast from the Tarpeian Rock. His house on the Capitoline was razed, and it was decreed that no patrician should ever be allowed to live there. Capitoline Jupiter finds himself in a delicate position: he represents a continuity of royal power from the Regal period , and confers power on the magistrates who pay their respects to him; at the same time he embodies that which is now forbidden, abhorred, and scorned. During the Conflict of the Orders , Rome’s plebeians demanded the right to hold political and religious office. During their first secessio (similar to a general strike), they withdrew from the city and threatened to found their own. When they agreed to came back to Rome they vowed the hill where they had retreated to Jupiter as symbol and guarantor of the unity of the Roman res publica. Plebeians eventually became eligible for all the magistracies and most priesthoods, but the high priest of Jupiter (Flamen Dialis) remained the preserve of patricians. Flamen and Flaminica Dialis. Jupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the highest-ranking member of the flamines , a college of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, each of whom was devoted to a particular deity. The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual confarreatio , which included a sacrifice of spelt bread to Jupiter Farreus (from far , “wheat, grain”). The office of Flamen Dialis was circumscribed by several unique ritual prohibitions, some of which shed light on the sovereign nature of the god himself. For instance, the flamen may remove his clothes or apex (his pointed hat) only when under a roof, in order to avoid showing himself naked to the skythat is, “as if under the eyes of Jupiter” as god of the heavens. Every time the Flaminica saw a lightningbolt or heard a clap of thunder (Jupiter’s distinctive instrument), she was prohibited from carrying on with her normal routine until she placated the god. Some privileges of the flamen of Jupiter may reflect the regal nature of Jupiter: he had the use of the curule chair , and was the only priest (sacerdos) who was preceded by a lictor and had a seat in the senate. Other regulations concern his ritual purity and his separation from the military function; he was forbidden to ride a horse or see the army outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium). Although he served the god who embodied the sanctity of the oath, it was not religiously permissible (fas) for the Dialis to swear an oath. He could not have contacts with anything dead or connected with death: corpses, funerals, funeral fires, raw meat. This set of restrictions reflects the fulness of life and absolute freedom that are features of Jupiter. The augures publici , augurs were a college of sacerdotes who were in charge of all inaugurations and of the performing of ceremonies known as auguria. Their creation was traditionally ascribed to Romulus. They were considered the only official interprets of Jupiter’s will, thence they were essential to the very existence of the Roman State as Romans saw in Jupiter the only source of statal authority. The fetials were a college of 20 men devoted to the religious administration of international affairs of state. Their task was to preserve and apply the fetial law (ius fetiale) , a complex set of procedures aimed at ensuring the protection of the gods in Rome’s relations with foreign states. Iuppiter Lapis is the god under whose protection they act, and whom the chief fetial (pater patratus) invokes in the rite concluding a treaty. If a declaration of war ensues, the fetial calls upon Jupiter and Quirinus , the heavenly, earthly and chthonic gods as witnesses of any potential violation of the ius. He can then declare war within 33 days. The action of the fetials falls under Jupiter’s jurisdiction as the divine defender of good faith. Several emblems of the fetial office pertain to Jupiter. The silex was the stone used for the fetial sacrifice, housed in the Temple of Iuppiter Feretrius , as was their sceptre. Sacred herbs (sagmina) , sometimes identified as vervain , had to be taken from the nearby (arx) citadel for their ritual use. Jupiter and religion in the secessions of the plebs. The role of Jupiter in the conflict of the orders is a reflection of the religiosity of the Romans. Whereas the patricians were able to claim the support of the supreme god quite naturally being the holders of the auspices of the State, the plebeians argued that as Jupiter was the source of justice he was on their side since their cause was just. The first secession was caused by the excessive burden of debts that weighed on the plebs. Because of the legal institute of the nexum a debtor could become a slave of his creditor. The plebeians argued the debts had become unsustainable because of the expenses of the wars wanted by the patricians. As the senate did not acceed to the proposal of a total debt remission advanced by dictator and augur Manius Valerius the plebs retired on the Mount Sacer, a hill located three Roman miles to the North-northeast of Rome, past the the Nomentan bridge on river Anio. The place is windy and was usually the site of rites of divination performed by haruspices. The senate in the end sent a delegation composed of ten members with full powers of making a deal with the plebs, of which were part Menenius Agrippa and Manius Valerius. It was Valerius, according to the inscription found at Arezzo in 1688 and written on the order of Augustus as well as other literary sources, that brought the plebs down from the Mount, after the secessionists had consecrated it to Jupiter Territor and built an altar (ara) on its summit. The fear of the wrath of Jupiter was an important element in the solution of the crisis. The consecration of the Mount probably referred to its summit only. The ritual requested the participation of both an augur (presumably Manius Valerius himself) and a pontifex. The second secession was caused by the autocratic and arrogant behaviour of the decemviri who had been charged by the Roman people with writing down the laws in use til then kept secret by the patrician magistrates and the sacerdotes. All magistracies and the tribunes of the plebs had resigned in advance. Their work resulted in the XII Tables, which though concerned only private law. The plebs once again retreated to the Sacer Mons: this act besides recalling the first secession was meant to seek the protection of the supreme god. The secession ended with the resignation of the decemviri and an amnesty for the rebellious soldiers who had deserted from their camp near Mount Algidus abandoning the commanders. The amnesty was granted by the senate and guaranteed by the pontifex maximus Quintus Furius (Livy) (or Marcus Papirius) who also supervised the nomination of the new tribunes of the plebs then gathered on the Aventine Hill. The role played by the pontifex maximus in a situation of vacation of powers is a significant element underlining the religious basis and character of the tribunicia potestas. A dominant line of scholarship has held that Rome lacked a body of myths in its earliest period, or that this original mythology has been irrecoverably obscured by the influence of the Greek narrative tradition. After the Hellenization of Roman culture, Latin literature and iconography reinterpreted the myths of Zeus in depictions and narratives of Jupiter. In the legendary history of Rome, Jupiter is often connected to kings and kingship. Jupiter was depicted as the twin of Juno in a statue at Praeneste that showed them nursed by Fortuna Primigenia. An inscription that is also from Praeneste, however, says that Fortuna Primigenia was Jupiter’s first-born child. Jacqueline Champeaux sees this contradiction as the result of successive different cultural and religious phases, in which a wave of influence coming from the Hellenic world made Fortuna the daughter of Jupiter. The childhood of Zeus is an important theme in Greek religion, art and literature, but there are only rare (or dubious) depictions of Jupiter as a child. Faced by a period of bad weather endangering the harvest during one early spring, King Numa resorted to the scheme of asking the advice of the god by evoking his presence. He succeeded through the help of Picus and Faunus, whom he had imprisoned by making them drunk. The two gods (with a charm) evoked Jupiter, who was forced to come down to earth at the Aventine (hence named Iuppiter Elicius , according to Ovid). After Numa skilfully avoided the requests of the god for human sacrifices, Jupiter agreed to his request to know how lightning bolts are averted, asking only for the substitutions Numa had mentioned: an onion bulb, hairs and a fish. Moreover, Jupiter promised that at the sunrise of the following day he would give to Numa and the Roman people pawns of the imperium. The following day, after throwing three lightning bolts across a clear sky, Jupiter sent down from heaven a shield. Since this shield had no angles, Numa named it ancile ; because in it resided the fate of the imperium , he had many copies made of it to disguise the real one. He asked the smith Mamurius Veturius to make the copies, and gave them to the Salii. As his only reward, Mamurius expressed the wish that his name be sung in the last of their carmina. Plutarch gives a slightly different version of the story, writing that the cause of the miraculous drop of the shield was a plague and not linking it with the Roman imperium. Throughout his reign, King Tullus had a scornful attitude towards religion. His temperament was warlike, and he disregarded religious rites and piety. After conquering the Albans with the duel between the Horatii and Curiatii , Tullus destroyed Alba Longa and deported its inhabitants to Rome. As Livy tells the story, omens (prodigia) in the form of a rain of stones occurred on the Alban Mount because the deported Albans had disregarded their ancestral rites linked to the sanctuary of Jupiter. In addition to the omens, a voice was heard requesting that the Albans perform the rites. A plague followed and at last the king himself fell ill. As a consequence, the warlike character of Tullus broke down; he resorted to religion and petty, superstitious practices. At last, he found a book by Numa recording a secret rite on how to evoke Iuppiter Elicius. The king attempted to perform it, but since he executed the rite improperly the god threw a lightning bolt which burned down of the king’s house and killed Tullus. When approaching Rome (where Tarquin was heading to try his luck in politics after unsuccessful attempts in his native Tarquinii), an eagle swooped down, removed his hat, flew screaming in circles, replaced the hat on his head and flew away. Tarquin’s wife Tanaquil interpreted this as a sign that he would become king based on the bird, the quadrant of the sky from which it came, the god who had sent it and the fact it touched his hat (an item of clothing placed on a man’s most noble part, the head). Emperor Marcus Aurelius , attended by his family, offers sacrifice outside the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus after his victories in Germany (late 2nd century AD). Sacrificial victims (hostiae) offered to Jupiter were the oxen (castrated bull), the lamb (on the Ides, the ovis idulis) and the wether (on the Ides of January). The animals were required to be white. The question of the lamb’s gender is unresolved; while a lamb is generally male, for the vintage-opening festival the flamen Dialis sacrificed a ewe. This rule seems to have had many exceptions, as the sacrifice of a ram on the Nundinae by the flaminica Dialis demonstrates. During one of the crises of the Punic Wars , Jupiter was offered every animal born that year. Temple of Capitoline Jupiter. The temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus stood on the Capitoline Hill. Jupiter was worshiped there as an individual deity, and with Juno and Minerva as part of the Capitoline Triad. The building was supposedly begun by king Tarquinius Priscus , completed by the last king (Tarquinius Superbus) and inaugurated in the early days of the Roman Republic (September 13, 509 BC). It was topped with the statues of four horses drawing a quadriga , with Jupiter as charioteer. A large statue of Jupiter stood within; on festival days, its face was painted red. In (or near) this temple was the Iuppiter Lapis : the Jupiter Stone , on which oaths could be sworn. Jupiter’s Capitoline Temple probably served as the architectural model for his provincial temples. When Hadrian built Aelia Capitolina on the site of Jerusalem , a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected in the place of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. Other temples in Rome. There were two temples in Rome dedicated to Iuppiter Stator ; the first one was built and dedicated in 294 BC by Marcus Atilius Regulus after the third Samnite War. It was located on the Via Nova , below the Porta Mugonia , ancient entrance to the Palatine. Legend has attributed its founding to Romulus. There may have been an earlier shrine (fanum) , since the Jupiter’s cult is attested epigraphically. Ovid places the temple’s dedication on June 27, but it is unclear whether this was the original date, or the rededication after the restoration by Augustus. A second temple of Iuppiter Stator was built and dedicated by Quintus Caecilus Metellus Macedonicus after his triumph in 146 BC near the Circus Flaminius. It was connected to the restored temple of Iuno Regina with a portico (porticus Metelli). Iuppiter Victor had a temple dedicated by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges during the third Samnite War in 295 BC. Its location is unknown, but it may be on the Quirinal, on which an inscription reading Diovei Victore has been found, or on the Palatine according to the Notitia in the Liber Regionum (regio X), which reads: aedes Iovis Victoris. Either might have been dedicated on April 13 or June 13 (days of Iuppiter Victor and of Iuppiter Invictus , respectively, in Ovid’s Fasti). Inscriptions from the imperial age have revealed the existence of an otherwise-unknown temple of Iuppiter Propugnator on the Palatine. Iuppiter Latiaris and Feriae Latinae. The cult of Iuppiter Latiaris was the most ancient known cult of the god:: it was practised since very remote times near the top of the Mons Albanus on which the god was venerated as the high protector of the Latin League under the hegemony of Alba Longa. After the destruction of Alba by king Tullus Hostilius the cult was forsaken. The god manifested his discontent through the prodigy of a rain of stones: the commission sent by the Roman senate to inquire into it was also greeted by a rain of stones and heard a loud voice from the grove on the summit of the mount that requested the Albans to perform the religious service to the god according to the rites of their country. In consequence of this event the Romans instituted a festival of nine days (nundinae). However a plague ensued: in the end Tullus Hostilius himself was affected and lastly killed by the god with a lightningbolt. The festival was reestablished on its primitive site by the last Roman king Tarquin the Proud under the leadership of Rome. The feriae Latinae , or Latiar as they were known originally. Were the common festival (panegyris) of the so-called Priscan Latins and of the Albans. Their restoration aimed at grounding Roman hegemony in this ancestral religious tradition of the Latins. The original cult was reinstated unchanged as is testified by some archaic features of the ritual: the exclusion of wine from the sacrifice the offers of milk and cheese and the ritual use of rocking among the games. Rocking is one of the most ancient rites mimicking ascent to Heaven and is very widespread. At the Latiar the rocking took place on a tree and the winner was of course the one who had swung the highest. This rite was said to have been instituted by the Albans to commemorate the disappearance of king Latinus , in the battle against Mezentius king of Caere : the rite symbolised a search for him both on earth and in heaven. The rocking as well as the customary drinking of milk was also considered to commemorate and ritually reinstate infancy. The Romans in the last form of the rite brought the sacrificial ox from Rome and every participant was bestowed a portion of the meat, rite known as carnem petere. Other games were held in every participant borough. In Rome a race of chariots (quadrigae) was held starting from the Capitol: the winner drank a liquor made with absynth. This competition has been compared to the Vedic rite of the vajapeya : in it seventeen chariots run a phoney race which must be won by the king in order to allow him to drink a cup of madhu , i. The feasting lasted for at least four days, possibly six according to Niebuhr , one day for each of the six Latin and Alban decuriae. According to different records 47 or 53 boroughs took part in the festival (the listed names too differ in Pliny NH III 69 and Dionysius of Halicarnassus AR V 61). The Latiar became an important feature of Roman political life as they were feriae conceptivae , i. Their date varied each year: the consuls and the highest magistrates were required to attend shortly after the beginning of the adminitration, originally on the Ides of March: the Feriae usually took place in early April. They could not start campaigning before its end and if any part of the games had been neglected or performed unritually the Latiar had to be wholly repeated. The inscriptions from the imperial age record the festival back to the time of the decemvirs. Wissowa remarks the inner linkage of the temple of the Mons Albanus with that of the Capitol apparent in the common association with the rite of the triumph : since 231 BC some triumphing commanders had triumphed there first with the same legal features as in Rome. The Ides (the midpoint of the month, with a full moon) was sacred to Jupiter, because on that day heavenly light shone day and night. Some (or all) Ides were Feriae Iovis , sacred to Jupiter. On the Ides, a white lamb (ovis idulis) was led along Rome’s Sacred Way to the Capitoline Citadel and sacrificed to him. Jupiter’s two epula Iovis festivals fell on the Ides, as did his temple foundation rites as Optimus Maximus , Victor , Invictus and (possibly) Stator. The nundinae recurred every ninth day, dividing the calendar into a market cycle analogous to a week. The market days gave the rural people (pagi) the opportunity to sell in town and to be informed of religious and political edicts, which were posted publicly for three days. According to tradition, these festival days were instituted by the king Servius Tullius. The high priestess of Jupiter (Flaminica Dialis) sanctified the days by sacrificing a ram to Jupiter. During the Republican era , more fixed holidays on the Roman calendar were devoted to Jupiter than to any other deity. Festivals of viniculture and wine were devoted to Jupiter, since grapes were particularly susceptible to adverse weather. Dumézil describes wine as a “kingly” drink with the power to inebriate and exhilarate, analogous to the Vedic Soma. Three Roman festivals were connected with viniculture and wine. The rustic Vinalia altera on August 19 asked for good weather for ripening the grapes before harvest. When the grapes were ripe, a sheep was sacrificed to Jupiter and the flamen Dialis cut the first of the grape harvest. The Meditrinalia on October 11 marked the end of the grape harvest; the new wine was pressed , tasted and mixed with old wine. In the Fasti Amiternini , this festival is assigned to Jupiter. Later Roman sources invented a goddess Meditrina , probably to explain the name of the festival. At the Vinalia urbana on April 23, new wine was offered to Jupiter Large quantities of it were poured into a ditch near the temple of Venus Erycina , which was located on the Capitol. The Regifugium (“King’s Flight”) on February 24 has often been discussed in connection with the Poplifugia on July 5, a day holy to Jupiter. The Regifugium followed the festival of Iuppiter Terminus (Jupiter of Boundaries) on February 23. Later Roman antiquarians misinterpreted the Regifugium as marking the expulsion of the monarchy, but the “king” of this festival may have been the priest known as the rex sacrorum who ritually enacted the waning and renewal of power associated with the New Year (March 1 in the old Roman calendar). A temporary vacancy of power (construed as a yearly ” interregnum “) occurred between the Regifugium on February 24 and the New Year on March 1 (when the lunar cycle was thought to coincide again with the solar cycle), and the uncertainty and change during the two winter months were over. Some scholars emphasize the traditional political significance of the day. The Poplifugia (“Routing of Armies”), a day sacred to Jupiter, may similarly mark the second half of the year; before the Julian calendar reform , the months were named numerically, Quintilis (the fifth month) to December (the tenth month). The Poplifugia was a “primitive military ritual” for which the adult male population assembled for purification rites, after which they ritually dispelled foreign invaders from Rome. There were two festivals called epulum Iovis (“Feast of Jove”). One was held on September 13, the anniversary of the foundation of Jupiter’s Capitoline temple. The other (and probably older) festival was part of the Plebeian Games (Ludi Plebei) , and was held on November 13. In the 3rd century BC, the epulum Iovis became similar to a lectisternium. The most ancient Roman games followed after one day considered a dies ater , or “black day”, i. A day which was traditionally considered unfortunate even though it was not nefas , see also article Glossary of ancient Roman religion the two Epula Iovis of September and November. The games of September were named Ludi Magni ; originally they were not held every year, but later became the annual Ludi Romani and were held in the Circus Maximus after a procession from the Capitol. The games were attributed to Tarquinius Priscus, and linked to the cult of Jupiter on the Capitol. Romans themselves acknowledged analogies with the triumph , which Dumézil thinks can be explained by their common Etruscan origin; the magistrate in charge of the games dressed as the triumphator and the pompa circensis resembled a triumphal procession. Wissowa and Mommsen argue that they were a detached part of the triumph on the above grounds (a conclusion which Dumézil rejects). The Ludi Plebei took place in November in the Circus Flaminius. Mommsen argued that the epulum of the Ludi Plebei was the model of the Ludi Romani, but Wissowa finds the evidence for this assumption insufficient. The Ludi Plebei were probably established in 534 BC. Their association with the cult of Jupiter is attested by Cicero. The feriae of December 23 were devoted to a major ceremony in honour of Acca Larentia (or Larentina), in which some of the highest religious authorities participated (probably including the Flamen Quirinalis and the pontiffs). The Fasti Praenestini marks the day as feriae Iovis , as does Macrobius. It is unclear whether the rite of parentatio was itself the reason for the festival of Jupiter, or if this was another festival which happened to fall on the same day. Wissowa denies their association, since Jupiter and his flamen would not be involved with the underworld or the deities of death (or be present at a funeral rite held at a gravesite). The Latin name Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin vocative Iou and pater (“father”) and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case Ious. Jove is a less common English formation based on Iov- , the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. Linguistic studies identify the form Iou-pater as deriving from the Indo-European vocative compound Dyu-pter (meaning “O Father Sky-god”; nominative: Dyus -ptr). Older forms of the deity’s name in Rome were Dieus-pater (“day/sky-father”), then Diéspiter. The 19th-century philologist Georg Wissowa asserted these names are conceptually- and linguistically-connected to Diovis and Diovis Pater ; he compares the analogous formations Vedius – Veiove and fulgur Dium , as opposed to fulgur Summanum (nocturnal lightning bolt) and flamen Dialis (based on Dius , dies). The Ancient later viewed them as entities separate from Jupiter. The terms are similar in etymology and semantics (dies , “daylight” and Dius , “daytime sky”), but differ linguistically. Wissowa considers the epithet Dianus noteworthy. Dieus is the etymological equivalent of ancient Greece’s Zeus and of the Teutonics’ Ziu (genitive Ziewes). The Indo-European deity is the god from which the names and partially the theology of Jupiter, Zeus and the Indo-Aryan Vedic Dyaus Pita derive or have developed. The Roman practice of swearing by Jove to witness an oath in law courts is the origin of the expression by Jove! Archaic, but still in use. The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter ; the adjective ” jovial ” originally described those born under the planet of Jupiter (reputed to be jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament). Jove was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday now known in English as Thursday. (originally called Iovis Dies in Latin). These became jeudi in French , jueves in Spanish , joi in Romanian , giovedì in Italian , dijous in Catalan , Xoves in Galcian , Joibe in Friulian , Dijóu in Provençal. The epithets of a Roman god indicate his theological qualities. The study of these epithets must consider their origins (the historical context of an epithet’s source). Jupiter’s most ancient attested forms of cult belong to the State cult: these include the mount cult see section above note n. In Rome this cult entailed the existence of particular sanctuaries the most important of which were located on Mons Capitolinus (earlier Tarpeius). The mount had two tops that were both destined to the discharge of acts of cult related to Jupiter. The northern and higher top was the arx and on it was located the observation place of the augurs (auguraculum) and to it headed the monthly procession of the sacra Idulia. On the southern top was to be found the most ancient sanctuary of the god: the shrine of Iuppiter Feretrius allegedly built by Romulus, restored by Augustus. The god here had no image and was represented by the sacred flintstone (silex). The most ancient known rites, those of the spolia opima and of the fetials which connect Jupiter with Mars and Quirinus are dedicated to Iuppiter Feretrius or Iuppiter Lapis. The concept of the sky god was already overlapped with the ethical and political domain since this early time. According to Wissowa and Dumézi Iuppiter Lapis seems to be inseparable from Iuppiter Feretrius in whose tiny templet on the Capitol the stone was lodged. Another most ancient epithet is Lucetius : although the Ancient, followed by some modern scholars as e. Wissowa, interpreted it as referred to sunlight, the carmen Saliare shows that it refers to lightning. A further confirmation of this interpretation is provided by the sacred meaning of lightning which is reflected in the sensitivity of the flaminica Dialis to the phenomenon. To the same atmospheric complex belongs the epithet Elicius : while the ancient erudites thought it was connected to lightning, it is in fact related to the opening of the rervoirs of rain, as is testified by the ceremony of the Nudipedalia , meant to propitiate rainfall and devoted to Jupiter. And the ritual of the lapis manalis , the stone which was brought into the city through the Porta Capena and carried around in times of draught, which was named Aquaelicium. Other early epithets connected with the atmospheric quality of Jupiter are Pluvius , Imbricius , Tempestas , Tonitrualis , tempestatium divinarum potens , Serenator , Serenus and, referred to lightning, Fulgur , Fulgur Fulmen , later as nomen agentis Fulgurator , Fulminator : the high antiquity of the cult is testified by the neutre form Fulgur and the use of the term for the bidental , the lightningwell digged on the spot hit by a lightningbolt. A bronze statue of Jupiter, from the territory of the Treveri. A group of epithets has been interpreted by Wissowa (and his followers) as a reflection of the agricultural or warring nature of the god, some of which are also in the list of eleven preserved by Augustine. The agricultural ones include Opitulus , Almus , Ruminus , Frugifer , Farreus , Pecunia , Dapalis , Epulo. Augustine gives an explanation of the ones he lists which should reflect Varro’s: Opitulus because he brings opem (means, relief) to the needy, Almus because he nourishes everything, Ruminus because he nourishes the living beings by breastfeeding them, Pecunia because everything belongs to him. Dumézil maintains the cult usage of these epithets is not documented and that the epithet Ruminus, as Wissowa and Latte remarked, may not have the meaning given by Augustine but it should be understood as part of a series including Rumina , Ruminalis ficus , Iuppiter Ruminus , which bears the name of Rome itself with an Etruscan vocalism preserved in inscriptions, series that would be preserved in the sacred language cf. Rumach Etruscan for Roman. However many scholars have argued that the name of Rome, Ruma , meant in fact woman’s breast. Diva Rumina , as Augustine testifies in the cited passage, was the goddess of suckling babies: she was venerated near the ficus ruminalis and was offered only libations of milk. Here moreover Augustine cites the verses devoted to Jupiter by Quintus Valerius Soranus , while hypothesising Iuno (more adept in his view as a breastfeeder), i. Rumina instead of Ruminus, might be nothing else than Iuppiter : Iuppiter omnipotens regum rerumque deumque Progenitor genetrixque deum… In Dumézil’s opinion Farreus should be understood as related to the rite of the confarreatio the most sacred form of marriage, the name of which is due to the spelt cake eaten by the spouses, rather than surmising an agricultural quality of the god: the epithet means the god was the guarantor of the effects of the ceremony, to which the presence of his flamen is necessary and that he can interrupt with a clap of thunder. The epithet Dapalis is on the other hand connected to a rite described by Cato and mentioned by Festus. Before the sowing of autumn or spring the peasant offered a banquet of roast beef and a cup of wine to Jupiter : it is natural that on such occasions he would entreat the god who has power over the weather, however Cato’ s prayer of s one of sheer offer and no request. The language suggests another attitude: Jupiter is invited to a banquet which is supposedly abundant and magnificent. The god is honoured as summus. The peasant may hope he shall receive a benefit, but he does not say it. This interpretation finds support in the analogous urban ceremony of the epulum Iovis , from which the god derives the epithet of Epulo and which was a magnificent feast accompanied by flutes. Epithets related to warring are in Wissowa’ s view Iuppiter Feretrius , Iuppiter Stator , Iuppiter Victor and Iuppiter Invictus. Feretrius would be connected with war by the rite of the first type of spolia opima which is in fact a dedication to the god of the arms of the defeated king of the enemy that happens whenever he has been killed by the king of Rome or his equivalent authority. Here too Dumézil notes the dedication has to do with regality and not with war, since the rite is in fact the offer of the arms of a king by a king: a proof of such an assumption is provided by the fact that the arms of an enemy king captured by an officer or a common soldier were dedicated to Mars and Quirinus respectively. Iuppiter Stator was first attributed by tradition to Romulus, who had prayed the god for his almighty help at a difficult time the battle with the Sabines of king Titus Tatius. Dumézil opines the action of Jupiter is not that of a god of war who wins through fighting: Jupiter acts by causing an inexplicable change in the morale of the fighters of the two sides. In a similar manner one can explain the epithet Victor , whose cult was founded in 295 BC on the battlefield of Sentinum by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges and who received another vow again in 293 by consul Lucius Papirius Cursor before a battle against the Samnite legio linteata. Here too the religious meaning of the vow is in both cases an appeal to the supreme god by the Roman chief at a time when as a chief he needs divine help from the supreme god, even though for different reasons: Fabius had remained the only political and military responsible of the Roman State after the devotio of P. Decius Mus, Papirius had to face an enemy who had acted with impious rites and vows, i. More recently Dario Sabbatucci has given a different interpretation of the meaning of Stator within the frame of his structuralistic and dialectic vision of Roman calendar, identifying oppositions, tensions and equilibria: January is the month of Janus , at the beginning of the year, in the uncertain time of winter (the most ancient calendar had only ten months, from March to December). In this month Janus deifies kingship and defies Jupiter. Moreover January sees also the presence of Veiovis who appears as an anti-Jupiter, of Carmenta who is the goddess of birth and like Janus has two opposed faces, Prorsa and Postvorta (also named Antevorta and Porrima), of Iuturna , who as a gushing spring evokes the process of coming into being from non-being as the god of passage and change does. In this period the preeminence of Janus needs compensating on the Ides through the action of Jupiter Stator , who plays the role of anti-Janus, i. Of moderator of the action of Janus. Some epithets describe a particular aspect of the god, or one of his functions. Jupiter Caelus , Jupiter as the sky or heavens; see also Caelus. Jupiter Caelestis , “Heavenly” or “Celestial Jupiter”. Jupiter Elicius , Jupiter “who calls forth [celestial omens]” or “who is called forth [by incantations]“; “sender of rain”. Jupiter Feretrius , who carries away the spoils of war. Feretrius was called upon to witness solemn oaths. The epithet or ” numen ” is probably connected with the verb ferire , “to strike, ” referring to a ritual striking of ritual as illustrated in foedus ferire , of which the silex , a quartz rock, is evidence in his temple on the Capitoline hill, which is said to have been the first temple in Rome, erected and dedicated by Romulus to commemorate his winning of the spolia opima from Acron, king of the Caeninenses, and to serve as a repository for them. Iuppiter Feretrius was therefore equivalent to Iuppiter Lapis , the latter used for a specially solemn oath. According to Livy I 10, 5 and Plutarch Marcellus 8 though, the meaning of this epithet is related to the peculiar frame used to carry the spolia opima to the god, the feretrum , from verb fero. Jupiter Centumpeda , literally, “he who has one hundred feet”; that is, “he who has the power of establishing, of rendering stable, bestowing stability on everything”, since he himself is the paramount of stability. Jupiter Fulgur (“Lightning Jupiter”), Fulgurator or Fulgens. Jupiter Lucetius (“of the light”), an epithet almost certainly related to the light or flame of lightningbolts and not to daylight, as indicated by the Jovian verses of the carmen Saliare. Jupiter Optimus Maximus (” the best and greatest”). Because of the benefits he bestows, Maximus because of his strength, according to Cicero Pro Domo Sua. Jupiter Pluvius , “sender of rain”. Jupiter Ruminus , “breastfeeder of every living being”, according to Augustine. Jupiter Stator , from stare , “to stand”: “he who has power of founding, instituting everything”, thence also he who makes people, soldiers, stand firm and fast. Jupiter Summanus , sender of nocturnal thunder. Jupiter Terminalus or Iuppiter Terminus , patron and defender of boundaries. Jupiter Tigillus , beam or shaft that supports and holds together the universe. Jupiter Victor , he who has the power of conquering everything. Syncretic or geographical epithets. Some epithets of Jupiter indicate his association with a particular place. Epithets found in the provinces of the Roman Empire may identify Jupiter with a local deity or site (see syncretism). Jupiter Ammon , Jupiter equated with the Egyptian deity Amun after the Roman conquest of Egypt. Jupiter Brixianus , Jupiter equated with the local god of the town of Brescia in Cisalpine Gaul (modern North Italy). Jupiter Capitolinus , also Jupiter Optimus Maximus, venerated throughout the Roman Empire at sites with a Capitol (Capitolium). Jupiter Dolichenus , from Doliche in Syria , originally a Baal weather and war god. From the time of Vespasian , he was popular among the Roman legions as god of war and victory, especially on the Danube at Carnuntum. He is depicted as standing on a bull, with a thunderbolt in his left hand, and a double ax in the right. Jupiter Indiges , “Jupiter of the country, ” a title given to Aeneas after his death, according to Livy. Jupiter Ladicus , Jupiter equated with a Celtiberian mountain-god and worshipped as the spirit of Mount Ladicus in Gallaecia , northwest Iberia. Preserved in the toponym Codos de Ladoco. Jupiter Laterius or Latiaris , the god of Latium. Jupiter Parthinus or Partinus , under this name was worshiped on the borders of northeast Dalmatia and Upper Moesia , perhaps associated with the local tribe known as the Partheni. Jupiter Poeninus , under this name worshipped in the Alps, around the Great St Bernard Pass , where he had a sanctuary. Jupiter Solutorius , a local version of Jupiter worshipped in Spain ; he was syncretised with the local Iberian god Eacus. Jupiter Taranis , Jupiter equated with the Celtic god Taranis. Jupiter Uxellinus , Jupiter as a god of high mountains. In addition, many of the epithets of Zeus can be found applied to Jupiter, by interpretatio romana. Thus, since the hero Trophonius (from Lebadea in Boeotia) is called Zeus Trophonius, this can be represented in English (as it would be in Latin) as Jupiter Trophonius. Similarly, the Greek cult of Zeus Meilichios appears in Pompeii as Jupiter Meilichius. Except in representing actual cults in Italy, this is largely 19th-century usage; modern works distinguish Jupiter from Zeus. Marcus Terentius Varro and Verrius Flaccus. Were the main sources on the theology of Jupiter and archaic Roman religion in general. Varro was acquainted with the libri pontificum (“books of the Pontiffs “) and their archaic classifications. On these two sources depend other ancient authorities, such as Ovid , Servius , Aulus Gellius , Macrobius , patristic texts , Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Plutarch. One of the most important sources which preserve the theology of Jupiter and other Roman deities is The City of God against the Pagans by Augustine of Hippo. Augustine’s criticism of traditional Roman religion is based on Varro’s lost work, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum. Although a work of Christian apologetics , The City of God provides glimpses into Varro’s theological system and authentic Roman theological lore in general. Varro drew on the pontiff Mucius Scaevola’s tripartite theology. The mythic theology of the poets (useful for the theatre). The physical theology of the philosophers (useful for understanding the natural world). The civil theology of the priests (useful for the state). Georg Wissowa stressed Jupiter’s uniqueness as the only case among Indo-European religions in which the original god preserved his name, his identity and his prerogatives. In this view, Jupiter is the god of heaven and retains his identification with the sky among the Latin poets his name is used as a synonym for “sky”. In this respect, he differs from his Greek equivalent Zeus (who is considered a personal god, warden and dispenser of skylight). His name reflects this idea; it is a derivative of the Indo-European word for “bright, shining sky”. His residence is found atop the hills of Rome and of mountains in general; as a result, his cult is present in Rome and throughout Italy at upper elevations. Jupiter assumed atmospheric qualities; he is the wielder of lightning and the master of weather. However, Wissowa acknowledges that Jupiter is not merely a naturalistic, heavenly, supreme deity; he is in continual communication with man by means of thunder, lightning and the flight of birds (his auspices). Through his vigilant watch he is also the guardian of public oaths and compacts and the guarantor of good faith in the State cult. The Jovian cult was common to the Italic people under the names Iove , Diove (Latin) and Iuve , Diuve (Oscan, in Umbrian only Iuve , Iupater in the Iguvine Tables). Wissowa considered Jupiter also a god of war and agriculture, in addition to his political role as guarantor of good faith (public and private) as Iuppiter Lapis and Dius Fidius , respectively. His view is grounded in the sphere of action of the god (who intervenes in battle and influences the harvest through weather). In Georges Dumézil’s view, Jovian theology (and that of the equivalent gods in other Indo-European religions) is an evolution from a naturalistic, supreme, celestial god identified with heaven to a sovereign god, a wielder of lightning bolts, master and protector of the community (in other words, of a change from a naturalistic approach to the world of the divine to a socio-political approach). In Vedic religion , Dyaus Pitar remained confined to his distant, removed, passive role and the place of sovereign god was occupied by Varuna and Mitra. In Greek and Roman religion, instead, the homonymous gods Diou- and (digamma)- evolved into atmospheric deities; by their mastery of thunder and lightning, they expressed themselves and made their will known to the community. In Rome, Jupiter also sent signs to the leaders of the state in the form of auspices in addition to thunder. The art of augury was considered prestigious by ancient Romans; by sending his signs, Jupiter (the sovereign of heaven) communicates his advice to his terrestrial colleague: the king (rex) or his successor magistrates. The encounter between the heavenly and political, legal aspects of the deity are well represented by the prerogatives, privileges, functions and taboos proper to his flamen (the flamen Dialis and his wife, the flaminica Dialis). Dumézil maintains that Jupiter is not himself a god of war and agriculture, although his actions and interest may extend to these spheres of human endeavour. His view is based on the methodological assumption that the chief criterion for studying a god’s nature is not to consider his field of action, but the quality, method and features of his action. Consequently, the analysis of the type of action performed by Jupiter in the domains in which he operates indicates that Jupiter is a sovereign god who may act in the field of politics (as well as agriculture and war) in his capacity as such, i. In a way and with the features proper to a king. Sovereignty is expressed through the two aspects of absolute, magic power (epitomised and represented by the Vedic god Varuna) and lawful right (by the Vedic god Mitra). However, sovereignty permits action in every field; otherwise, it would lose its essential quality. As a further proof, Dumézil cites the story of Tullus Hostilius (the most belligerent of the Roman kings), who was killed by Juppiter with a lightning bolt (indicating that he did not enjoy the god’s favour). Varro’s definition of Jupiter as the god who has under his jurisdiction the full expression of every being (penes Iovem sunt summa) reflects the sovereign nature of the god, as opposed to the jurisdiction of Janus (god of passages and change) on their beginning (penes Ianum sunt prima). Relation to other gods. The Archaic Triad is a theological structure (or system) consisting of the gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. It was first described by Wissowa. And the concept was developed further by Dumézil. The three-function hypothesis of Indo-European society advanced by Dumézil holds that in prehistory, society was divided into three classes (priests, warriors and craftsmen) which had as their religious counterparts the divine figures of the sovereign god, the warrior god and the civil god. The sovereign function (embodied by Jupiter) entailed omnipotence; thence, a domain extended over every aspect of nature and life. The colour relating to the sovereign function is white. The three functions are interrelated with one another, overlapping to some extent; the sovereign function, although essentially religious in nature, is involved in many ways in areas pertaining to the other two. Therefore, Jupiter is the “magic player” in the founding of the Roman state and the fields of war, agricultural plenty, human fertility and welth. The Capitoline Triad was introduced to Rome by the Tarquins. Thinks it might have been an Etruscan (or local) creation based on Vitruvius’ treatise on architecture, in which the three deities are associated as the most important. It is possible that the Etruscans paid particular attention to Menrva (Minerva) as a goddess of destiny, in addition to the royal couple Uni (Juno) and Tinia (Jupiter). In Rome, Minerva later assumed a military aspect under the influence of Athena Pallas (Polias). Dumézil argues that with the advent of the Republic, Jupiter became the only king of Rome, no longer merely the first of the great gods. Apart from being protectress of the arts and craft as Minerva Capta, who was brought from Falerii, Minerva’s association to Jupiter and relevance to Roman state religion is mainly linked to the Palladium , a wooden statue of Athena that could move the eyes and wave the spear. It was stored in the penus interior , inner penus of the aedes Vestae , temple of Vesta and considered the most important among the pignora imperii , pawns of dominion, empire. In Roman traditional lore it was brought from Troy by Aeneas. Scholars though think it was last taken to Rome in the third or second century BC. The divine couple received from Greece its matrimonial implications, thence bestowing on Juno the role of tutelary goddess of marriage (Iuno Pronuba). The couple itself though cannot be reduced to a Greek apport. The association of Juno and Jupiter is of the most ancient Latin theology. Praeneste offers a glimpse into original Latin mythology: the local goddess Fortuna is represented as milking two infants, one male and one female, namely Jove (Jupiter) and Juno. It seems fairly safe to assume that from the earliest times they were identified by their own proper names and since they got them they were never changed through the course of history: they were called Jupiter and Juno. These gods were the most ancient deities of every Latin town. Praeneste preserved divine filiation and infancy as the sovereign god and his paredra Juno have a mother who is the primordial goddess Fortuna Primigenia. Many terracotta statuettes have been discovered which represent a woman with a child: one of them represents exactly the scene described by Cicero of a woman with two children of different sex who touch her breast. Two of the votive inscriptions to Fortuna associate her and Jupiter: Fortunae Iovi puero… ” and “Fortunae Iovis puero… In 1882 though R. Mowat published an inscription in which Fortuna is called daughter of Jupiter , raising new questions and opening new perspectives in the theology of Latin gods. Dumezil has elaborated an interpretative theory according to which this aporia would be an intrinsic, fundamental feature of Indoeuropean deities of the primordial and sovereign level, as it finds a parallel in Vedic religion. The contradiction would put Fortuna both at the origin of time and into its ensuing diachronic process: it is the comparison offered by Vedic deity Aditi , the Not-Bound or Enemy of Bondage , that shows that there is no question of choosing one of the two apparent options: as the mother of the Aditya she has the same type of relationship with one of his sons, Daka , the minor sovereign. Who represents the Creative Energy , being at the same time his mother and daughter, as is true for the whole group of sovereign gods to which she belongs. Moreover Aditi is thus one of the heirs (along with Savitr) of the opening god of the Indoiranians, as she is represented with her head on her two sides, with the two faces looking opposite directions. The mother of the sovereign gods has thence two solidal but distinct modalities of duplicity, i. Of having two foreheads and a double position in the genealogy. Angelo Brelich has interpreted this theology as the basic opposition between the primordial absence of order (chaos) and the organisation of the cosmos. The relation of Jupiter to Janus is problematic. Varro defines Jupiter as the god who has potestas (power) over the forces by which anything happens in the world. Janus, however, has the privilege of being invoked first in rites, since in his power are the beginnings of things (prima), the appearance of Jupiter included. The Latins considered Saturn the predecessor of Jupiter. Saturn reigned in Latium during a mythical Golden Age reenacted every year at the festival of Saturnalia. Unlike the Greek tradition of Cronus and Zeus, the usurpation of Saturn as king of the gods by Jupiter was not viewed by the Latins as violent or hostile; Saturn continued to be revered in his temple at the foot of the Capitol Hill, which maintained the alternative name Saturnius into the time of Varro. Pasqualini has argued that Saturn was related to Iuppiter Latiaris , the old Jupiter of the Latins, as the original figure of this Jupiter was superseded on the Alban Mount, whereas it preserved its gruesome character in the ceremony held at the sanctuary of the Latiar Hill in Rome which involved a human sacrifice and the aspersion of the statue of the god with the blood of the victim. The abstract personification Fides (“Faith, Trust”) was one of the oldest gods associated with Jupiter. As guarantor of public faith, Fides had her temple on the Capitol (near that of Capitoline Jupiter). Dius Fidius is considered a theonym for Jupiter. And sometimes a separate entity also known in Rome as Semo Sancus Dius Fidius. Wissowa argued that while Jupiter is the god of the Fides Publica Populi Romani as Iuppiter Lapis (by whom important oaths are sworn), Dius Fidius is a deity established for everyday use and was charged with the protection of good faith in private affairs. Dius Fidius would thus correspond to Zeus Pistios. The association with Jupiter may be a matter of divine relation; some scholars see him as a form of Hercules. Both Jupiter and Dius Fidius were wardens of oaths and wielders of lightning bolts; both required an opening in the roof of their temples. The functionality of Sancus occurs consistently within the sphere of fides , oaths and respect for contracts and of the divine-sanction guarantee against their breach. Wissowa suggested that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter. But the concept of a deity’s genius is a development of the Imperial period. Some aspects of the oath-ritual for Dius Fidius (such as proceedings under the open sky or in the compluvium of private residences), and the fact the temple of Sancus had no roof, suggest that the oath sworn by Dius Fidius predated that for Iuppiter Lapis or Iuppiter Feretrius. Augustine quotes Varro who explains the genius as “the god who is in charge and has the power to generate everything” and “the rational spirit of all (therefore, everyone has their own)”. Augustine concludes that Jupiter should be considered the genius of the universe. Wissowa advanced the hypothesis that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter. Fowler has cautioned that this interpretation looks to be an anachronism and it would only be acceptable to say that Sancus is a Genius Iovius , as it appears from the Iguvine Tables. Censorinus cites Granius Flaccus as saying that “the Genius was the same entity as the Lar” in his lost work De Indigitamentis. Dumézil opines that the attribution of a Genius to the gods should be earlier than its first attestation of 58 BC, in an inscription which mentions the Iovis Genius. A connection between Genius and Jupiter would be apparent in Plautus’ comedy Amphitryon , in which Jupiter takes up the looks of Alcmena’s husband in order to seduce her: J. Hubeaux sees there a reflection of the story that Scipio Africanus’ mother conceived him with a snake that was in fact Jupiter transformed. Scipio himself claimed that only he would rise to the mansion of the gods through the widest gate. It is noteworthy that among the Etruscan Penates there is a Genius Iovialis who comes after Fortuna and Ceres and before Pales. Genius Iovialis is one of the earthly Penates and not one of the Penates of Jupiter though, as these were located in region I of Martianus Capella’ s division of Heaven, while Genius appear in regions V and VI along with Ceres, Favor (possibly a Roman approximation to an Etruscan male manifestation of Fortuna) and Pales. The god of nighttime lightning has been interpreted as an aspect of Jupiter, either a chthonic manifestation of the god or a separate god of the underworld. A statue of Summanus stood on the roof of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, and Iuppiter Summanus is one of the epithets of Jupiter. Dumézil sees the opposition Dius Fidius versus Summanus as complementary, interpreting it as typical to the inherent ambiguity of the sovereign god exemplified by that of Mitra and Varuna in Vedic religion. The complementarity of the epithets is shown in inscriptions found on puteal s or bidental s reciting either fulgur Dium conditum. Or fulgur Summanum conditum in places struck by daytime versus nighttime lightningbolts respectively. This is also consistent with the etymology of Summanus , deriving from sub and mane (the time before morning). Iuppiter was associated with Liber through his epithet of Liber (association not yet been fully explained by scholars, due to the scarcity of early documentation). In the past, it was maintained that Liber was only a progressively-detached hypostasis of Jupiter; consequently, the vintage festivals were to be attributed only to Iuppiter Liber. Such a hypothesis was rejected as groundless by Wissowa, although he was a supporter of Liber’s Jovian origin. Contends that it is difficult to admit that Liber (who is present in the oldest calendarsthose of Numain the Liberalia and in the month of Liber at Lavinium). Was derived from another deity. Such a derivation would find support only in epigraphic documents, primarily from the Osco-Sabellic area. Wissowa sets the position of Iuppiter Liber within the framework of an agrarian Jupiter. The god also had a temple in this name on the Aventine in Rome, which was restored by Augustus and dedicated on September 1. Here, the god was sometimes named Liber. Wissowa opines that the relationship existed in the concept of creative abundance through which the supposedly-separate Liber might have been connected. To the Greek god Dionysos , although both deities might not have been originally related to viticulture. Other scholars assert that there was no Liber (other than a god of wine) within historical memory. Argues that the domain of the sovereign god Jupiter was that of sacred, sacrificial wine (vinum inferium). While that of Liber and Libera was confined to secular wine (vinum spurcum). These two types were obtained through differing fermentation processes. The offer of wine to Liber was made possible by naming the mustum (grape juice) stored in amphoras sacrima. Sacred wine was obtained by the natural fermentation of juice of grapes free from flaws of any type, religious e. Those struck by lightning, brought into contact with corpses or wounded people or coming from an unfertilised grapeyard or secular (by “cutting” it with old wine). Secular (or “profane”) wine was obtained through several types of manipulation e. By adding honey, or mulsum ; using raisins, or passum ; by boiling, or defrutum. However, the sacrima used for the offering to the two gods for the preservation of grapeyards, vessels and wine. Was obtained only by pouring the juice into amphors after pressing. The mustum was considered spurcum (dirty), and thus unusable in sacrifices. The amphor (itself not an item of sacrifice) permitted presentation of its content on a table or could be added to a sacrifice; this happened at the auspicatio vindamiae for the first grape. And for ears of corn of the praemetium on a dish (lanx) at the temple of Ceres. Dumézil, on the other hand, sees the relationship between Jupiter and Liber as grounded in the social and political relevance of the two gods (who were both considered patrons of freedom). The Liberalia of March were, since earliest times, the occasion for the ceremony of the donning of the toga virilis or libera (which marked the passage into adult citizenship by young people). Augustine relates that these festivals had a particularly obscene character: a phallus was taken to the fields on a cart, and then back in triumph to town. In Lavinium they lasted a month, during which the population enjoyed bawdy jokes. The most honest matronae were supposed to publicly crown the phallus with flowers, to ensure a good harvest and repeal the fascinatio (evil eye). In Rome representations of the sex organs were placed in the temple of the couple Liber Libera , who presided over the male and female components of generation and the “liberation” of the semen. This complex of rites and beliefs shows that the divine couple’s jurisdiction extended over fertility in general, not only that of grapes. The etymology of Liber (archaic form Loifer, Loifir) was explained by Émile Benveniste as formed on the IE theme leudh- plus the suffix -es-; its original meaning is “the one of germination, he who ensures the sprouting of crops”. The relationship of Jupiter with freedom was a common belief among the Roman people, as demonstrated by the dedication of the Mons Sacer to the god after the first secession of the plebs. Later inscriptions also show the unabated popular belief in Jupiter as bestower of freedom in the imperial era. Scholars are puzzled by Ve(d)iove (or Veiovis , or Vedius) and unwilling to discuss his identity, claiming our knowledge of this god is insufficient. Most, however, agree that Veiove is a sort of anti-Iove or an underworld Jupiter. This conclusion is based on information provided by Gellius. Who states his name originates by adding the prefix ve (here denoting “deprivation” or “negation”) to Iove (whose name Gellius posits as rooted in the verb iuvo “I benefit”). Sabbatucci has stressed the feature of bearer of instability and antithesis to cosmic order of this god, who threatens the kingly power of Jupiter as Stator and Centumpeda and whose presence occurs side by side with Janus’ on January 1, but also his function of helper to the growth of the young Jupiter. Preller suggests that Veiovis may be the sinister double of Jupiter. In fact, the god (under the name Vetis) is placed in the last case (number 16) of the outer rim of the Piacenza Liverbefore Cilens (Nocturnus), who ends (or begins in the Etruscan vision) the disposition of the gods. In Martianus Capella’s division of heaven, he is found in region XV with the dii publici ; as such, he numbers among the infernal (or antipodal) gods. The location of his two temples in Romenear those of Jupiter (one on the Capitoline Hill, in the low between the arx and the Capitolium, between the two groves where the asylum founded by Romulus stood, the other on the Tiber Island near that of Iuppiter Iurarius , later also known as temple of Aesculapius). May be significant in this respect, along with the fact that he is considered the father. Of Apollo, perhaps because he was depicted carrying arrows. He is also considered to be the unbearded Jupiter. The dates of his festivals support the same conclusion: they fall on January 1. The first date being the recurrence of the Agonalia , dedicated to Janus and celebrated by the king with the sacrifice of a ram. The nature of the sacrifice is debated; Gellius states capra , a female goat, although some scholars posit a ram. This sacrifice occurred rito humano , which may mean “with the rite appropriate for human sacrifice”. Gellius concludes by stating that this god is one of those who receive sacrifices to refrain from causing harm. The arrow is an ambivalent symbol; it was used in the ritual of the devotio (the general who vowed had to stand on an arrow). It is because of the arrow that Gellius considers Veiove as a god who must receive worship to obtain his abstention from doing harm, along with Robigus and Averruncus. Maurice Besnier has remarked that a temple to Iuppiter was dedicated by praetor Lucius Furius Purpureo before the battle of Cremona against the Celtic Cenomani of Cisalpine Gaul. An inscription found at Brescia in 1888 shows that Iuppiter Iurarius was worshipped there. And one found on the south tip of Tiber Island in 1854 that there was a cult to the god on the spot too. Besnier speculates that Lucius Furius had evoked the chief god of the enemy and built a temple to him in Rome outside the pomerium. On January 1, the Fasti Praenestini record the festivals of Aesculapius and Vediove on the Island, while in the Fasti Ovid speaks of Jupiter and his grandson. Livy records that in 192 BC, duumvir Q. Marcus Ralla dedicated to Jupiter on the Capitol the two temples promised by L. Furius Purpureo, one of which was that promised during the war against the Gauls. Besnier would accept a correction to Livy’s passage (proposed by Jordan) to read aedes Veiovi instead of aedes duae Iovi. Such a correction concerns the temples dedicated on the Capitol: it does not address the question of the dedication of the temple on the Island, which is puzzling, since the place is attested epigraphically as dedicated to the cult of Iuppiter Iurarius and Vediove in the Fasti Praenestini and to Jupiter according to Ovid. The two gods may have been seen as equivalent: Iuppiter Iurarius is an awesome and vengeful god, parallel to the Greek Zeus Orkios , the avenger of perjury. Pasqualini has argued that Veiovis seems related to Iuppiter Latiaris , as the original figure of this Jupiter would have been superseded on the Alban Mount, whereas it preserved its gruesome character in the ceremony held on the sanctuary of the Latiar Hill, the southernmost hilltop of the Quirinal in Rome, which involved a human sacrifice. The gens Iulia had gentilician cults at Bovillae where a dedicatory inscription to Vediove has been found in 1826 on an ara. According to Pasqualini it was a deity similar to Vediove, wielder of lightningbolts and chthonic, who was connected to the cult of the founders who first inhabited the Alban Mount and built the sanctuary. Such a cult once superseded on the Mount would have been taken up and preserved by the Iulii, private citizens bound to the sacra Albana by their Alban origin. Coin with laureate head of Jupiter (obverse) and (reverse) Victory, standing (” ROMA ” below in relief). Victoria was connected to Iuppiter Victor in his role as bestower of military victory. Jupiter, as a sovereign god, was considered as having the power to conquer anyone and anything in a supernatural way; his contribution to military victory was different from that of Mars (god of military valour). Victoria appears first on the reverse of coins representing Venus (driving the quadriga of Jupiter, with her head crowned and with a palm in her hand) during the first Punic War. Sometimes, she is represented walking and carrying a trophy. A temple was dedicated to the goddess afterwards on the Palatine, testifying to her high station in the Roman mind. When Hieron of Syracuse presented a golden statuette of the goddess to Rome, the Senate had it placed in the temple of Capitoline Jupiter among the greatest (and most sacred) deities. Although Victoria played a significant role in the religious ideology of the late Republic and the Empire, she is undocumented in earlier times. A function similar to hers may have been played by the little-known Vica Pota. Juventas and Terminus were the gods who, according to legend. Refused to leave their sites on the Capitol when the construction of the temple of Jupiter was undertaken. Therefore, they had to be reserved a sacellum within the new temple. Their stubbornness was considered a good omen; it would guarantee youth, stability and safety to Rome on its site. This legend is generally thought by scholars to indicate their strict connection with Jupiter. An inscription found near Ravenna reads Iuppiter Ter. Indicating that Terminus is an aspect of Jupiter. Terminus is the god of boundaries (public and private), as he is portrayed in literature. The religious value of the boundary marker is documented by Plutarch. Who ascribes to king Numa the construction of temples to Fides and Terminus and the delimitation of Roman territory. Ovid gives a vivid description of the rural rite at a boundary of fields of neighbouring peasants on February 23 the day of the Terminalia. On that day, Roman pontiffs and magistrates held a ceremony at the sixth mile of the Via Laurentina (ancient border of the Roman ager , which maintained a religious value). This festival, however, marked the end of the year and was linked to time more directly than to space (as attested by Augustine’s apologia on the role of Janus with respect to endings). Dario Sabbatucci has emphasised the temporal affiliation of Terminus, a reminder of which is found in the rite of the regifugium. Dumézil, on the other hand, views the function of this god as associated with the legalistic aspect of the sovereign function of Jupiter. Terminus would be the counterpart of the minor Vedic god Bagha, who oversees the just and fair division of goods among citizens. Along with Terminus , Iuventas (also known as Iuventus and Iuunta) represents an aspect of Jupiter as the legend of her refusal to leave the Capitol Hill demonstrates. Her name has the same root as Juno (from Iuu- , “young, youngster”); the ceremonial litter bearing the sacred goose of Juno Moneta stopped before her sacellum on the festival of the goddess. Later, she was identified with the Greek Hebe. The fact that Jupiter is related to the concept of youth is shown by his epithets Puer , Iuuentus and Ioviste (interpreted as “the youngest” by some scholars). Dumézil noted the presence of the two minor sovereign deities Bagha and Aryaman beside the Vedic sovereign gods Varuna and Mitra (though more closely associated with Mitra); the couple would be reflected in Rome by Terminus and Iuventas. Aryaman is the god of young soldiers. The function of Iuventas is to protect the iuvenes (the novi togati of the year, who are required to offer a sacrifice to Jupiter on the Capitol). And the Roman soldiers (a function later attributed to Juno). King Servius Tullius, in reforming the Roman social organisation, required that every adolescent offer a coin to the goddess of youth upon entering adulthood. In Dumézil’s analysis, the function of Iuventas (the personification of youth), was to control the entrance of young men into society and protect them until they reach the age of iuvenes or iuniores i. Of serving the state as soldiers. A temple to Iuventas was promised in 207 BC by consul Marcus Livius Salinator and dedicated in 191 BC. The Romans considered the Penates as the gods to whom they owed their own existence. As noted by Wissowa Penates is an adjective, meaning “those of or from the penus ” the innermost part, most hidden recess. Dumézil though refuses Wissowa’s interpretation of penus as the storeroom in a household. As a nation they honoured the Penates publici : Dionysius calls them Trojan gods as they were absorbed into the Trojan legend. They had a temple in Rome at the foot of the Velia, near the Palatine Hill, in which they were represented as a couple of male youth. They were honoured every year by the new consuls before entering office at Lavinium. Because the Romans believed the Penates of that town were identical to their own. The concept of di Penates is more defined in Etruria: Arnobius (citing a Caesius) states that the Etruscan Penates were named Fortuna, Ceres, Genius Iovialis and Pales; according to Nigidius Figulus , they included those of Jupiter, of Neptune, of the infernal gods and of mortal men. This complex concept is reflected in Martianus Capella’s division of heaven, found in Book I of his De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae , which places the Di Consentes Penates in region I with the Favores Opertanei ; Ceres and Genius in region V; Pales in region VI; Favor and Genius (again) in region VII; Secundanus Pales , Fortuna and Favor Pastor in region XI. The disposition of these divine entities and their repetition in different locations may be due to the fact that Penates belonging to different categories (heavenly in region I, earthly in region V) are intended. Favor(es) may be the Etruscan masculine equivalent of Fortuna. In Roman mythology , Jupiter or Jove was the king of the gods , and the god of sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus in the Greek pantheon. He was called Iuppiter (or Diespiter) Optimus Maximus (“Father God the Best and Greatest”). As the patron deity of ancient Rome , he ruled over laws and social order. He was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad , with sister/wife Juno. Jupiter is also the father of the god Mars with Juno. Therefore, Jupiter is the grandfather of Romulus and Remus , the legendary founders of Rome. Jupiter was venerated in ancient Roman religion , and is still venerated in Roman Neopaganism. He is a son of Saturn , along with brothers Neptune and Pluto. He is also the brother/husband of Ceres (daughter of Saturn and mother of Proserpina), brother of Veritas (daughter of Saturn), and father of Mercury. A thunderbolt is a symbolic representation of incidents of observed lightning when accompanied by a loud thunderclap. In its original usage the word may also have been a description of meteors, or, as Plato suggested in Timaeus , of the consequences of a close approach between two planetary cosmic bodies, though this is not currently the case. As a divine manifestation the thunderbolt has been a powerful symbol throughout history, and has appeared in many mythologies. Drawing from this powerful association, the thunderbolt is often found in military symbolism and semiotic representations of electricity. Neo-Attic bas-relief sculpture of Jupiter , holding a thunderbolt in his right hand; detail from the Moncloa Puteal (Roman, 2nd century), National Archaeological Museum, Madrid. Lightning plays a role in many mythologies, often as the weapon of a sky god and weather god. As such, it is an unsurpassed method of dramatic instantaneous retributive destruction: thunderbolts as divine weapons can be found in many mythologies. In the Hebrew Bible , the word for “arrow”, khets , is used for the “arrows” of YHWH / Elohim , which are represented as lightnings in Habakuk 3:11, but also as general calamities inflicted on men as divine punishment in Deuteronomy 32:42, Psalm 64 :7, Job 6:4, etc. In Hittite (and Hurrian) mythology, a triple thunderbolt was one symbol of Teshub (Tarhunt). Vedic religion (and later Hindu mythology) the god Indra is the god of lightning. His main weapon is the thunderbolt (Vajra). In Greek mythology , the thunderbolt is a weapon given to Zeus by the Cyclops. Based on this, in Roman mythology , the thunderbolt is a weapon given to Jupiter by the Cyclops, and is thus one of the emblems of Jupiter, often depicted on Greek and Roman coins and elsewhere as an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt which resembles in form a bundle of crossed sticks. In Celtic mythology , Taranis is the god of thunder, in Irish , Tuireann. In Germanic mythology , Thor is specifically the god of thunder and lightning, wielding Mjolnir. In Turkish mythology , Bayülgen creates the thuderbolts. In Maya mythology , Huracan is sometimes represented as three thunderbolts. In Cherokee mythology, the Ani Hyuntikwalaski (“thunder beings”) cause lightning fire in a hollow sycamore tree. In Ojibway mythology, thunder is created by the Thunderbirds (Nimkiig or Binesiiwag), which can be both benevolent and malevolent to human beings. In Igbo mythology , the thunderbolt is the weapon of Amadioha /Amadiora. In Yoruba mythology , the thunderbolt is the weapon of Shango. The thunderbolt is a weapon and symbol associated with the Antichrist , in some Christian texts. The name “thunderbolt” or “thunderstone” has also been traditionally applied to the fossilised rostra of belemnoids. The origin of these bullet-shaped stones was not understood, and thus a mythological explanation of stones created where a lightning struck has arisen. In the modern world. The thunderbolt or lightning bolt continues into the modern world as a prominent symbol; it has entered modern heraldry and military iconography. The thunderbolt is used as an electrical symbol. A thunderbolt is used in the logo of the Australian hard rock band AC/DC. The thunderbolt is the symbol seen on the chest of the costumes worn by the DC Comics characters Captain Marvel , the Flash , and Static. In the Harry Potter franchise, the scar on Harry’s forehead is in the shape of a thunderbolt. In the novel The Godfather , “being hit with the thunderbolt” is a Sicilian expression referring to a man being spellbound at the sight of a beautiful woman. The novel’s emerging main character is affected in this fashion and eventually marries a woman whose appearance initially affects him in this way. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “MAXIMIAN receiving Victory from Jupiter 296AD Ancient Roman Coin i53946″ is in sale since Thursday, February 04, 2016. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Maximianus

Mar 23 2018

DOMITIAN 86AD Dupondius Ancient Roman Coin MARS WAR God w Victory Nike i18730

DOMITIAN 86AD Dupondius Ancient Roman Coin MARS WAR God w Victory Nike i18730

DOMITIAN 86AD Dupondius Ancient Roman Coin MARS WAR God w Victory Nike i18730

Item: i18730 Authentic Ancient Coin of. Domitian – Roman Caesar: 69-81 A. Bronze Duopndius 27mm (13.18 grams) Rome mint: 86 A. Reference: RIC 328, C 432 IMPCAESDOMITAVGGERMCOSXIICENSPERPP – Radiate head right. Mars advancing left, holding Victory and trophy. Mars was the Roman god of war , the son of Juno and Jupiter , husband of Bellona , and the lover of Venus. He was the most prominent of the military gods that were worshipped by the Roman legions. The martial Romans considered him second in importance only to Jupiter (their main god). His festivals were held in March (named for him) and October. As the word Mars has no Indo-European derivation, it is most likely the Latinised form of the agricultural Etruscan god Maris. Initially Mars was a Roman god of fertility and vegetation and a protector of cattle, fields and boundaries and farmers. In the second century BC, the conservative Cato the Elder advised “For your cattle, for them to be healthy, make this sacrifice to Mars Silvanus you must make this sacrifice each year”. Mars later became associated with battle as the growing Roman Empire began to expand, and he came to be identified with the Greek god Ares. Unlike his Greek counterpart, Mars was generally revered and rivaled Jupiter as the most honoured god. He was also the tutelary god of the city of Rome. As he was regarded as the legendary father of Rome’s founder, Romulus , it was believed that all Romans were descendants of Mars. Was a goddess who personified victory , also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory. The Roman equivalent was Victoria. Depending upon the time of various myths, she was described as the daughter of Pallas (Titan) and Styx (Water) and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal). Nike and her siblings were close companions of Zeus , the dominant deity of the Greek pantheon. According to classical (later) myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titan War against the older deities. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer , a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame. Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength, speed, and victory. Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena , and is thought to have stood in Athena’s outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Nike is one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek coins. Names stemming from Nike include amongst others: Nicholas , Nicola, Nick, Nikolai, Nils, Klaas, Nicole, Ike, Niki, Nikita, Nika, Niketas, and Nico. Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 18 September 96), known as Domitian , was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 14 September 81 until his death. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty , the house which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 and encompassed the reigns of Domitian’s father Vespasian (6979), his older brother Titus (7981), and that of Domitian himself. Domitian’s youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of Vespasian, who became emperor on 21 December 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus effectually reigned as co-emperor with his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died on 23 June 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness on 13 September 81. The following day Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard , commencing a reign which lasted fifteen yearslonger than any man who had governed Rome since Tiberius. As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage , expanded the border defenses of the Empire, and initiated a massive building programme to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where Gnaeus Julius Agricola expanded the Roman Empire as far as modern day Scotland , and in Dacia , where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against king Decebalus. Domitian’s government nonetheless exhibited totalitarian characteristics. As emperor, he saw himself as the new Augustus , an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of Flavian renaissance. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality , and by nominating himself perpetual censor , he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and the army but despised by members of the Roman Senate as a tyrant. Domitian’s reign came to an end on 18 September 96 when he was assassinated by court officials. The same day he was succeeded by his friend and advisor Nerva , who founded the long-lasting Nerva-Antonine dynasty. After his death, Domitian’s memory was condemned to oblivion by the Roman Senate, while senatorial authors such as Tacitus , Pliny the Younger and Suetonius published histories propagating the view of Domitian as a cruel and paranoid tyrant. Modern history has rejected these views, instead characterising Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat, whose cultural, economic and political programme provided the foundation of the peaceful 2nd century. What is a certificate of authenticity and what guarantees do you give that the item is authentic? You will be quite happy with what you get with the COA; a professional presentation of the coin, with all of the relevant information and a picture of the coin you saw in the listing. Is there a number I can call you with questions about my order? When should I leave feedback? Once you receive your order, please leave a positive. Please don’t leave any negative feedbacks, as it happens many times that people rush to leave feedback before letting sufficient time for the order to arrive. The matter of fact is that any issues can be resolved, as reputation is most important to me. My goal is to provide superior products and quality of service. The item “DOMITIAN 86AD Dupondius Ancient Roman Coin MARS WAR God w Victory Nike i18730″ is in sale since Sunday, April 24, 2011. This item is in the category “Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ Ancient\Roman\ Imperial (27 BC-476 AD)”. The seller is “highrating_lowprice” and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Ruler: Vespasian